ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Legate, Julie Anne (2002). Warlpiri: Theoretical Implications.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/theses/legate02.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-31).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1227&langcode=wbp (2020-09-27).

 

Example #1:

    a. Ngarrka-ngku ka       wawirri panti-rni
    man-Erg      PresImpf kangaroo spear-Npast
    "The man is spearing the kangaroo"
Example #2:

    Purra-nja-rla   nga-rnu
    cook-Inf-PriorC eat-Past
    "Having cooked (it), (he/she/it) ate (it)." (Laughren 1989:326)
Example #3:

    Maliki-rli-ji  yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past big-Erg
    "A big dog bit me." (Hale et al 1995:1434)
Example #4:

    a. Ngana-ngku kurdu nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu?
    who-Erg    child 3-Poss          hit-Npast
    "Whoi hit hisi child?"
Example #5:

    b. Ngana ka     nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss         dog-Erg chase-Npast
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #6:

    (1) Purlka-jarra ka-pala-nyanu         nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual PresImpf-2Dual-Reflex see-Npast
    "*The two old men are looking at each other/*Each other are looking at the two o
Example #7:

    a. Purlka-jarra-rlu ka-pala-nyanu         nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual-Erg PresImpf-3Dual-Reflex see-Npast
    "The two old men are looking at each other" (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #8:

    b.    * Purlka-jarra ka-nyanu-palangu         nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual PresImpf-Reflex-3DualObj see-Npast
    Lit: Each other are looking at the old men.
Example #9:

    a.    * Jakamarra-rlu ka-(nyanu)        nyanungu paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-(Reflex) 3        hit-Npast
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himi " (Simpson 1991:170)
Example #10:

    b. Japanangka-rlu-nyanu yirra-rnu mulukunpa nyanungu-wana
    Japanangka-Erg-Reflex put-Npast bottle   3-Perl
    "Japanangkai set the bottle down beside himi ." (Simpson 1991:171)
Example #11:

    a. Karnta ka-ju          wangka-mi     [yarla karla-nja-karra]
    woman PresImpf-1sgObj speak-Nonpast [yam dig-Inf-SubjC]
    "The woman is speaking to me while digging yams"
Example #12:

    c. Wati-rla jurnta-ya-nu karnta-ku [jarda-nguna-nja-rlarni]
    man-3Dat away-go-Past woman-Dat [sleep-lie-Inf-ObvC]
    "The man went away from the woman while she was sleeping" (Hale et al
Example #13:

    (15)       Panti-rni   ka
    spear-NPAST PRES.IMPF
    "He/she is spearing him/her/it." (Hale 1983:7)
Example #14:

    (16)       Maliki-rli-ji   yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-ERG-1SG.OBJ bite-PAST big-ERG
    Predicative: "The/a dog bit me and it was big" (Hale 1983:38)
Example #15:

    nya-ngkarla.
    see-IRREALIS
    or figures) when it is foggy." (Hale 1983:33; cited in Jelinek 1984:46)
Example #16:

    b. Nya-nyi   ka-rna-ngku           ngarrka-lku
    see-NPAST PRES.IMPF-1SG-2SG.OBJ man-AFTER
    "I see you (as) a man now (i.e., as fully grown, or initiated)" (Hale 1983:32,
Example #17:

    a. Ngajulu-rlu-rna-ngku nyuntu nya-ngu
    1-ERG-1SGSUBJ-2SGOBJ 2.ABS see-NPAST
    "I saw you"
Example #18:

    b. Nyuntu-rlu-npa-ju    ngaju nya-ngu
    2-ERG-1SGSUBJ-2SGOBJ 1.ABS see-NPAST
    "You saw me"
Example #19:

    c. Ngaju-rna     parnka-ja
    1.ABS-1SGSUBJ run-PAST
    "I ran"
Example #20:

    a. Nya-ngu-rna-ngku
    see-PAST-1SGSUBJ-2SGOBJ
    "I saw you"
Example #21:

    b. Nya-ngu-npa-ju
    see-PAST-2SGSUBJ-1SGOBJ
    "You saw me"
Example #22:

    c. Parnka-ja-rna
    run-PAST-1SGSUBJ
    "I am running"
Example #23:

    a. Ngana-ngku kurdu nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu?
    who-Erg    child 3-Poss          hit-Npast
    "Whoi hit hisi child?"
Example #24:

    b. Ngana ka     nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss         dog-Erg chase-Npast
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #25:

    (1) Jakamarra-rlu maliki nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu
    Jakamarra-Erg dog 3-Poss             hit-Past
    "Jakamarrai hit hisi/j dog." (Laughren 1991:14[15a])
Example #26:

    Karli-ngki    kuja-npa yankirri luwa-rnu ngula-ju rdilyki-ya-nu
    boomerang-Erg FactC-2sg emu     hit-Past that-Top broken-go-Past
    "The boomerang you hit the emu with broke." (Hale et al. 1995:1447)
Example #27:

    b. Purlka-jarra-rlu ka-pala-nyanu            nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual-Erg PresImpf-3Dual-Reflex see-Npast
    "The two old men are looking at each other." (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #28:

    (62)   Wati-ngki-nyanu paka-rnu jurru
    man-Erg-Reflex hit-Past head
    "The man hit himself (on) the head" (Hale et al: 1995))
Example #29:

    (63)   Wati-lki-li-nyanu   nya-ngu kurdu-warnu-rlu.
    man-then-3pl-Reflex see-Past child-Assoc-Erg
    "The young people saw each other (to be) men then." (Hale 1985:1441)
Example #30:

    (75)    Nyiya ngapa-ngka nyampirl-wanti-ja?
    what water-Loc splash-fall?
    "What fell with a splash into the water?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #31:

    (76)     a. Kula-ka-rna       nyarrpara-kurra ya-ni
    Neg-PresImpf-1sg where-All        go-Npast
    *"Where am I not going?"
Example #32:

    (77)       a.    * Wawirri nya-nyi ka-rna
    kangaroo see-Npast PresImpf-1sg
    "I see a kangaroo."
Example #33:

    b.    * Nya-nyi wawirri ka-rna
    see-Npast kangaroo PresImpf-1sg
    "I see a kangaroo" (Hale et al 1995:1434
Example #34:

    (86)   a. Nyarrpara-ku ka-npa-rla          ngarrka-ku piirr-pardi-mi?
    which-Dat    PresImpf-2sg-3Dat man-Dat wait.for-Npast
    "Which man are you waiting for?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #35:

    a. Ngana-ngku kurdu nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu?
    who-Erg    child 3-Poss          hit-Npast
    "Whoi hit hisi child?"
Example #36:

    b. Ngana ka     nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss         dog-Erg chase-Npast
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #37:

    (90)   Panti-rni   ka
    spear-Npast PresImpf
    NOT: "Someone is spearing something."
Example #38:

    (91)   Ngarrka-ngku ka       wawirri panti-rni
    man-Erg      PresImpf kangaroo spear-Npast
    "The/a man is spearing the/a kangaroo." (Simpson 1991:153)
Example #39:

    kala-ka-ngku-pala                  muru-pi-nyi.
    PotC-PresImpf-2sgObj-3DualSubj arrest-Npast
    "A white police officer and an Aboriginal tracker (police aide) can arrest you."
Example #40:

    yama-ngka nyina.
    shade-Loc sit.Npast
    "Chop me a boomerang while I sit here, while I sit in the shade."
Example #41:

    ya-ni    kuyu panti-rninja-kurra.
    go-Npast meat spear-Infin-SeqC
    "You wait here for me at the water-hole. I am going to spear some meat."
Example #42:

    c. Balgo Mission-rla ka-lu        nyina      Warlpiri-ji.
    Balgo Mission-Loc PresImpf-3pl live.Npast Warlpiri-Top
    "At Balgo Mission there are Warlpiri people living." (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #43:

    (94)      Kurdu jinta ka       yarda-yula-mi
    child one   PresImpf again-cry-Npast
    > again : "There is some child who is again crying"
Example #44:

    (98)    Panti-rni   ka
    spear-NPAST PRESIMPF
    NOT: "Someone is spearing something."
Example #45:

    b. Kurdu wita-jarra-rlu-ka-pala     maliki wajili-pi-nyi
    child small-Dual-Erg-Pres-Impf dog chase-Npast
    "The two small children are chasing the dog." (Simpson 1991:257-258)
Example #46:

    (103)   a. Purra-nja-rla     nga-rnu
    cook-Infin-PriorC eat-Past
    "Having cooked (it), (he/she/it) ate (it)." (Laughren 1989:326)
Example #47:

    (105)       Ngajulu-rlu kapi-rna-ngku   karli-patu     yi-nyi     nyuntu-ku
    I-Erg       FutC-1sg-2sgObj boomerang-Pauc give-Npast you-Dat
    "I will give you (the) (several) boomerangs" (Hale et al 1995:1432)
Example #48:

    (2) Nyuntu-ku marda kapu-ngku turaki-ji yi-nyi.
    you-Dat perhaps FutC-2sgO car-Top give
    "To you perhaps he will give the car." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #49:

    (3) Ngula-lu yaruju karri-nja-pardi-ja      yarnka-ja.
    that-3pl quickly stand-Inf-rise.up-Past depart-Past
    Then they got up straightaway and set off. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #50:

    nyanungu-nyangu-kurra
    3-POSS-ALL
    "Yaruju is like when a person goes along rapidly and quickly to his place" (Warl
Example #51:

    (110)       a. Nyangurla-warnu-rlu-ngku maliki-rli paju-rnu?
    when-after-Erg-2sgObj    dog-Erg bite-Past
    "After what (happening, event) did the dog bite you?" (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #52:

    Kuturu-ju      ka-npa-nyanu        nyarrpara-wiyi marda-rni?
    nullanulla-Top PresImpf-2sg-Reflex where-first    have-Npast
    "Where do you have this nullanulla of yours?" (Hale 1960:7.20-7.21)
Example #53:

    (112)   Milpirri ka-jana      payi-ngki muku-rra ka-nyi.
    cloud PresImpf-3plObj wind-Erg all-Thither carry-Npast
    "The wind is blowing away all the rain-clouds."
Example #54:

    (113)   Kurdu jinta ka       yarda-yula-mi
    child one   PresImpf again-cry-Npast
    "Again, some child is crying" OR "There is some child who is again crying" (Bit-
Example #55:

    (118)   Panti-rni   ka
    spear-NPAST PRESIMPF
    NOT: "Someone is spearing something."
Example #56:

    kaji-rna       yama-ngka nyina.
    NFACTC-1SGSUBJ shade-LOC sit.NPAST
    "Chop me a boomerang while I sit here, while I sit in the shade."
Example #57:

    ka-rna            ya-ni   kuyu              panti-rninja-kurra.
    PRESIMPF-1SGSUBJ go-NPAST meat              spear-INFIN-SEQC
    "You wait here for me at the water-hole. I am going to spear some meat."
Example #58:

    c. Balgo Mission-rla ka-lu            nyina      Warlpiri-ji.
    Balgo Mission-LOC PRESIMPF-3PLSUBJ live.NPAST Warlpiri-TOP
    "At Balgo Mission there are Warlpiri people living." (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #59:

    (120)       a.   * Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu            nyanungu paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex 3            hit-Npast
    "Jakamarrai is hitting him(self)i "
Example #60:

    b. Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu            paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex hit-Npast
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himselfi "
Example #61:

    c. Japanangka-rlu-nyanu yirra-rnu mulukunpa nyanungu-wana
    Japanangka-Erg-Reflex put-Npast bottle         3-Perl
    "Japanangkai set the bottle down beside himi ." (Simpson 1991:170-171)
Example #62:

    (124)       a.        * Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu        nyanungu paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex 3        hit-Npast
    "Jakamarrai is hitting him(self)i "
Example #63:

    b. Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu        paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex hit-Npast
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himselfi " (Simpson 1991:170-171)
Example #64:

    (126)      Wati-lki-li-nyanu   nya-ngu kurdu-warnu-rlu
    man-then-3pl-Reflex see-Past child-Assoc-Erg
    "The young people saw each other (to be) men then." (Hale et al. 1995:1441)
Example #65:

    (128)     * Nyanungu-rlu ka-nyanu Jakamarra pi-nyi
    3-Erg        PresImpf Jakamarra hit-Npast
    (lit `Hei hits Jakamarrai ')
Example #66:

    a. Maliki-rli-ji  yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past big-Erg
    "A big dog bit me." (Hale et al 1995:1434)
Example #67:

    b. Wawirri kapi-rna panti-rni yalumpu.
    kangaroo FutC-1sg spear-Nast that
    "I will spear that kangaroo." (Hale 1983:6)
Example #68:

    (137)    a. Ngajulu-rlu kapi-rna-ngku     yi-nyi     nyuntu-ku
    I-ERG       FUT.C-1SG-2SG.OBJ give-NPAST you-DAT
    "I will give (it/them/...) to you"
Example #69:

    b. Purra-nja-rla      nga-rnu
    cook-INFIN-PRIOR.C eat-PAST
    "Having cooked (it), (he/she/it) ate (it)." (Laughren 1989:326)
Example #70:

    Jupurrula-rlu-yijala [N P e] palupu-ngu.
    Jupurrula-ERG-ALSO           extinguish-PAST
    "Jakamarrai extinguished hisi fire and Jupurrula did (extinguish) too."
Example #71:

    (143) Nya-nyi   ka-rna-ngku           ngarrka-lku
    see-NPAST PRES.IMPF-1SG-2SG.OBJ man-AFTER
    "I see you as a man now" (Hale 1983)
Example #72:

     marlu    nyanungu-ju
    kangaroo that-TOP
    "Then it made that one go into the mud  that kangaroo" (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #73:

    b. Kuyu ka-rlipa         jaya-jala      paka-rni janganpa-rlangu
    meat PresImpf-1plExcl a.lot-actually kill-Npast possom-for.example
    "We are killing a lot of possums." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #74:

    (148)       a. Maliki wiri-ngki-ji yalku-rnu
    dog big-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past
    "The/a big dog bit me"
Example #75:

    b. Maliki-rli-ji  yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past big-Erg
    "The/a big dog bit me" (Hale 1983:38)
Example #76:

    yarlu-rnu.
    wet-Past
    "She wet that head-piece of hers. She wet the INSIDE of her head-piece." (Laugh-
Example #77:

    (152)   a. Ngana-ngku kurdu nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu?
    who-Erg    child 3-Poss          hit-Npast
    "Whoi hit hisi child?"
Example #78:

    b. Ngana ka     nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss         dog-Erg chase-Npast
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #79:

    (164) Ngarrka-ngku karnta nya-ngu karnta-kariyinyanu paka-rninja-kurra.
    man-Erg      woman see-Past woman-other.self hit-Infin-ObjC
    "The man saw the woman hit another woman." (Simpson 1991:186)
Example #80:

    (165)       Nyanungu-ju-lpa purlka-kariyinyanu-rlu nya-ngu.
    3-TOP-PAST.IMPF old.man-OTHER.SELF-ERG see-PAST
    The other old man (like him) saw him. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #81:

    (1)      a. Purlka-jarra-rlu ka-pala-nyanu         nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual-Erg PresImpf-3Dual-Reflex see-Npast
    "The two old men are looking at each other" (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #82:

    b.   * Purlka-jarra ka-nyanu-palangu         nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual PresImpf-Reflex-3DualObj see-Npast
    Lit: Each other are looking at the old men.
Example #83:

    a. Ngajulu-rlu-rna-ngku   nyuntu nya-ngu
    1-ERG-1SG.SUBJ-2SG.OBJ 2.ABS see-NPAST
    "I saw you"
Example #84:

    b. Nyuntu-rlu-npa-ju      ngaju nya-ngu
    2-ERG-1SG.SUBJ-2SG.OBJ 1.ABS see-NPAST
    "You saw me"
Example #85:

    c. Ngaju-rna      parnka-ja
    1.ABS-1SG.SUBJ run-PAST
    "I ran"
Example #86:

    a. Nya-ngu-rna-ngku
    see-PAST-1SG.SUBJ-2SG.OBJ
    "I saw you"
Example #87:

    b. Nya-ngu-npa-ju
    see-PAST-2SG.SUBJ-1SG.OBJ
    "You saw me"
Example #88:

    c. Parnka-ja-rna
    run-PAST-1SG.SUBJ
    "I am running"
Example #89:

    (169)   a. Purlka-jarra-rlu     ka-pala-nyanu                 nya-nyi
    old.man-DUAL-ERG PRESIMPF-3DUAL-REFLEX see-NPAST
    "The two old men are looking at each other" (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #90:

    b.   * Purlka-jarra     ka-nyanu-palangu           nya-nyi
    old.man-DUAL PRESIMPF-REFLEX-3DUALOBJ see-NPAST
    Lit: Each other are looking at the old men.
Example #91:

    (170)   a. Wati-ngki-nyanu     paka-rnu jurru
    man-ERG-REFLEX hit-PAST head
    "The man hit himself (on) the head"
Example #92:

    b. Wati-lki-li-nyanu      nya-ngu kurdu-warnu-rlu.
    man-then-3PL-REFLEX see-PAST child-ASSOC-ERG
    "The young people saw each other (to be) men then." (Hale et al 1995:1441)
Example #93:

    c. Kurdu-ngku ka-nyanu        nya-nyi, karri-nja-kurra
    child-ERG PRES.IMPF-REFLEX see-PAST stand-INFIN-OBJ.C
    "The child sees himself standing" (Hale 1982b [138b])
Example #94:

    (171)       a. Purlka-jarra-rlu ka-pala-nyanu         nya-nyi
    old.man-DUAL-ERG PRESIMPF-3DUAL-REFLEX see-NPAST
    "The two old men are looking at each other" (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #95:

    b.   * Purlka-jarra ka-pala-nyanu         nya-nyi
    old.man-DUAL PRESIMPF-3DUAL-REFLEX see-NPAST
    "Theyi (two) are looking at the old meni ."
Example #96:

    (173)   a. Nya-ngu-rna-ngku
    see-PAST-1SG-2SGOBJ
    "I saw you"
Example #97:

    b. Nya-ngu-npa-ju
    see-PAST-2SG-1SGOBJ
    "You saw me"
Example #98:

    c. Parnka-ja-rna
    run-PAST-1SG
    "I ran"
Example #99:

    d. Mata-jarri-ja-lku   nganta-rna
    tired-INCH-PAST-NOW supposedly-1SG
    "I seem to be tired" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #100:

    karla-nja-karra]
    dig-INFIN-SUBJC]
    "The woman is speaking to me while digging yams" (Hale 1983:21)
Example #101:

    wangka-nja-kurra]
    speak-INFIN-OBJC]
    "I hear you speaking" (Hale 1983:20)
Example #102:

    wangka-nja-karra-rlu
    speak-INFIN-SUBJC-ERG
    "The man is trimming a boomerang while speaking."
Example #103:

    b. Ngarrka ka       wangka-mi, karli       jarnti-rninja-karra
    man     PRESIMPF speak-NPAST, boomerang trim-INFIN-SUBJC
    "The man is speaking while trimming a boomerang." (Granites et al 1976)
Example #104:

    (176)      Nyangurla-karra-rlipa                rdakurlpa-rra         pi-nyi?
    when-SUBJC-1PLINCL                   enclosed.space-HITHER VF-NPAST
    "When will we get there?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #105:

    Kala-lu          ngula-kurra wapirdi-wapirdi-paka-rnu.
    PAST.C-3PL       that-OBJ.C approaching-approaching-hit-PAST
    while (they were doing) that."
Example #106:

    wanta-ngka-ja,    ngarntajari-karra.
    sun-LOC-INDEED orange-SUBJ.C
    Oranges."
Example #107:

    (178)   Ngana-kurra-npa Jakamarra-kurlangu maliki nya-ngu [paji-rninja-kurra]?
    who-OBJC-2SG Jakamarra-POSS dog see-PAST [bite-INFIN-OBJC]
    = whoi did you see Jakamarra's dogj [ti PROj biting]
Example #108:

    wirntinja-kurra-ku.        ]
    dance-INFIN-OBJ.C-DAT ]
    "The two kingfishers laughed at the heron while (the latter was) dancing."
Example #109:

     miyalu-rla   marda, pawiyi-rla marda  [PRO nguna-nja-kurra-ku. ]
    belly-LOC    maybe back-LOC maybe [          lie-INFIN-OBJ.C-DAT ]
    as (he is) lying down." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #110:

    (182)       Maliki-rli ngarrka yarlku-rnu
    dog-ERG man        bite-PAST
    "A dog bit a man"
Example #111:

    (184)   a. Kurdu-lpa      manyu-karri-ja, [ngati-nyanu-rlu karla-nja-rlarni.]
    child-PASTIMPF play-stand-PAST [mother-POSS-ERG dig-INFIN-OBVC]
    "The child was playing, while his mother was digging (for something)." (Laugh-
Example #112:

    miyi          yi-nja-rlarni.]
    food.ABS      give-INFIN-OBVC]
    1982:[139b])
Example #113:

    (186) Kurdu ngaju-nyangu-lu paka-rnu, [ngaju-ku jarda-nguna-nja-rlarni.]
    child 1SG-POSS-3PL hit-PAST [I-DAT sleep-lie-INFIN-OBVC]
    "They hit my child, while I was asleep."
Example #114:

    [karnta-patu-rlu     miyi/*miyi-ku         purra-nja-puru.]
    [woman-PAUC-ERG food.ABS/*food-DAT cook-INFIN-TEMPC]
    "The men are mustering cattle while the women are cooking the food."
Example #115:

    (188) Ngaju ka-rna        yankirri nya-nyi.
    I(ABS) PRESIMPF-1SG emu(ABS) see-NPAST
    "I see an emu."
Example #116:

    (1)     a. Ngarrka-ngku ka        marlu    luwa-rni
    man-ERG      PRES.IMPF kangaroo shoot-NPAST
    "The man is shooting the kangaroo."
Example #117:

    b. Ngarrka-ngku ka-rla-jinta        marlu-ku     luwa-rni
    man-ERG      PRES.IMPF-3DAT-3DAT kangaroo-DAT shoot-NPAST
    "The man is shooting at the kangaroo." (Hale et al 1995:1439)
Example #118:

    (209) Purra-nja-rla      nga-rnu
    cook-INFIN-PRIOR.C eat-PAST
    "Having cooked (it), (he/she/it) ate (it)." (Laughren 1989:326)
Example #119:

    (214)   Warnapari-rli ka-rla        kurdu-ku ngapurlu yi-nyi.
    dingo-Erg     PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat milk    give-Npast
    "The dingo gives milk to the little one."
Example #120:

    (215) Ngajulu-rlu kapi-rna-ngku   karli-patu     yi-nyi     nyuntu-ku
    I-Erg       FutC-1sg-2sgObj boomerang-pauc give-Npast you-Dat
    "I will give you (the) (several) boomerangs" (Hale et al 1995:1432)
Example #121:

    a. Karnta ka-ju       wangka-mi     [yarla karla-nja-karra]
    woman PresImpf-1sg speak-Nonpast [yam dig-Inf-SubjC]
    "The woman is speaking to me while digging yams"
Example #122:

    b. Purda-nya-nyi          ka-rna-ngku         [wangka-nja-kurra]
    aural-perceive-Nonpast PresImpf-1sg-2sgObj [speak-Inf-ObjC]
    "I hear you speaking" (Hale 1983:20)
Example #123:

    c. Wati-rla jurnta-ya-nu karnta-ku [jarda-nguna-nja-rlarni]
    man-3Dat away-go-Past woman-Dat [sleep-lie-Inf-ObvC]
    "The man went away from the woman while she was sleeping" (Hale et al
Example #124:

    (217)       a. Karnta-ngku ka-ju         kurdu miliki-yirra-rni nguna-nja-kurra-(ku)
    woman-Erg PresImpf-1sgObj child show-put-Npast lie-Infin-ObjC-(Dat)
    "The woman is showing the child to me while I am lying down" (Simpson
Example #125:

    b.   * Yu-ngu-rna-rla      kurdu parraja-rla     nguna-nja-kurra yali-ki
    give-Past-1sg-3Dat child coolamon-Loc sleep-Infin-ObjC that-Dat
    "I gave the child which was sleeping in the coolamon to that one" (Simpson
Example #126:

    (219) Yu-ngu-ju-lu         Jakamarra-kurra
    give-Past-1sgObj-3pl Jakamarra-All
    "They gave me to Jakamarra" (Laughren 1985)
Example #127:

    (220)      Yu-ngu-lu-nyanu      yurrkunyu-kurra
    give-Past-3pl-Reflex police-All
    "They gave themselves up to the police."
Example #128:

    (221)       a.   * Yu-ngu-lu-nyanu-rla yurrkunyu-ku.
    give-Past-3pl-3Dat police-Dat
    "They gave themselves to the police"
Example #129:

    b.   * Yu-ngu-lu-rla      nyanungu-rra yurrkunyu-ku.
    give-Past-3pl-3Dat police-Dat
    "They gave themselves to the police." (Mary Laughren, pc)
Example #130:

    (222)   a. Ngarrka-ngku ka-rla        kurdu-ku japujapu kiji-rni
    man-Erg      PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat ball    throw-Npast
    "The man is throwing the child the ball"
Example #131:

    b. Ngarrka-ngku ka       japujapu kurdu-kurra kiji-rni
    man-Erg      PresImpf ball     child-All throw-Npast
    "The man is throwing the ball to the child" (Hale 1982:253)
Example #132:

    (223)   a. Purturlu kala-rla   yilya-ja.
    backbone PastC-3Dat send-Past
    "He sent her the backbone"
Example #133:

    b. Marnkurrpa-rna yilya-ja Yalijipiringi-kirra
    three-1sg      send-Past Alice.Springs-All
    "I sent three to Alice Springs"
Example #134:

    (224)      Karli      yinga-rla paka-rni      jinta-kari-rli nyanungu-ku
    boomerang RelC-3Dat chop-Npast one-other-Erg 3-Dat
    "Because the other one will chop a boomerang for him"
Example #135:

    (225) Ngarrka-ngku ka-ju-rla               ngaju-ku karli-ki      warri-rni
    man-Erg       PresImpf-1sgObj-3Dat me-Dat boomerang-Dat seek-Npast
    "The man is looking for a boomerang for me" (Hale 1982:255)
Example #136:

    nguna-nja-kurra-ku
    lie-Infin-ObjC-Dat
    "The girl is cooking food for her mother who is lying down." (Simpson 1991:385)
Example #137:

    (228)       a. Karnta ka-rla   kurdu-ku parnka-mi
    woman PresImpf child-Dat run-Npast
    "The woman is running for the sake of the child" (Simpson 1991:381)
Example #138:

    b. Nantuwu ka-rla            Japanangka-ku mata-jarri-mi
    horse    PresImpf-3Dat Japanangka-Dat tired-Inch-Npast
    "The horse is tiring on Japanangka" (Hale 1982:254)
Example #139:

    (229)     a. Nantuwu ka-rla        Japanangka-ku mata-jarri-mi
    horse   PresImpf-3Dat Japanangka-Dat tired-Inch-Npast
    "The horse is tiring on Japanangka"
Example #140:

    b. Ngarrka-ngku ka-rla        kurdu-ku karli      jarnti-rni
    man-Erg      PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat boomerang trim-Npast
    "The man is trimming the boomerang for the child"
Example #141:

    nguna-nja-kurra-ku
    lie-Infin-ObjC-Dat
    "The girl is cooking food for her mother who is lying down." (Simpson 1991:385)
Example #142:

    (240)    a. Karnta-ngku ka-ju       kurdu miliki-yirra-rni nguna-nja-kurra-(ku)
    woman-Erg PresImpf-1sgO child show-put-npast lie-Infin-ObjC-(Dat)
    1991:342)
Example #143:

    b.   * Yu-ngu-rna-rla      kurdu parraja-rla  nguna-nja-kurra yali-ki
    give-past-1sgS-3Dat child coolamon-Loc sleep-Infin-ObjC that-Dat
    1991:341)
Example #144:

    (256)       a. Nyiya ngapa-ngka nyampirl-wanti-ja?
    what water-Loc splash-fall?
    "What fell with a splash into the water?"
Example #145:

    b. Kurdu marda ngapa-kurra wantija.
    child perhaps water-All fall-Past
    "The child probably fell into the water." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #146:

    (257) Pikirri-ji-npa       nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc      forget-cause-Past-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren, 2002:[27])
Example #147:

    (258)    A:     Kapi-rna-ngku  kakarda-lku         yarda-rni paka-rni.
    FutC-1sg-2sgObj  nape.of.neck-then more-hither hit-Npast
    "I will hit you again on the back of the neck this time."
Example #148:

    M:      Kuturu-rlu.
    nullah-Erg
    "With a nullanulla"
Example #149:

    A:     Karli-ngki-lki.
    boomerang-Erg-then
    "Then with a boomerang"
Example #150:

    marda-rni?
    have-Npast
    "With a boomerang. Where do you have this nullanulla of yours?" (Hale
Example #151:

    (259)    a. Ngaju ka-rna         jaaljaal-jarri-mi  nyiya-kurra.
    1      PresImpf-1sg feeling-Incho-Npast what-All
    "I have a feeling about something"
Example #152:

    b. Kaji-lpa-ngku        wanti-yarla nyiya-rlangu milpa-kurra ...
    NfactC-PastImpf-2sg fall-Irr      what-e.g.    eye-All
    "If something were to fall into your eyes ..."
Example #153:

    (260)   a. Nyiya-janka ka         nyampu-ju jarnti-mi warru?
    what-El     Pres.Impf this.one-Top limp-Npast around
    "Why does this one limp around?"
Example #154:

    b. Nyarrpara-kurra ka-npa         ya-ni?
    where-All        Pres.Impf-2sg go-Npast
    "Where are you going?"
Example #155:

    c. Ngana-ngku-nyarra jangku-ka-ngu?
    who-Erg-2pl.Obj reply-take-Past
    "Who scooped you all (as in a card game)?"
Example #156:

    (261)   a. Pikirri-ji-npa       nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc      forget-cause-Past-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren, 2002:[27])
Example #157:

    (262)        a. Wawirri, ngula ka       nyina    walya-ngka-jala.
    kangaroo, that PresImpf be.Npast ground-Loc-actually
    The kangaroo, it lives on the ground. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #158:

    b. Miirnta-janka mayi       ka-npa        kiri-jarri-mi       waninja
    flu-El        presumably Pres.Impf-2sg striped-Incho-Npast throat
    "Presumably your throat is sore from the flu" (Nash 1980:187)
Example #159:

    c. Nyuntu-ku marda kapu-ngku     turaki-ji yi-nyi
    you-Dat perhaps Fut.C-2sg.Obj car-Top give-Npast
    "To you perhaps he will give the car" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #160:

    (263)       a. Pikirri-ji-npa       nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc      forget-cause-Past-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren, 2002:[27])
Example #161:

    b. Kuturu-ju      ka-npa-nyanu        nyarrpara-wiyi marda-rni?
    nullanulla-Top PresImpf-2sg-Reflex where-first    have-Npast
    "Where do you have this nullanulla of yours?" (Hale 1960:7.20-7.21)
Example #162:

    (1) Nyanungu-rlu-ju-lpa karli-nya    jarntu-rnu  ngaju-lpa-rna kurlarda maja-rnu.
    3-Erg-Top-PastImpf boomerang-Foc carve-Past 1-PastImpf-1sg spear straighten-Past
    "He was making (lit. carving) a boomerang, and I was making (lit. straightening)
Example #163:

    (2)     a. Japanangka-nya ya-nu?
    Japanangka-Foc go-Past
    "Did Japanangka go?" (Mary Laughren, pc)
Example #164:

    Walypali-rli ka-lu       taya-nya ngarri-rni.
    white-Erg PresImpf-3pl tar-Foc call-Npast
    "We call this palya. Whites call it tar." (Hale field notes)
Example #165:

    wirripakarnu-wangu.        Ngula-nya jalya-ji.
    hair.string.belt-without   that-Foc bare-Top
    "Jalya is like a child who has no clothes on, or no trousers or no hair-string b
Example #166:

    kiwinyi-winyi-piya. Ngula-nya        ka-rnalu ngarri-rni wangarla-ju.
    that-Foc            PresImpf-1plExcl call-Npast wasp-Top
    mosquito. That is what we call wangarla." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #167:

    (265) Wawirri, ngula ka       nyina    walya-ngka-jala.
    kangaroo, that PresImpf be.Npast ground-Loc-actually
    The kangaroo, it lives on the ground. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #168:

    jaalypa-nyayirni.
    whisper-really
    "Jaalypa is like when one speaks in a low voice, very low."
Example #169:

    kuja-ka-lu         wangka-mi.
    FactC-PresImpf-3pl speak-Npast
    1993)
Example #170:

    (270)       a. Ngana-patu ka-lu        wangka-mi?
    who-Pl     PresImpf-3pl speak-Npast
    "Which ones are speaking?"
Example #171:

    b. Yurntumu-wardingki-patu ka-lu        wangka-mi
    Yuendumu-habitant-Pl    PresImpf-3pl speak-Npast
    "Yuendumu people are speaking"
Example #172:

    c. Nyarrpa-jarri-mi ka-lu   Yurntumu-wardingki-patu?
    how-Incho-Npast PresImpf Yuendumu-habitant-Pl
    "What are the Yuendumu people doing?"
Example #173:

    d. Wangka-mi ka-lu          Yurntumu-wardingki-patu
    speak-Npast PresImpf-3pl Yuendumu-habitant-Pl
    "The Yuendumu people are speaking" (Laughren 2002:[14a,b,d,e])
Example #174:

    (271) Jurnta-ju-lu   ya-nu ngaju-ku
    away-1sgO-3plS go-Past me-Dat
    "They went away from me"
Example #175:

    Ya-nu-pala nyarrpara-kurra kurdu-jarra?
    go-Past-Dual where-All     child-Dual
    "Where did the children GO?" (answer: Yalijipiringi-kirra "to Alice Springs")
Example #176:

    raarlku-nyina-mi miirnta-kurlu kuja-ka        karli-mi       mulyu-ngurlu.
    be.striped-Npast mucous-having FactC-PresImpf flow.out-Npast nose-El
    snot that streams from their noses." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #177:

    nyiya-rlangu?
    what-e.g.
    "What ones might be like the spectacled hare wallaby, what for example?"
Example #178:

    purdaya-rlangu
    burrowing.bettong-e.g.
    example." (Hale field notes)
Example #179:

    (276)   Nyiya-rlangu kaji-ka-lu        nyina    wampana-piya-ju?
    what-e.g.    PotC-PresImpf-3pl be.Npast spectacled.hare.wallaby-?-Top
    "What ones for example might be like the spectacled hare wallaby?" (Hale field
Example #180:

    (277)   Kaji-lpa-ngku       wanti-yarla nyiya-rlangu milpa-kurra ...
    NfactC-PastImpf-2sg fall-Irr    what-e.g.    eye-All
    "If something were to fall into your eyes ..." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993
Example #181:

    (278)       a. Pikirri-ji-npa       nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc      forget-cause-Past-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren 2002:[27])
Example #182:

    b. Kuturu-ju ka-npa-nyanu         nyarrpara-wiyi marda-rni?
    nullah-Top PresImpf-2sg-Reflex where-first    have-Npast
    "Where is this nullanulla of yours?" (Hale 1960:7.20-7.21)
Example #183:

    ka       nga-rni                miyi
    PresImpf consume-Npast          vegetable.food
    "Jampijinpa is consuming meat and Jungarrayi is consuming vegetables."
Example #184:

    B:    Japaljarri-rli-ji  ka       nyiya nga-rni?
    Japaljarri-Erg-Top PresImpf what consume-Npast
    "What is Japaljarri consuming?"
Example #185:

    A: Japaljarri-rli-ji  ka       pama nga-rni
    Japaljarri-Erg-Top PresImpf beer consume-Npast
    "Japaljarri is consuming beer."
Example #186:

    (283) Jakamarra-rlu-ju     payu-rnu, kuja nyiya pantu-rnu Japanangka-rlu
    Jakamarra-Erg-1sgObj ask-Past FactC what spear-Past Japanangka-Erg
    "Jakamarra asked me what Jakamarra speared" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #187:

    (286)      Nyarrpara-rlu kuja panti-rni?
    How-Erg       FactC spear-Npast
    "How to spear it?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #188:

    (287) yankirri-japa-rna panti-rni?
    emu-Q-1sg         spear-Npast
    Is it an emu I'll spear? (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #189:

    (288) Jakamarra-rlu-ju     payu-rnu, nyiya japa Japanangka-rlu pantu-rnu
    Jakamarra-Erg-1sgObj ask-Past what Q Japanangka-Erg spear-Past
    "Jakamarra asked me what Japanangka speared." (Granites et al 1976)
Example #190:

    Jangala
    Jangala
    "Who did Jakamarra tell you with that Jangala went hunting?" (Granites et al 197
Example #191:

    ya-nu Jangala
    go-Past Jangala
    "Who did Jakamarra tell you Jangala is going hunting with?" (Granites et al 1976
Example #192:

    Maliki-rli-ji  yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past big-Erg
    "A big dog bit me." (Hale et al 1995:1434)
Example #193:

    (295)     a. Wati-ngki-nyanu jurnarrpa ma-nu, [wurna ya-ninja-kungarnti-rli].
    man-Erg-Reflex belongings get-Past, [travel go-Infin-PrepC-Erg]
    "The man picked up his things before going on a trip." (Hale et al. 1995:1443)
Example #194:

    (296)     a. Karnta-ngku warlu yarrpu-rnu [kuyu purra-nja-kungarnti].
    woman-Erg fire light-Past [meat cook-Infin-PrepC]
    "The woman lit the fire in order to cook meat."
Example #195:

    (297)       a.     * Ngana kapu Jakamarra-rlu maliki luwa-rni, kuja yarlku-rnu?
    who Fut.C Jakamarra-Erg dog shoot-Npast Fact.C bite-Past
    "Whoi will Jakamarra shoot the dog that bit ti ?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #196:

    b. cf: Jakamarra-rlu kapu maliki luwa-rni, kuja Japalyi yarlku-rnu.
    Jakamarra-Erg Fut.C dog shoot-Npast that Japalyi bite-Past
    "Jakamarra will shoot the dog that bit Japalyi."
Example #197:

    (298) Ngana ka     nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss         dog-Erg chase-Npast
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #198:

    (300) Nganai -npa nya-ngu [kuja-lpa      maliki nyanungui -nyangu-rlu paju-rnu?]
    whoi -2sg see-Past [FactC-PastImpf dog 3i -Poss-Erg             bite-Past]
    "Who did you see that his dog was biting him?" (Mary Laughren, pc)
Example #199:

    (304)       a. Jakamarra ka        wajirli-pi-nyi maliki nyanungu-nyangu-rlu
    Jakamarra PresImpf chase-NPast dog 3-Poss-Erg
    "Hisi dog chases Jakamarrai ."
Example #200:

    b. Maliki nyanungu-nyangu-rlu ka       Jakamarra wajirli-pi-nyi.
    dog 3-Poss-Erg             PresImpf Jakamarra chase-NPast
    "Hisi dog chases Jakamarrai ." (Simpson 1991:181)
Example #201:

    (305)   a. Ngarrka-ngku karnta nya-ngu karnta-karinyinyanu paka-rninja-kurra.
    man-Erg      woman see-Past woman-other.self hit-Infin-ObjC
    "The man saw the woman hitting another woman."
Example #202:

    b.   * Ngarrka-ngku karnta nya-ngu ngarrka-kariyinyanu paka-rninja-kurra.
    man-Erg      woman see-Past man-other.self      hit-Infin-ObjC
    "The man saw the woman hitting another man." (Granites et al 1976, cited
Example #203:

    (307)   Maliki-karinyanu-rlu nya-ngu Rocky.
    dog-other.self-Erg see-Past Rocky
    "Another dog like himself saw Rocky." (Simpson 1991:184)
Example #204:

    b. Maliki-karinyanu-rlu nya-ngu Rocky.
    dog-other.self-Erg see-Past Rocky
    "Another dog like himself saw Rocky." (Simpson 1991:184)
Example #205:

    (315)   a. Nyiya ngapa-ngka nyampirl-wanti-ja?
    what water-Loc splash-fall?
    "What fell with a splash into the water?"
Example #206:

    b. Kurdu marda ngapa-kurra wantija.
    child perhaps water-All fall-Past
    "The child probably fell into the water." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #207:

    nyiya-rlangu?
    what-e.g.
    "What ones might be like the spectacled hare wallaby, what for example?"
Example #208:

    purdaya-rlangu
    burrowing.bettong-e.g.
    example." (Hale field notes)
Example #209:

    (318)      A:    Nyiya-rlangu kaji-ka-lu        nyina    wampana-piya-ju?
    what-e.g.    PotC-PresImpf-3pl be.Npast spectacled.hare.wallaby-like-Top
    "What ones for example might be like the spectacled hare wallaby?"
Example #210:

    wampana-piya-ju
    spectacled.hare.wallaby-like-Top
    (Hale field notes)
Example #211:

    jaarl-yirrarni minikiyi-rli.
    block.passage native.honey.bee-Erg
    Wax too lies underneath it, thus the native honey-bee blocks itself in. (Warlpir
Example #212:

    (322) Kula-ka-rna      nyarrpara-kurra ya-ni
    Neg-PresImpf-1sg where-All       go-Npast
    *"Where am I going?"
Example #213:

    (323) Ngana ka      nyina    ya-ninja-wangu?
    who Pres.Impf be.Npast go-Infin-without
    lit: `who is staying without going?' (Laughren 2002:ftn 36,[(i)])
Example #214:

    nyarrpara-kurra ya-ni       Jampijinpa?
    where-to        leave-Npast Jampijinpa
    "Where did Jakamarra tell you Jampijinpa is going?"
Example #215:

    b. Jampijinpa ka       ya-ni    kurli-rra
    Jampijinpa PresImpf go-Npast south-All
    "Jampijinpa is going south."
Example #216:

    Japanangka-rlu]
    Japanangka-Erg]
    "What did Jakamarra tell you Japanangka speared?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #217:

    (328)     a. Wayipurru-rnu-lpa-lu     miyi yawakiyi. Nyiya-kurra kuja-lu ma-nu?
    gather-Past-PastImpf-3pl fruit wild.currant what-All FactC-3pl get-Past
    into?"
Example #218:

    b. Nyarrpara-rlu kuja panti-rni?
    How-Erg       that spear-Npast
    "How to spear it?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #219:

    (329)        * Kuja nyiya pantu-rnu Japanangka-rlu
    FactC what spear-Past Japanangka-Erg
    "What did Japanangka spear?"
Example #220:

    (330)      Jakamarra-rlu-ju     payu-rnu, kuja nyiya pantu-rnu Japanangka-rlu
    Jakamarra-Erg-1sgObj ask-Past FactC what spear-Past Japanangka-Erg
    "Jakamarra asked me the identity of what Jakamarra speared" (Granites et al 1976
Example #221:

    (331)       a. Nyarrpa-rlu-ngku yimi-ngarru-rnu
    how-Erg-2sgObj speech-tell-Past
    "What did (s)he tell you?"
Example #222:

    b. Nyiya ka      nga-rni
    what PresImpf eat-Npast
    "What is (s)he eating?"
Example #223:

    Jangala
    Jangala
    *"Who did Jakamarra tell you that Jangala went hunting with?"
Example #224:

    (334)       a. Nyiya ngarra ka      nya-nyi parntarri-nja-karra-rlu?
    what indeed PresImpf see-Npast crouch-Inf-SubjC-Erg
    "What indeed could he be seeing crouching over there?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #225:

    b. Nyarrpara-kurra nganta     ka       ya-ni?
    where-All       reportedly PresImpf go-Npast
    "Where reportedly is he going?"
Example #226:

    b. Ngaju ka-rna         jaaljaal-jarri-mi  nyiya-kurra.
    1      PresImpf-1sg feeling-Incho-Npast what-All
    "I have a feeling about something" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #227:

    ya-nu?
    go-Past
    "Who did Japaljarri tell you went where?"
Example #228:

    (337)          a. Jarntu-ngku kuja ngarrka yarlku-rnu, kapu paka-rni
    dog-Erg     FactC man    bite-Past FutC strike-Npast
    "The dog that bit the man, he will belt it."
Example #229:

    b. Ngarrka kuja jarntu-ngku yarlku-rnu, ngula-ngku kapu paka-rni
    man     FactC dog-Erg    bite-Past that-Erg     FutC strike-Npast
    "The man whom the dog bit, he is going to belt it."
Example #230:

    (1) Ngarrka yangka kaji   jukurra ya-ni-rni,        ngula-ngku-ju pirrarni-rli yu-ngu maniyi
    man     that   NfactC tomorrow go-Npast-hither, that-Erg-Top yesterday-Erg give-Past money
    "The man who will come tomorrow, he gave me money yesterday" (Granites et al 197
Example #231:

    ka-rnalu              yiri-ma-ni."
    PRES.IMPF-1PL.EXCL sharpen-NPAST
    "How do you sharpen it?" "Well we sharpen it with an adze." (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #232:

    (339)   Nyarrpa-jarri-rlipa?
    how-INCH.NPAST-1PLINCL
    "What will we become?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #233:

    Nyarrpara nyuntu-nyangu kurlarda-ji?
    where     you-POSS      spear-TOP
    "Where are your spears?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #234:

    yampi-mi-rni-rna                yalumpu-juku.
    leave.alone-NPAST-THITHER-1SG there-STILL
    (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #235:

    (343) Nyarrpa-rlu-ngku yimi-ngarru-rnu
    how-Erg-2sg      speech-tell-Past
    "What did (s)he tell you?"
Example #236:

    (345)       a. peter-ne kayaa kahaa ki merii party-par thii yaa nahiiN?
    Peter what said that Mary party         was or not
    "What did Peter say about whether Mary was at the party?"
Example #237:

    pantu-rnu?
    spear-Past
    "What did Jangala tell you, was it an emu that Japanangka speared?"
Example #238:

    (348)    a. ?? Wen hat neimand     wo gesehen?
    whom has nobody-NOM where seen
    "Where did nobody see whom?"
Example #239:

    b. Wen hat Luise wo gesehen?
    whom has Luise where seen
    "Who did Luise see where?" (Beck & Berman 2000:78[35b,36b])
Example #240:

    (349)   a. ?? Wen hat keine Studentin     von den Musikern getroffen?
    whom has no student-FEM.NOM of the musicians met
    "Which of the musicians did no student meet?"
Example #241:

    b. Wen hat Luise von den Musikern getroffen?
    whom has Luise of the musicians met
    "Which of the musicians did Luise meet?" (Beck & Berman 2000:78[35c,36c])
Example #242:

    ka-rna-rla          nyampu-ku ya-ni       yapa-ku wangka-nja-ku."
    PresImpf-1sg-3Dat here-Dat go-Npast person-Dat speak-Infin-Dat
    here."
Example #243:

    ngaju-rlangu jakuru-rra pu-ngu lawa ya-nu wurulypa.)
    1-for.eg     bye-thither hit-Past no go.Past sneak
    off." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #244:

    d. Japanangka-rlu-ju     yimi-ngarru-rnu Jangala ngaju-ku
    Japanangka-Erg-1sgObj speech-tell-Past Jangala 1-Dat
    "Japanangka told me about Jangala." (anonymous reviewer AJL, pc)
Example #245:

    yapa-kurlu-kurlu-wangu-rla        kulkurru-kulkurru."
    person-having-having-without-Loc country.without.people
    all by yourselves." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #246:

    ka-rnalu         yiri-ma-ni."
    PresImpf-1plExcl sharpen-Npast
    "How do you sharpen it?" "Well we sharpen it with an adze."
Example #247:

    ngirnti-ngki-li ma-nu, kala pu-ngu.
    tail-Erg-2pl get-Past PastC hit-Past
    all  it was right there that they grabbed hold of him by the tail, killed him."
Example #248:

    pipi-puka-wiyi.
    breaved.father-BEFORE
    as he has lost his child." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #249:

    manu kilji     ngurra nyanungu-nyangu-kurra
    and quickly camp 3-POSS-ALL
    "Yaruju is like when a person goes along rapidly and quickly to his place"
Example #250:

    mapa-rni."
    paint-NPAST
    "Paint it quickly!" "Yes, I am painting it quickly."
Example #251:

    miyi-wangu-jangka-rlu.
    food-WITHOUT-PROP-ERG
    Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #252:

    wangka-mi: "Waku ka-rna-rla                 wanti-wanti. ..."
    speak-NPAST arm PRES.IMPF-1SG-3DAT twitch.NPAST
    then one might say this, "My arm is twitching. ...""
Example #253:

    nyina-mi pipi-puka-wiyi.
    sit-NPAST breaved.father-BEFORE
    staying as he has lost his child." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #254:

    Nyarrpa wangka-ja?
    how     say-PAST
    "What did he say?"
Example #255:

    ngaju-ku-pirdangka-rlu?"
    I-DAT-sibling-ERG
    1993)
Example #256:

    kulkurru-kulkurru."
    country.without.people
    that you two went a long way in another country where there were no people 
Example #257:

    b. Ngarri-rninja-ya-nta-jana        ngangkayi-kirli yungu-lu ya-ni-rni.
    tell-Infin-go-Imperative-3pl.Obj medicine.man Rel.C-3pl go-Npast-Hither
    "Go and tell the medicine men to come."
Example #258:

    lawa-juku ka-rla         karri.
    no-still PresImpf-3Dat stand.Npast
    My brother told me that he intended on coming, but he is still not here. (Warlpi
Example #259:

    yungu-nyanu marda-rni        nyanungu-rlu  ngarlkin-ma-ni.
    Rel.C-Reflex protect-Npast 3-Erg            blocker-VF-Npast
    other person and so that it will protect the singer  block (any blows)."
Example #260:

    jangkardu-ma-nu.
    attack-VF-Nomic
    "The monster got up then to get his spear to attack those two."
Example #261:

    c. Maliki, warna-jangka pali-ja, yinga warna-ngku paju-rnu.
    dog     snake-El     die-Past Rel.C snake-Erg bite-Past
    "The dog died from a snake (bite), because a snake bit him."
Example #262:

    nya-nyi.
    see-Npast
    "You climb up the tree, so you can look out for him from the top"
Example #263:

    (362)    a. Wangka-ja-rna-rla kuyu-ku.
    speak-Past-1sg-3Dat meat-Dat
    "I spoke to him for meat. (i.e. I asked him for meat)."
Example #264:

    b. Japi-ka        kuyu-ku  yinga-ngku yi-nyi.
    ask-Imperative meat-Dat Rel.C-2sg.Obj give-Npast
    "Ask him for meat  that he give it to you."
Example #265:

    lawa.
    no
    "They told each other that they would give them (i.e. each other) food and money
Example #266:

    (364)     * Nyarrpa jinjinyi-ma-nu ngarrka-ngku kurdu yungu nyiya ma-ni?
    how     request-VF-Past man-Erg        child Rel.C what get-Npast
    "What did the man order the child to get?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #267:

    pantu-rnu
    spear-Past
    "Jakamarra told me that Japanangka speared a kangaroo."
Example #268:

    wanti-mi
    fall-Npast
    "The man told the woman that it was going to rain"
Example #269:

    c. Ngaju-rna purdanya-ngu kuja Japanangka wanti-ja nantuwu-ngurlu
    I-1sg      heard-Past    Fact.C Japanangka fall-Past horse-El
    "I heard that Japanangka fell off the horse" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #270:

    Japanangka-rlu?
    Japanangka-Erg
    What did Jakamarra tell you Japanangka speared?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #271:

    Jangala
    Jangala
    (*"Who did Jakamarra tell you that Jangala went hunting with?")
Example #272:

    (369)   * Ngana kapu Jakamarra-rlu maliki luwa-rni, kuja yarlku-rnu?
    who Fut.C Jakamarra-Erg dog shoot-Npast Fact.C bite-Past
    "Whoi will Jakamarra shoot the dog that bit ti ?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #273:

    pantu-rnu
    spear-Past
    "Jakamarra told me that Japanangka speared a kangaroo."
Example #274:

    marlu    pantu-rnu
    kangaroo spear-Past
    "Jakamarra told me that Japanangka supposedly speared a kangaroo."
Example #275:

    ya-ni    Yalijipiringi-kirra
    go-Npast Alice.Springs-All
    "The man told the woman that Japanangka is going to Alice Springs."
Example #276:

    ka        ya-ni    Yalijipiringi-kirra
    Pres.Impf go-Npast Alice.Springs-All
    "The man told the woman that Japanangka is supposedly going to Alice Springs."
Example #277:

    (372)     a. Kapi-rna-ngku     payi-rni wampana-ku
    Fut.C-1sg.2sg.Obj ask-Npast spectacled.hare.wallaby-Dat
    "I am going to ask you about the spectacled hare wallaby"
Example #278:

    b. Japi-ka        kuyu-ku
    ask-Imperative meat-Dat
    "Ask him for meat"
Example #279:

    c. Japi-rni ka-rna-ngku            kuyu ma-ninja-ku
    ask-Npast Pres.Impf-1sg-2sg.Obj meat get-Infin-Dat
    "I am asking you to get the meat"
Example #280:

    (373)       a. Payi-ka,       [nyarrpara-rla ka    nyina]
    ask-Imperative [where-Loc Pres.Impf live.Npast]
    "Ask him where he lives"
Example #281:

    nyanungu kutu japa]: "Nyangurla-karra-rlipa rdakurlpa-rra pi-nyi?"
    that       close Q]     when-SubjC-1plIncl arrive-Thither arrive-Npast
    it?""
Example #282:

    ngajulu-rlu.
    I-Erg
    "The emu which was drinking water, that one I speared."
Example #283:

    b. Ngajulu-rlu-rna yankirri pantu-rnu, kuja-lpa         ngapa nga-rnu
    I-Erg-1sg       emu      spear-Past Fact.C-Past.Impf water consume-Past
    "I speared the emu which was drinking water." (Hale 1976:78-79, spelling
Example #284:

    pantu-rnu.
    spear-Npast
    "Jakamarra told me that Japanangka speared the kangaroo. (Granites et al 1976)
Example #285:

    (377)   a. Nyiya-npa-ju    ka-ngu-rnu?
    what-2sg-1sgObj bring-Past-Hither
    "What have you brought me?"
Example #286:

    b. Nyiya-ngurlu ka-npa-jana         paka-rni?
    what-El      PresImpf-2sg-3plObj hit-Npast
    "Why (lit. what from) are you hitting them?"
Example #287:

    nyina-ja. Nyarrpa-jarri-nja-wangu ngayi-lpa-rna     nyina-ja."
    be-Past how-Incho-Infin-without only-PastImpf-1sg be-Past
    really doing?" "Well I was just there. I was just there doing nothing."
Example #288:

    c. Nyarrpa-rlipa ma-ni     yalumpu-ju?
    how-1plIncl Cause-Npast that-Top
    "What shall we do to that one?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #289:

    ngaju-ku-pirdangka-rlu?"
    I-Dat-sibling-Erg
    "What did my young brother come and tell you?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project
Example #290:

    (380)       a. Nyarrpa ka-npa       manngi-nya-nyi wayinpa wita?
    how     PresImpf-1sg think-Npast    you.there small
    "What are you thinking of, little mate?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #291:

    b. Nyarrpa-ngku yimi-ngarru-rnu Jakamarra-rlu?
    how-2sg      speech-tell-Past Jakamarra-Erg
    "What did Jakamarra tell you?
Example #292:

    ngurrara-kari-rla yapa-kurlu-kurlu-wangu-rla       kulkurru-kulkurru."
    country-other-Loc person-having-having-without-Loc country.without.people
    "What did my young brother come and tell you?" "Well he came and told me that yo
Example #293:

    ya-ni       Jampijinpa?
    leave-Npast Jampijinpa
    "Where did Jakamarra tell you Jampijinpa is going?" (Granites et al 1976)
Example #294:

    (385)    a. Nyarrpara-ngurlu ka-npa        wapa     kirri-ngirli-ji
    where-EL         PRES.IMPF-2SG be-NPAST camp-EL-TOP
    "What camp are you from?"
Example #295:

    b. Nyiya karli    ka-pala         paka-rni?
    what boomerang Pres.Impf-3Dual chop-Npast
    "What (sort of) boomerang are they chopping?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project
Example #296:

    c. Ngana-ku ka-npa-rla               ngarrka-ku piirr-pardi-mi?
    who-DAT PRES.IMPF-2SG-3DAT man-DAT wait.for-NPAST
    "Which man are you waiting for?" (anonymous AJL reviewer, pc)
Example #297:

    pantu-rnu?
    spear-Past
    "What did Jangala tell you, was it an emu that Japanangka speared?"
Example #298:

    (387)   Maliki-rli-ji    yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Past big-Erg
    "A big dog bit me." (Hale et al 1995:1434)
Example #299:

    (388)   a. Nyarrpara-ngurlu ka-npa        wapa     kirri-ngirli-ji
    where-El          PresImpf-2sg be-Npast camp-El-Top
    "What camp are you from?"
Example #300:

    b. Nyarrpara-ku ka-npa-rla        ngarrka-ku piirr-pardi-mi?
    which-Dat    PresImpf-2sg-3Dat man-Dat wait.for-Npast
    "Which man are you waiting for?" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #301:

    c. Ngana-ku ka-npa-rla       ngarrka-ku piirr-pardi-mi?
    who-Dat PresImpf-2sg-3Dat man-Dat wait.for-Npast
    "Which man are you waiting for?" (anonymous AJL reviewer, pc)