ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Potsdam, Eric and Maria Polinsky Control in Malagasy

URL: http://ling.ucsd.edu/~polinsky/pubs/ALFA9.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-11).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1092&langcode=plt (2019-03-24).

 

Example #1:

    (2)      a. m- i- vidy       ny akoho           Rabe
    PRES- ACT - buy the chicken         Rabe
    `Rabe is buying the chicken.'
Example #2:

    (3)    a. n- i- vidy         ny akoho hoan- dRasoa Rabe         ACTIVE
    PAST-ACT - buy the chicken for- Rasoa        Rabe
    `Rabe bought a chicken for Rasoa.'
Example #3:

    b. no- vidi- n- dRabe      hoan- dRasoa ny akoho        PASSIVE
    PAST- buy- PASS- Rabe    for- Rasoa    the chicken
    `The chicken was bought for Rasoa by Rabe.'
Example #4:

    c. n- i- vidi- anan- dRabe       ny akoho Rasoa CIRCUMSTANTIAL
    PAST-ACT - buy- CIRC- Rabe the chicken Rasoa
    `Rasoa was bought a chicken by Rabe.'
Example #5:

    (4)    a. no- vidi- n- dRabe    ny akoho
    PAST- buy- PASS- Rabe   the chicken
    `The chicken was bought by Rabe'
Example #6:

    (5)    a. n- an- andrana       n- a- mono      ny akoho      Rabe
    PAST-ACT - try       PAST-ACT - kill   the chicken Rabe
    `Rabe tried to kill the chicken.'
Example #7:

    b. m- an- aiky       ho- sas- ana       ny zaza
    PRES- ACT - agree    FUT- wash- PASS     the child
    `The child agrees to be washed.'
Example #8:

    (7)      a. n- andram- an- dRabe no- vono - ina     ny akoho
    PAST- try- PASS- Rabe PAST- kill- PASS the chicken
    `Rabe tried to kill the chicken.'
Example #9:

    b. kasa- in- dRasoa      ho- sas- ana    ny zaza
    intend - PASS- Rasoa FUT- wash- PASS the child
    `Rasoa intends to wash the child.'
Example #10:

    (12)   a. novonoin- dRasoa       ny akoho
    PAST.kill. PASS- Rasoa   the chicken
    `The chicken was killed by Rasoa.'
Example #11:

    b. inonai no         novonoin- dRasoa          ti
    what       FOCUS PAST.kill. PASS- Rasoa
    `What was killed by Rasoa?'
Example #12:

    c. *izai no          novonoina       t i ny akoho
    who FOCUS PAST.kill.PASS              the chicken
    (`Who was the chicken killed by?')
Example #13:

    (13)   a. nanomboka       [novonoin- dRasoa t i] ny akoho i
    PAST.begin. ACT PAST.kill. PASS- Rasoa     the chicken
    `The chicken began to be killed by Rasoa.'
Example #14:

    b. *nanomboka      [novonoina t i ny akoho]       Rasoa i
    PAST.begin. ACT PAST.kill. PASS the chicken    Rasoa
    (`Rasoa began to kill the chicken.')
Example #15:

    (22)   a. mikasa       hanasa     ny lapa- ny       ny andriana                  /OC
    intend.ACT wash. ACT the castle - 3SG the king
    (only `The king intends to clean his castle.')
Example #16:

    (23)   a. te          hamono ny omby Rasoa. izaho koa.                           /OC
    want.ACT      kill.ACT the zebu Rasoa I           also
    *`Rasoa wants to kill the zebu and I want her to also.'      *STRICT
Example #17:

    b. tian- dRasoa          hovonoina ny omby. izaho koa.                    /NOC
    want.PASS- Rasoa kill.PASS        the zebu I          also
    `Rasoa wants to kill the zebu and I want her to also.'            STRICT
Example #18:

    (24)   a. *te         handao       i Tana          izy Rasoa                      /OC
    want.ACT      leave.ACT Antananarivo 3SG Rasoa
    (`Rasoa wants to leave Antananarivo.')
Example #19:

    b. tian- dRasoa         hilaoza - ny    i Tana
    want.PASS- Rasoa leave.PASS- 3SG Antananarivo
    `Rasoa wants to leave Antananarivo.'
Example #20:

    (26)   a. te         hanambady an- dRasoa ny fianakavian- dRabe              ACTIVE
    want.ACT     marry. ACT ACC.Rasoa the family- Rabe
    *`Rabe's family wants him to marry Rasoa.'
Example #21:

    (27)   a. nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa ny akoho
    try. ACT        kill.PASS- Rasoa      the chicken
    #`T he chicken tried to be killed by Rasoa.'
Example #22:

    c. mikasa         hovaki- ko      ity boky ity
    intend.ACT read.PASS- 1SG this book this
    #`This book intends to be read by me.'
Example #23:

    (28)   a. nijanona novaki- nao      (ve) ny boky (*ve)?
    stop.ACT read.PASS- 2SG Q         the book Q
    `Did you stop reading the book?'
Example #24:

    (29)   a. *ny boky dia        nijanona novaki- ko                    TOPICALIZATION
    the book TOPIC stop.ACT read.PASS- 1SG
    (`This book, I stopped reading.')
Example #25:

    b. *inona no         nijanona novaki- nao?                       WH- QUESTION
    what FOCUS stop.ACT read.PASS- 2SG
    (`What did you stop reading?')
Example #26:

    (30)   a. #nanandrana nandrava        io tanana      io   ny afo             ACTIVE
    try. ACT    destroy.ACT this town          this the fire
    (`The fire tried to destroy this town.')
Example #27:

    (31)   a. manandrama mamono               ny    akoho!                       ACTIVE
    try. ACT .IMPER kill.ACT .INDIC the   chicken
    `Try to kill a chicken!'
Example #28:

    b. *manandrama vonoina                   ny akoho!                    MIXED
    try. ACT .IMPER kill.PASS.INDIC       the chicken
    (`Try to kill the chicken!')
Example #29:

    (33)       nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa ny akoho
    try. ACT   kill.PASS- Rasoa       the chicken
    `Rasoa tried to kill the chicken.'
Example #30:

    b. nitsahatra tsy     hanin- dRabe           ny siramamy
    stop.ACT NEG eat.PASS- Rabe               the sugar
    `Rabe stopped not eating sugar.'
Example #31:

    (37)       nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa          ny akoho
    try. ACT        kill.PASS- Rasoa     the chicken
    `Rasoa tried to kill the chicken.'
Example #32:

    (39)   a. nijanona novaki- nao      (ve) ny boky (*ve)?
    stop.ACT read.PASS- 2SG Q      the book Q
    `Did you stop reading the book?' (=(28a))
Example #33:

    novidin- dRabe ny antsy sy novonoin- dRasoa ny akoho
    kill.PASS- Rabe the knife and kill.PASS- Rasoa the chicken
    (`Rabe tried to buy the knife and Rasoa tried to kill the chicken.')
Example #34:

    (41)       *manandrama vonoina                ny akoho!                       MIXED
    try. ACT .IMPER kill.PASS.INDIC the chicken
    (`Try to kill the chicken!') (=(31b))
Example #35:

    (43)   a. n- if- anaiky          hividy fiara Rabe sy Rasoa                   ACTIVE
    PAST- RECIP- agree.ACT buy. ACT car Rabe and Rasoa
    `Rabe and Rasoa agreed with each other to buy a car.'
Example #36:

    b. *n- if- anaiky         hovidin- dRabe sy Rasoa ny fiara              MIXED
    PAST- RECIP- agree.ACT buy. PASS- Rabe  and Rasoa the car
    (`Rabe and Rasoa agreed with each other to buy a car.')
Example #37:

    (44)       nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa           ny akoho
    try. ACT        kill.PASS- Rasoa      the chicken
    `Rasoa tried to kill the chicken.'
Example #38:

    (48)   a. mikasa       hanana     io    fiara io      Rasoa                  ACTIVE
    intend .ACT have.ACT that car that Rasoa
    `Rasoa intends to have that car.'
Example #39:

    b. *mikasa      hananan- dRasoa       io     fiara io                  MIXED
    intend.ACT have.PASS- Rasoa           that car that
    (`Rasoa intends to have that car.')
Example #40:

    ny boky
    the book
    (`Most of the students intend to read the book.')
Example #41:

    c. nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa ny akoho ka                vita- ny      MIXED
    try. ACT        kill.PASS- Rasoa the chicken and       finish. PASS- 3SG
    `Rasoa tried to kill the chicken and she did (it).'
Example #42:

    (51)   a. *ny boky dia        nijanona novaki- ko                TOPICALIZATION
    the book TOPIC stop.ACT read.PASS- 1SG
    (`This book, I stopped reading.') (=( 29a))
Example #43:

    b. *inona no         nijanona novaki- nao?                      WH- QUESTION
    what FOCUS stop.ACT read.PASS- 2SG
    (`What did you stop reading?') (=(29b))
Example #44:

    c. nanandrana novonoin- dRasoa ny akoho                                MIXED
    try. ACT        kill.PASS- Rasoa    the chicken
    `Rabe tried to kill the chicken.'