ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

MITSUAKI SHIMOJO (1995). FOCUS STRUCTURE AND MORPHOSYNTAX IN JAPANESE.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/shimojo/MitsuDis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 112&langcode=jpn (2018-07-19).

 

Example #1:

    (1)    kinoo      wa Hanako ga uchi de Taro to       eega o mita
    yesterday                  home at       with movie OBJ see:PST
    '(As for) yesterday, Hanako saw a movie with Taro at home.'
Example #2:

    a.     Hanako ga kuruma o katta
    car     OBJ buy:PST
    'Hanako bought a car.'
Example #3:

    a.     Hanako ga kuruma o         katta     no ga odoroki da
    car      OBJ buy:PST NOM       surprise     COP
    'It was surprising that Hanako bought a car.'
Example #4:

    a.      sensee no setsumee de sono bun              no imi        ga wakatta
    teacher GEN explanation with that sentence GEN meaning         understand:PST
    '(I) understood the meaning of the sentence with the teacher's explanation.'
Example #5:

    (5)     kono kuruma wa kyonen katta
    this car           last-year buy:PST
    '(I) bought this car last year.'
Example #6:

    (7)    nihon de wa sushi o tabeta
    Japan in               OBJ eat:PST
    '(I) ate sushi in Japan.'
Example #7:

    (8)    gakusee no toki ni wa amari           tenisu o    sinakatta
    student GEN time at        not-very tennis OBJ do:NEG:PST
    'When (I) was a student, (I) didn't play tennis very often.'
Example #8:

    (9)    basu de wa daigaku ni konai
    bus by        university to come:NEG:PST
    '(I) don't come to the university by bus.'
Example #9:

    (10)   sonnani hayaku wa hasirenai
    that      fast          run:POT:NEG
    '(I) cannot run that fast.'
Example #10:

    (11)   denwa     o sita     toki wa Hanako wa hon o yondeita
    telephone OBJ do:PST when                 book OBJ reading:PST
    'Hanako was reading a book when I called (her).'
Example #11:

    (12)   tegami o kaiteiru aida wa razio o kiiteita
    letter OBJ writing while         radio OBJ listening:PST
    '(I) was listening to the radio while writing the letter.'
Example #12:

    (13)   Hanako to        iku yori wa Taro to    itta    hoo ga ii
    with go than            with go:PST way     good
    'It's better to go with Taro than with Hanako.'
Example #13:

    (14)   Ken wa koko ni kuru to         wa itteita
    here to come CMPL         saying:PST
    'Ken was saying that he would come here.'
Example #14:

    (15)   baa ni itta   kedo osake o nomi wa sinakatta
    bar to go:PST but alcohol OBJ drink do:NEG:PST
    '(I) went to a bar, but (I) didn't drink alcohol.'
Example #15:

    (16)   sono mondai wa muzukasiku wa nakatta
    that problem       difficult          NEG:PST
    'The problem was not difficult (to solve).'
Example #16:

    (17)   Hanako wa sensee de wa nai
    teacher COP   NEG
    'Hanako is not a teacher.'
Example #17:

    (18)   Hanako ni tegami o kaite wa mita             ga henzi ga nakatta
    to letter OBJ write      see:PST but reply     exist:NEG:PST
    '(I) tried writing a letter to Hanako, but there was no reply.'
Example #18:

    (19) * akai wa kuruma o katta
    red      car      OBJ buy:PST
    '(I) bought a red car.'
Example #19:

    (20) * [Hanako ga katta] wa kuruma o mita
    buy:PST     car    OBJ see:PST
    '(I) saw the car which Hanako bought.'
Example #20:

    (22) * mosi Hanako ga kitara            wa denwasimasu
    if                come:COND             call
    'If Hanako comes, (I) will call (you).'
Example #21:

    (23) * Taro ga konakatta      node    wa Hanako ga okotta
    come:NEG:PST because                 become-upset
    'Because Taro didn't come, Hanako became upset.'
Example #22:

    (24) * Ken ga denwasitemo wa Hanako wa Ken to eega ni ikanakatta
    call:CONS                             with movie to go:NEG:PST
    'Although Ken called (her), Hanako didn't go to a movie with Ken.'
Example #23:

    1.      gootoo ga boku no ie       ni haitta
    robber       I GEN house into enter:PST
    'A robber broke into my house.'
Example #24:

    1.     gootoo ga boku no ie       ni haitta
    robber       I GEN house into enter:PST
    'A robber broke into my house.'
Example #25:

    atarikamawazu uchidasita
    wildly           begin-to-shoot:PST
    shoot wildly.'
Example #26:

    (27)    kuzira wa honyuu-doobutsu desu
    whale     mammal               COP
    'Speaking of whales, they are mammals. (A whale is a mammal.)'
Example #27:

    (28)    John wa watakusi no tomodachi desu
    I      GEN friend   COP
    'Speaking of John, he is my friend.'
Example #28:

    (29) * ame wa hutteimasu
    rain    falling
    'Speaking of rain, it is falling.'
Example #29:

    (32)    John wa sono hon o      yonda    ga Mary wa yomanakatta
    that book OBJ read:PST but           read:NEG:PST
    'John read the book, but Mary didn't.'
Example #30:

    A:      asita        siken ga aru kedo mada hon o       zenzen yondenai
    tomorrow exam         exist but yet book OBJ at-all read:NEG
    '(I) have an exam tomorrow, but (I) haven't read the book at all.'
Example #31:

    B:      John wa sono hon o        yonda    tte
    the book OBJ read:PST QT
    '(I've heard) John has read the book.'
Example #32:

    (34)    Ken wa [Hanako ga/*wa okane o       nusunda] no o sitteimasu ka
    money OBJ steal:PST NOM OBJ knowing            Q
    'Does Ken know that Hanako stole the money?'
Example #33:

    (35)    Ken wa [sono okane o/*wa Hanako ga nusunda] no o sitteimasu ka
    the money OBJ                  steal:PST NOM OBJ knowing           Q
    'Does Ken know that Hanako stole the money (but not something else)?'
Example #34:

    (36)    Ken wa [Hanako ga/*wa mottekita] hon o karimasita
    bring:PST book OBJ borrow:      PST
    'Ken borrowed the book which Hanako brought.'
Example #35:

    (37)    [Ken ga/*wa kaettekita toki] Hanako wa neteita
    return:PST when            sleeping:PST
    'Hanako was sleeping when Ken returned.'
Example #36:

    (38)   John ga asoko ni tatteiru
    there at standing
    'John is standing over there.'
Example #37:

    (39)   John ga gakusee desu
    student COP
    'John is a student.'
Example #38:

    A:     dare ga gakusee desu ka
    who      student COP Q
    'Who is a student?'
Example #39:

    B:     John ga gakusee desu
    student COP
    'John is a student.'
Example #40:

    A:     doo sita no?
    how did FP
    'What's going on?'
Example #41:

    B:     ame ga/*wa hutteru yo
    rain            falling FP
    'It's raining.'
Example #42:

    A:     kinoo      Ken to Hanako ga paatii ni itta     tte
    yesterday       and           Party to go:PST QT
    '(I've heard) Ken and Hanako went to a party yesterday.'
Example #43:

    B:     sitteru    Ken wa/?ga sugu kaetta       kedo Hanako wa/?ga hitoban ita         tte
    knowing                soon return:PST but                    all-night be:PST QT
    'I know. (I've heard) Ken left soon, but Hanako was (there) all night.'
Example #44:

    A:      kinoo     John ga uti ni kita        yo
    yesterday          house to come:PST       FP
    'John came to (my) house yesterday.'
Example #45:

    B:      John wa/?ga aruite kita       no?
    walk come:PST FP
    'Did John walk (to your house)?'
Example #46:

    A:      John wa dare o      mita no?
    who OBJ see:PST FP
    'Who did John see?'
Example #47:

    B:      John ga mita      no wa/*ga Ken da
    see:PST NOM                 COP
    'It was Ken that John saw.'
Example #48:

    A:      John wa dono hito
    which person
    'Which person is John?'
Example #49:

    B:     hon o yondeiru no ga/*wa John desu
    book OBJ reading NOM                     COP
    'The one who is reading a book is John.'
Example #50:

    (47)   asokoni hito ga nanninka iru kedo, John wa dono hito
    over-there person   some      be but              which person
    'There are some people over there, but which person is John?'
Example #51:

    A1:    kinoo     dare ga Hanako to   deetosita ka sitteru  deshoo?
    yesterday who            with date:PST Q knowing COP:HOR
    '(You) know who went out with Hanako yesterday, don't you?'
Example #52:

    B1:    siranai.    dare?
    know:NEG who
    (I) don't know. Who?
Example #53:

    A2:    sitteru  deshoo? hora
    knowing COP:HOR you-know
    '(You) know (who), don't you? You know.'
Example #54:

    B2:    aa. John ga/*wa Hanako to     eega ni itta     n deshoo?
    ah                        with movie to go:PST NOM COP:HOR
    'Right. John went to a movie with Hanako, didn't he?'
Example #55:

    A1:    kinoo       dare ga Hanako to      deetosita ka sitteru   deshoo?
    yesterday who            with date:PST Q knowing COP:HOR
    '(You) know who went out with Hanako yesterday, don't you?'
Example #56:

    B1:      John deshoo?
    COP:HOR
    '(It's) John, isn't it?'
Example #57:

    A2:      soo odoroki
    yes     surprise
    'Right. (It's) surprising.'
Example #58:

    B2:      John wa/?ga Hanako to eega ni itta         n deshoo?
    with movie to go:PST NOM COP:HOR
    'John went to a movie with Hanako, didn't he?'
Example #59:

    1.     gootoo ga boku no ie       ni haitta
    robber      I GEN house to enter:PST
    'A robber broke into my house.'
Example #60:

    B:     e hontoo sorede doo natta           no?
    oh really    then    how become:PST FP
    'Really? Then what happened?'
Example #61:

    A1:    kinoo     gootoo ga boku no ie      ni haitta      n    da yo
    yesterday robber      I GEN house to enter:     PST NOM COP FP
    'A robber broke into my house yesterday.'
Example #62:

    B:     e hontoo sorede doo natta           no?
    oh really    then    how become:PST FP
    'Really? Then what happened?'
Example #63:

    A1:    kinoo     gootoo ga boku no ie      ni haitta      n    da yo
    yesterday robber      I GEN house to enter:     PST NOM COP FP
    'A robber broke into my house yesterday.'
Example #64:

    B:     e hontoo     sorede nanika     sareta       no?
    oh really    then   something do:PAS:   PST FP
    'Really? Then did (the guy) do something to you?'
Example #65:

    B:      e hontoo sorede doo natta           no?
    oh really    then    how become:PST FP
    'Really? Then what happened?'
Example #66:

    A1:     kinoo     gootoo ga boku no ie      ni haitta         n    da yo
    yesterday robber      I GEN house to enter:      PST NOM COP FP
    'A robber broke into my house yesterday.'
Example #67:

    B:      e hontoo? sorede doo natta           no?
    oh really     then   how become:PST FP
    'Really? Then what happened?'
Example #68:

    A1:     kinoo     gootoo ga boku no ie      ni haitta         n    da yo
    yesterday robber      I GEN house to enter:      PST NOM COP FP
    'A robber broke into my house yesterday.'
Example #69:

    B:      e hontoo? sorede nanika           sareta     no?
    oh really     then    something do:PAS:PST FP
    'Really? Then did (the guy) do something to you?'
Example #70:

    A:     gootoo ga boku no ie       ni haitta
    robber      I GEN house to enter:PST
    'A robber broke into my house.'
Example #71:

    1.     John to Mary to Bill ga tazunete kimasita
    and     and          visit   come:PST
    'John, Mary, and Bill called on me.'
Example #72:

    2.     John ga/wa kudamono o kuremasita.
    fruits       OBJ give:PST
    'John gave (me) fruits.'
Example #73:

    3.     Mary ga/wa okasi    o kuremasita.
    cookies OBJ give:PST
    'Mary gave me cookies.'
Example #74:

    4.     Bill *ga/wa hon     o   motte kite   kuremasita
    book OBJ bring come give:PST
    'Bill brought me a book.'
Example #75:

    A:      Sally ga amerikazin de Ken ga igirisuzin na no?
    American and          British NOM FP
    'Is Sally American and Ken British?'
Example #76:

    B:      ie Sally ga igirisuzin de Ken ga amerikazin desu
    no           British and          American COP
    'No, Sally is British and Ken is American.'
Example #77:

    B':    ie Sally ga igirisuzin de Ken wa amerikazin desu
    no            British and         American COP
    'No, Sally is British and Ken is American.'
Example #78:

    A1:     kinoo       steeki to sarada o tabeta kedo, ano resutoran wa yokunakatta
    yesterday steak and salad OBJ eat:PST but that restaurant          good:NEG:PST
    'I ate steak and salad yesterday, but that restaurant wasn't good.
Example #79:

    B:      doosite
    why
    'Why?'
Example #80:

    A2:     steeki wa/*ga oisikatta kedo, sarada ga/?wa mazukatta
    steak         tasty     but    salad         taste-bad:PST
    'The steak was good, but the salad was bad.'
Example #81:

    A1:    kinoo       steeki to sarada o tabeta kedo, ano resutoran wa yokunakatta
    yesterday steak and salad OBJ eat:PST but that restaurant          good:NEG:PST
    'I ate steak and salad yesterday, but that restaurant wasn't good.
Example #82:

    B:     soo
    so
    'Is that so?'
Example #83:

    A2:    steeki wa/*ga oisikatta kedo, sarada ga/wa mazukatta
    steak         tasty:PST but      salad       taste-bad:PST
    'The steak was good, but the salad was bad.'
Example #84:

    (66)   dare *wa/ga kita    no?
    who         come:PST FP
    'Who came?'
Example #85:

    (67)   dare wa kite, dare wa konakatta    no?
    who come who          come:NEG:PST FP
    'Who came and who didn't come?'
Example #86:

    hutari sika konakatta
    two    only come:NEG:PST
    'Ken, Hanako, and Taro were going to come yesterday, but only two came.'
Example #87:

    B:      dare wa kite, dare wa konakatta    no?
    who come who          come:NEG:PST FP
    'Who came, and who didn't?'
Example #88:

    A:      Taro to Hanako to dareka ga saakasu ni itta
    and        and someone    circus to go:PST
    'Taro and Hanako and someone went to the circus.'
Example #89:

    hutari sika konakatta
    two    only come:NEG:PST
    'Ken, Hanako, and Taro were going to come yesterday, but only two came.'
Example #90:

    B:        *dare wa kita    no?
    who      come:PST FP
    'Who came?'
Example #91:

    hutari sika konakatta
    two    only come:NEG:PST
    'Ken, Hanako, and Taro were going to come yesterday, but only two came.'
Example #92:

    B:        Ken wa kita     no?
    come:PST FP
    'Did Ken come?'
Example #93:

    hutari sika konakatta
    two    only come:NEG:PST
    'Ken, Hanako, and Taro were going to come yesterday, but only two came.'
Example #94:

    B:     dare ga/wa kite, dare ga/wa konakatta    no?
    who       come who          come:NEG:PST FP
    'Who came, and who didn't?'
Example #95:

    (76)   Taro wa uchi e kita        kedo, Hanako wa konakatta
    house to come:PST but,                come:NEG:        PST
    'Taro came to (my) house, but Hanako didn't come.'
Example #96:

    (77)   Taro wa uchi e kita
    house to come:      PST
    'Taro came to (my) house.'
Example #97:

    1.     kyonen Boston ni itta
    last-year         to go:PST
    '(I) went to Boston last year.'
Example #98:

    2.     Boston wa totemo samukatta
    very cold:PST
    'It was very cold in Boston.'
Example #99:

    1.     kyonen Boston to Chicago ni itta
    last-year        and        to go:PST
    '(I) went to Boston and Chicago last year.'
Example #100:

    2.     Boston wa totemo samukatta
    very cold:PST
    'It was very cold in Boston.'
Example #101:

    1.     kyonen Boston ni itta
    last-year       to go:PST
    '(I) went to Boston last year.'
Example #102:

    2.     hurui ie    o    takusan mita
    old house OBJ many        see:PST
    '(I) saw many old houses.'
Example #103:

    3.     sorekara Chicago ni itta
    then              to go:PST
    'Then (I) went to Chicago.'
Example #104:

    4.     Chicago wa totemo samukatta
    very cold:PST
    'It was very cold in Chicago.'
Example #105:

    [oshokuzi mo kimatteru           wake deshoo]
    meals also being-arranged reason COP
    'Therefore, (they) chose all the hotels and arranged the meals too.'
Example #106:

    dokkade      monosugoi chikara ga detekichau
    somewhere marvelous power            come-out
    are shown somewhere (in his movie).'
Example #107:

    warito            [tochuu de deru] hito iru      n    desu nee
    quite-a-few       middle in leave people exist NOM COP FP
    theater) in   the middle of a movie.'
Example #108:

    zutto       damatte bukimina shunkan desita
    all-through quiet   weird   moment COP:PST
    weird moment.'
Example #109:

    (6)     atakusi wa zutto          anaunsaaruumu de taiki        o site imasita yo
    I           continuously announcer-room in stand-by OBJ do be:PST FP
    'I was continuously standing by in the announcer room.'
Example #110:

    moo      hooboo       kizudarakena n      desu tte
    already everywhere full-of-scratch NOM COP QT
    '(I heard you) got a new spitz, and there are scratches everywhere.'
Example #111:

    (8)     Joan ga gitaa o hiite Hiro ga utau
    guitar OBJ play             sing
    'Joan will play the guitar, and Hiro will sing.'
Example #112:

    A1:    de otoosama wa hantainasaranakatta no sono zyoyuu ni naru       toki
    and father         oppose:HON:NEG:PST FP that actress RE become time
    'Wasn't your father opposed to your becoming an actress?'
Example #113:

    B1:    ee     monosugoku hantaisimasita nee
    yeah terribly       oppose:PST    FP
    'Yes, (he) opposed terribly.'
Example #114:

    B2:    demo yoku wakarimasu yo sore wa
    but well understand FP it
    'But (I) can understand it well.'
Example #115:

    A2:    naruhodo nee
    I-see    FP
    'I see.'
Example #116:

    B3:    ee
    yeah
    'Yeah'
Example #117:

    A3:    de zyoyuu ni onarininatte kara
    then actress RE become:HON since
    'Then, since (you) became an actress,'
Example #118:

    1.      nanimo nai          to kiite wa ita nde
    anything exist:NEG QT hear        be because
    'Because I heard that there is nothing (available).'
Example #119:

    2.      raamen toka raamenpotto toka mottette
    noodle and noodle-pan etc. bring
    '(I) brought noodles, pans, etc.'
Example #120:

    3.     heya de wa tsukuru n      desu kedo
    room in      cook NOM COP but
    '(I) cooked (noodles) in the room, but'
Example #121:

    4.     omizu ga nai         n desu ne
    water      exist:NEG NOM COP FP
    'There is no water.'
Example #122:

    1.     sensee ippai imasita
    prof. many exist:PST
    'There were many professors.'
Example #123:

    2.     ii    sensee imasita
    good prof. exist:PST
    'There were good professors.'
Example #124:

    3.     T nante hito       ga sensee yattemasita
    such-as person     prof. doing:PST
    'There were professors such as Mr. T.'
Example #125:

    (12)   Taro wa nihonzin no gakusee desu
    Japanese GEN student COP
    'Taro is a student from Japan.'
Example #126:

    A:     sugoi chicchai shasin       na no ne kore
    very small photograph COP NOM FP this
    'This is a very small photograph.'
Example #127:

    B1:    iya okkii no mo aru n desu
    no big NOM too exist NOM COP
    'No, there is a big one too.'
Example #128:

    B2:    kore wa watasi ga tsuneni keetaisiteiru shasin
    this         I      always carrying       photograph
    'This is the photograph which I carry (with me) all the time.'
Example #129:

    1.       S-san no osibai taitee ichizikan zengo nan desu yone
    GEN show usually 1-hour about NOM COP FP
    'Mr. S's show is usually about one-hour long.'
Example #130:

    2.       doosite ka to omou to
    why        Q QT think if
    'If (I) think why'
Example #131:

    3.       yappari       yakusha no nikutai ga sore sika zizokudekinai to omou n desu
    as-expected actor       GEN body      that only last:POT:NEG QT think NOM COP
    '(I) think that the actors can continue (the show) for only that long.'
Example #132:

    4.       uun kitsui kara      ne
    um tough because FP
    'Because (it's) hard.'
Example #133:

    5.       sorede yappari    S-san ga ichizikan kurai de matometerassharu n dakedomo
    so    as-expected            1-hour about in make:HON           NOM but
    'So, Mr. S makes (his show) about one-hour long (as you know), but...'
Example #134:

    2.     S-san yatteru aida           dake demo sooyuu huu ni yatte miyoo to omotte
    Mr. S doing duration only at-least that-kind way in do try:HOR QT think
    that I'd try doing that at least for the duration of Mr. S's play.'
Example #135:

    kanji ga nasatta n         desu tte
    feeling     do:HON NOM COP QT
    what your father was saying.'
Example #136:

    1.           minasama konnichiwa
    everyone hello
    'Hello, everyone.'
Example #137:

    2.     kyoo no okyakusama wa eegahyooronka deirasshaimasu
    today GEN guest              movie-reviewer COP:HON
    'Today's guest is a movie reviewer.'
Example #138:

    1.     tatoeba      dantairyokoo dakara sanzyuunin gurai no
    for-example group-tour because 30-people about GEN
    'For example, because it was a group tour of about 30 people'
Example #139:

    2.     zenbu ano hoteru wa kimatteru            si
    all     um hotel      being-chosen and
    '(they) chose the hotel (for us) and...'
Example #140:

    2.     naze ka otoko no daigaku wa yonde moraenai
    why Q man GEN college           invite receive:NEG
    'I've never been invited to a men's university for some reason.'
Example #141:

    1.     demo wakai hito         to isshoni yareta       to yuu koto mo ne
    but young people with together do:POT:PST QT say NOM also FP
    'But the fact that (I) could do with the young people (in the company) also'
Example #142:

    katamarigachi            desu yone
    likely-to-group-together COP FP
    'As (we) become older, the old people tend to stick to each other.'
Example #143:

    (25)   demo hontoni saigo wa awaredatta n desu ga
    but really last            pitiful:PST NOM COP but
    'But it was really pitiful at the end.'
Example #144:

    1.        sooyuu atasi ga hizyooni koo        pipitto wakaru taipu de wa nakatta node
    such     I      very     this-way quickly catch type COP NEG:PST because
    'Because I was not the type of person who catches things quickly'
Example #145:

    2.        taihenni kurooitasimasite
    really have-a-hard-time:HON
    '(I) had a hard time (becoming a good assistant).'
Example #146:

    1.        nani ka mono ga nai          tte kiite wa ita      n desu kedo
    what Q thing       exist:NEG QT hear       be:PST NOM COP but
    '(At least) I was hearing that there isn't anything (there), but'
Example #147:

    2.        hontoni mono ga nakute
    really thing       exist:NEG
    'there was really nothing (there).'
Example #148:

    a.      Taro ga Hanako ni     sono hon o       yatta
    DAT that book     OBJ give:PST
    'Taro gave that book to Hanako.'
Example #149:

    a.      Taro ga [Hanako ga toshokan de Ken kara moratta]      hon o yonda
    library in      from receive:PST book OBJ read:PST
    'Taro read the book which Hanako received from Ken in the library.'
Example #150:

    a.      Hanako ga toshokan de Ken ni ageta          yo hon o
    library in       DAT give:PST FP book OBJ
    'Hanako gave a book to Ken in the library.'
Example #151:

    (4)     uchi ni kaetta       yo    Hanako wa
    home to return:   PST FP
    'Hanako went home.'
Example #152:

    (5)     France ni iku yo ryokoo wa
    to go FP trip
    'As for the trip, (I) will go to France.'
Example #153:

    (6)     Hanako ga hon o yonda yo Ken no
    book OBJ read:PST FP GEN
    'Hanako read Ken's book.'
Example #154:

    (7)     kinoo        tsuini eega o mita      yo ano
    yesterday finally movie OBJ see:PST FP that
    '(I) finally saw that movie.'
Example #155:

    (8)     Hanako ga kuruma o katta yo sugoku ookii
    car     OBJ buy:PST FP very big
    'Hanako bought a very big car.'
Example #156:

    (9)     nan no terebi miteru no ima
    what GEN TV watching FP now
    'What TV program are you watching now?'
Example #157:

    (11)    kinoo       daigaku ni kita          yo kuruma de
    yesterday university to come:PST FP car        by
    '(I) came to the university by car.'
Example #158:

    (13)    Ken wa terebi o miteta   yo Hanako ga kita      toki
    TV OBJ watching FP             come:PST when
    'When Hanako came, Ken was watching TV.'
Example #159:

    (14)    Hanako wa itteta      yo asita          Ken to hanasu tte
    saying:PST FP tomorrow            with talk  QT
    'Hanako was saying that (she) will talk with Ken tomorrow.'
Example #160:

    (15)    uwasa kiita      yo Hanako ga kekkonsuru tteyuu
    rumor hear:PST FP               marry        QT
    '(I) heard the rumor that Hanako will get married.'
Example #161:

    (16)    Ken ga shasin      o miseteta yo nihon de totta
    photograph OBJ showing FP Japan in take:PST
    'Ken was showing the photograph which he took in Japan.'
Example #162:

    a.       kinoo         okane o moratta
    yesterday money OBJ receive:PST
    '(I) received the money yesterday.'
Example #163:

    (20)?* ano hon o [S John ga [NP [S ___ katta         hito]] o sagasiteiru rasii]
    that book OBJ                            buy:PST person OBJ looking-for seem
    'It seems that John is looking for the person who bought that book.'
Example #164:

    a. * [S1 Ken ga ___ hataraite]-te, [S2 okusan ga uti    ni iru no yo] kaisha de
    work      and      wife         home in be NOM FP office in
    'Ken works in the office and (his) wife stays home.'
Example #165:

    [S2 Jiro-chan wa uchi ni ita     no] soto de
    home at be:PST FP     outside at
    'Taro was playing outside, but Jiro was at home.'
Example #166:

    A:     anmari itta    koto nai no buffet style
    much go:PST NOM NEG FP
    'Haven't you been to buffet style much?'
Example #167:

    A:      kinoo      no kaigi wa dare ga kimasita ka
    yesterday GEN meeting who        come:PST Q
    'Who came to yesterday's meeting?'
Example #168:

    B:      Ken ga kimasita yo
    come:PST FP
    'Ken came.'
Example #169:

    A:     Ken osoi nee
    late FP
    'Ken is late.'
Example #170:

    B:     a Ken ga kimasita yo
    ah          come:PST FP
    'Ah, there Ken comes.'
Example #171:

    a.     Ken ga kimasita yo
    come:PST FP
    'Ken has come.'
Example #172:

    A:       doo sita no?
    how did FP
    'What's the matter?'
Example #173:

    B:       ame ga hutteru yo
    rain       falling FP
    'It's raining.'
Example #174:

    A:       Ken osoi nee
    late FP
    'Ken is late.'
Example #175:

    B:       kimasita yo Ken ga
    come:PST FP
    'Ken has come. (There Ken comes.)'
Example #176:

    A:       doo sita     no?
    how do:PST FP
    'What's the matter?'
Example #177:

    B:     ? kimasita yo Ken ga
    come:PST FP
    'Ken came.'
Example #178:

    A:       kinoo     dare ga kimasita ka
    yesterday who     come:PST Q
    'Who came yesterday?'
Example #179:

    B:     # kimasita yo Ken ga
    come:PST FP
    'Ken came.'
Example #180:

    A1:     kyoo Ken ga kuru tte
    today          come QT
    '(I heard) Ken will come today.'
Example #181:

    B1:     a soo
    oh so
    'Is that so?'
Example #182:

    B2:     a Ken ga kita        yo
    ah        come:PST FP
    'Ah, Ken has come. (There Ken comes.)'
Example #183:

    A:      doo sita     no?
    how do:PST FP
    'What's the matter?'
Example #184:

    B:      kita     {no/?yo/?ne/?na} Ken ga
    come:PST FP
    'Ken came.'
Example #185:

    A:     doo sita     no?
    how do:PST FP
    'What's the matter?'
Example #186:

    B:     kita         n desu Ken ga
    come:PST NOM COP
    '(It's that) Ken came.'
Example #187:

    A:     kinoo     dare ga kita     no?
    yesterday who     come:PST FP
    'Who came yesterday?'
Example #188:

    B:      kita    {#no/#yo/#ne/#na/ #n desu} Ken ga
    come:PST FP                  NOM COP
    'Ken came.'
Example #189:

    A1:     kyoo Ken ga kuru tte
    today           come QT
    '(I heard) Ken will come today.'
Example #190:

    B1:     a soo
    oh so
    'Is that so?'
Example #191:

    B2:     a kita        yo {Ken ga / }
    ah come:PST FP
    'Ah, Ken has come. (There Ken comes.)'
Example #192:

    A:        doo sita     no?
    how do:PST FP
    'What's the matter?'
Example #193:

    B:        kita     no      {Ken ga / #}
    come:PST FP
    'Ken came.'
Example #194:

    1.        kinoo     Hanako to Ken to Taro ga uchi ni kita     yo
    yesterday         and    and       home to come:PST FP
    'Hanako, Ken, and Taro came to my house yesterday.'
Example #195:

    2.      sorede hon o takusan mottekita yo Ken to Taro ga
    and    book OBJ many bring:PST FP
    'And Ken and Taro brought many books.'
Example #196:

    A1:      migigawa ga okaasama ne
    right-side    mother FP
    '(The one) on the right side is your mother.'
Example #197:

    A2:      sorede T-san de
    then          and
    'Then, (next one is) Mr. T.'
Example #198:

    A3:      anata wa dokoni irassharu n desu
    you      where be:HON NOM COP
    'Where are you?'
Example #199:

    atasi ichiban hidari ni koo     kidotte hitori imasu kedo sita      no hoo ni
    I     first   left in this-way pose alone be         but bottom GEN area at
    'I am at the bottom by myself, posing at the left-most (position).'
Example #200:

    1.       hotondo ima made mitakotomonai yoona hitotachi ga ne yattekimasita
    almost now until have-never-seen like people      FP come:PST
    'There came people whom I had never seen before.'
Example #201:

    2.     sono hitotachi ga M toka S toka T toka ne sooyuu hitotachi desu
    that people         and     and and FP such      people COP
    'Those were people such as M, S, and T.'
Example #202:

    3.     sooyuu hitotachi ga ne kaita     n desu saku o ne
    such people         FP write:PST NOM COP story OBJ FP
    'Those people wrote stories.'
Example #203:

    1.     nihonzin no atasitachi nisitemireba tottemo fuziyuuna  koto ga ookute ne
    Japanese GEN we        for          very inconvenient thing many FP
    'There were many inconvenient things for us Japanese.'
Example #204:

    2.     tatoeba     dantairyokoo da kara         sanzyuunin kurai no
    for-example group-tour COP because 30-people about GEN
    'For example, because (it was) a group tour of about 30 people.'
Example #205:

    1.     ano sibai wa tochuu de kaettekuru toki arimasu kedo
    uh play      middle in come-back time be       but
    '(I) sometimes leave in the middle of a play.'
Example #206:

    donnani tsumaranai to omottemo
    however boring         QT think
    '(I) have never left in the middle of a movie no matter how boring (I) think it
Example #207:

    A1:     nihon mo mono ga nakatta n desu ne
    Japan also thing    exist:PST NOM COP FP
    'There was lack of materials in Japan too.'
Example #208:

    A2:     zyoorikuyooshuutee desu ka tsukutteta
    boat-for-landing      COP Q making:PST
    '(The things called) landing boats? (You were) making (them).'
Example #209:

    ano Sapporo koogai no beniyaitakoozyoo datte
    that           suburb GEN plywood-factory COP
    (I) was in the plywood factory in the suburb of Sapporo.'
Example #210:

    B2:     zyoorikuyooshuutee no yoosuruni ano ita       nan desu yo ne beniyaita ga
    boat-for-landing   GEN in-short     that board NOM COP FP FP plywood
    'That plywood was the board for the landing boats.'
Example #211:

    A:      kinoo      Ken to Hanako ga sensee no uchi ni itta       tte
    yesterday       and         teacher GEN home to go:PST      QT
    '(I heard) Ken and Hanako went to the professor's house.'
Example #212:

    B:     soo Ken wa nihon no uta o utatta              n da yo sensee no uchi de
    right            Japan GEN song OBJ sing:PST NOM COP FP teacher GEN home at
    '(That's) right, Ken sang a Japanese song at the professor's house.'
Example #213:

    a.      kare wa/#ga sinda
    he           die:PST
    'He died.'
Example #214:

    b       watasi wa/#ga tegami o kaita
    I             letter OBJ write:PST
    'I wrote the/a letter.'
Example #215:

    b      WATASI GA/#wa tegami o kaita
    I                  letter OBJ write:PST
    'I wrote the letter / It was I who wrote the letter.'
Example #216:

    a.     kare wa sinda (Topic)
    he       die:PST
    'He died.'
Example #217:

    b      KARE WA sinda        (Contrast: Narrow Focus)
    he         die:PST
    'HE died (but someone else survived).'
Example #218:

    a.     Hiro ga/#wa kuru node        shokuzi o yooi          sita
    come because meal       OBJ preparation do:   PST
    'Because Hiro will come, (I) prepared a meal.'
Example #219:

    b      HIRO WA/#ga kuru node shokuzi o yooi                   sita
    come because meal      OBJ preparation do:PST
    '(Although the others won't come,) Hiro will come, so (I) prepared a meal.'
Example #220:

    a.       dare ga/#wa kimasu ka
    who          come Q
    'Who will come?'
Example #221:

    b        DARE WA/#ga kimasu ka
    come Q
    '(I know that some won't come, but) who will come?'
Example #222:

    (12)     ZYOON GA atama ga ii
    head      good
    'JOAN (and only Joan in the current universe of discourse) is smart.'
Example #223:

    (13)     zyoon wa akarui            (Topic NP-wa)
    cheerful
    'Joan is cheerful.'
Example #224:

    (14)     ZYOON WA kita      (Contrastive NP-wa)
    come:PST
    'JOAN came (but someone else didn't).'
Example #225:

    B:     ikimasendesita
    go:NEG:PST
    '(No, he) didn't go.'
Example #226:

    A:     Ken wa kaigi     ni ikimasita kedo Taro wa ikimasita ka
    meeting to go:PST      but           go:PST Q
    'Ken went to the meeting, but did Taro go?'
Example #227:

    B:     ikimasendesita
    go:NEG:PST
    '(No, he) didn't go.'
Example #228:

    A:     Taro wa eego wa hanasimasu ka
    speak     Q
    'Does Taro speak English?'
Example #229:

    B:       hanasimasen
    speak:NEG:PST
    '(No, he) doesn't speak.'
Example #230:

    B': # Hanako ga/wa      hanasimasu
    speak
    '(No,) Hanako speaks.'
Example #231:

    (18)     kinoo       wa atama ga itakatta
    yesterday       head      pain:PST
    '(I) had a headache yesterday.'
Example #232:

    B:      agenakatta
    give:NEG:PST
    '(Taro) didn't give.'
Example #233:

    A:      Tokyo de wa sushi o tabeta no?
    in             OBJ eat:PST Q
    '(Did you) eat sushi in Tokyo?'
Example #234:

    B:      tabenakatta
    eat:NEG:PST
    '(I) didn't eat.'
Example #235:

    B': # Osaka de tabeta
    in eat:PST
    '(I) ate (sushi) in Osaka.'
Example #236:

    A:     Ken ga nihon ni iku koto wa sitteta        no?
    Japan to go NOM       knowing:PST FP
    'Did (you) know that Ken was going to Japan?'
Example #237:

    B:     siranakatta
    know:NEG:PST
    '(I) didn't know.'
Example #238:

    (22) * dare wa kaigi   ni ikimasita ka
    who     meeting to go:PST     Q
    'Who went to the meeting?'
Example #239:

    (23) * Taro wa nani wa kaimasita ka
    what     buy:PST    Q
    'What does Taro buy?'
Example #240:

    (24) * Taro wa dare ni wa sono hon o ageta           no?
    who DAT        that book OBJ give:PST Q
    'Who did Taro give the book to?'
Example #241:

    (25) * doko de wa sushi o tabeta no?
    where in            OBJ eat:PST Q
    'Where did (you) eat sushi?'
Example #242:

    hutari sika konakatta
    two    only come:NEG:PST
    'Ken, Hanako, and Taro were going to come yesterday, but only two came.'
Example #243:

    B:     dare ga/wa kite, dare ga/wa konakatta    no?
    who       come who          come:NEG:PST FP
    'Who came, and who didn't?'
Example #244:

    (27)   Ken wa [dare ga nihon ni iku koto] o sitteta    no?
    who Japan to go NOM OBJ knowing FP
    'Who did Ken know that ___ was going to Japan?'
Example #245:

    (28)   Ken wa [dare ga katta] kuruma o untensita no?
    who buy:PST car         OBJ drive:PST FP
    'Who did Ken drive a car which ___ bought?'
Example #246:

    (29)   Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda toiu] uwasa o sinziteru no?
    who money OBJ steal:PST QT rumor OBJ believe FP
    'Who does Ken believe a rumor that ___ stole the money?'
Example #247:

    A:     sonnani hayaku wa Toronto ni tsukenai           n deshoo?
    that     fast                in arrive:POT:NEG NOM COP:TNT
    '(You) cannot arrive in Toronto that fast, can you?'
Example #248:

    B:     tsukemasu
    arrive:POT
    '(You) can arrive.'
Example #249:

    B': # Toronto ni tsukemasu
    in arrive:POT
    '(You) can arrive in Toronto.'
Example #250:

    A:     Ken wa kyonen sensee de wa nakatta n              deshoo?
    last-year teacher COP         NEG:PST   NOM COP:TNT
    'Ken was not a teacher last year, was he?'
Example #251:

    B:     gakusee desita
    student COP:PST
    '(He) was a student.'
Example #252:

    A:     baa ni itta   kedo biiru o nomi wa sinakatta   n deshoo?
    bar to go:PST but beer OBJ drink    do:NEG:PST NOM COP:TNT
    '(You) went to a bar, but (you) didn't drink beer, did you?'
Example #253:

    B:       nonda      yo
    drink:PST FP
    '(I) drank.'
Example #254:

    A:       Hanako ni denwasite wa mita         n    deshoo?
    to call          see:PST NOM COP:TNT
    '(You) tried calling Hanako, didn't you?'
Example #255:

    B:       sita     yo
    do:PST FP
    '(I) did.'
Example #256:

    A:       sono mondai wa Hanako ni muzukasiku wa nakatta n                deshoo?
    the question                 for difficult        NEG:PST   NOM COP:TNT
    'The question wasn't difficult for Hanako, was it?'
Example #257:

    B:       kantandatta yo
    easy:PST      FP
    '(It) was easy.'
Example #258:

    a.       Taro wa kaigi     ni ikimasita ka
    meeting to go:PST      Q
    'Did Taro go to the meeting'
Example #259:

    a.       sono hon wa tomodachi kara moraimasita
    that book        friend    from receive:PST
    '(I) received the book from a friend.'
Example #260:

    a.       Tokyo de wa sushi o tabemasita
    in           OBJ eat:PST
    '(I) ate sushi in Tokyo.'
Example #261:

    a.       Hanako wa [Ken ga nihon ni iku koto] wa tomodachi kara kiite sitteita
    Japan to go NOM        friend      from hear knowing:PST
    'Hanako knew that Ken is going to Japan since (she) heard (it) from a friend.'
Example #262:

    a.       sonnani hayaku wa Toronto ni tsukenai
    that     fast                in arrive:POT:   NEG
    '(You) cannot arrive in Toronto that fast.'
Example #263:

    a.       kono hikooki de sonnani takaku wa tobenai
    this airplane by that      high         fly:POT:NEG
    '(You) cannot fly that high by this airplane.'
Example #264:

    a.       Ken wa kyonen sensee de wa nakatta n              deshoo?
    last-year teacher COP         NEG:PST   NOM COP:TNT
    'Ken was not a teacher last year, was he?'
Example #265:

    a.       baa ni itta    kedo biiru o nomi wa sinakatta          n deshoo?
    bar to go:PST but beer OBJ drink           do:NEG:PST NOM COP:TNT
    '(You) went to a bar, but (you) didn't drink beer, did you?'
Example #266:

    a.       sono mondai wa Hanako ni muzukasiku wa nakatta n               deshoo?
    the question                 for difficult        NEG:PST   NOM COP:TNT
    'The question wasn't difficult for Hanako, was it?'
Example #267:

    kekkyoku hutari      sika konakatta     tte
    after-all two-people only come:NEG:PST QT
    house, but (I heard) only two people came after all.'
Example #268:

    B:        hontoo? sono paatii ni dare wa kite   dare wa konakatta     no?
    really    that party to who    come who        come:NEG:PST FP
    'Really? Who came and who didn't come to the party?'
Example #269:

    A:     Sally ga amerikazin de Ken ga igirisuzin na no?
    American and          British NOM FP
    'Is Sally American and Ken British?'
Example #270:

    B:     ie Sally ga igirisuzin de Ken ga amerikazin desu
    no           British and          American COP
    'No, Sally is British and Ken is American.'
Example #271:

    Ken wa [dare ga nihon ni iku koto] o sitteta    no?
    who Japan to go NOM OBJ knowing FP
    'Who did Ken know that ___ was going to Japan?'
Example #272:

    Ken wa [dare ga katta] kuruma o untensita no?
    who buy:PST car         OBJ drive:PST FP
    'Who did Ken drive a car which ___ bought?'
Example #273:

    Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda toiu] uwasa o sinziteru no?
    who money OBJ steal:PST QT rumor OBJ believe FP
    'Who does Ken believe a rumor that ___ stole the money?'
Example #274:

    Hanako wa [dare ga kita      toki] neteita     no?
    who      come:PST when sleeping:PST FP
    'Who was Hanako sleeping when ___ came?'
Example #275:

    A:     dono kyoozyu ga suisensiteiru          hito   ga saiyoosare soo desu ka
    which prof.           recommending person       employ:PAS likely COP Q
    '(lit.) A person that which professor is recommending is likely to be employed?'
Example #276:

    B:     Suzuki kyoozyu ga suisensiteiru hito desu
    prof.       recommending person COP
    '(It) is the person that Prof. Suzuki is recommending.'
Example #277:

    A:        nani too              o sizisuru hito ga ichiban ooi desu ka
    which political-party OBJ support people     most many COP Q
    '(lit.) People who support which political party are most numerous?'
Example #278:

    B:        zimintoo o sizisiteiru hito           desu
    L-D Party OBJ supporting people COP
    '(It) is the people who support the Liberal-Democratic Party.'
Example #279:

    A:        dono koohosha o sizisuru gakusee ga ooi desu ka
    which candidate OBJ support student      many COP Q
    '(lit.) Students who support which candidate are numerous?'
Example #280:

    B:        Jeff Chang o      sizisuru gakusee desu
    OBJ support students COP
    (It) is the students who support Jeff Chang.'
Example #281:

    A:     dono chookyoosi ga kunrensita inu ga yuushoosimasita ka
    which trainer           train:PST dog       win:PST             Q
    '(lit.) A dog that which trainer trained won?'
Example #282:

    B:     Suzuki chookyoosi desu
    trainer    COP
    '(It) is Trainer Suzuki.'
Example #283:

    A:       Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda toiu] uwasa o sinziteru no?
    who money OBJ steal:PST QT rumor OBJ believe FP
    'Who does Ken believe the rumor that ___ stole the money?'
Example #284:

    B:     # Taro da yo
    COP FP
    '(It) is Taro.'
Example #285:

    A:       [kaigairyokoo de nani o nusumareta toiu] todoke ga ichiban ooi desu ka
    overseas-trip on what OBJ steal:PAS:PST QT report            most many COP Q
    '(lit.) Reports that what was stolen on the overseas trip are most numerous?'
Example #286:

    B:       saihu desu
    wallet COP
    '(It) is wallet.'
Example #287:

    A:     Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda tte] sinziteru no?
    who    money OBJ steal:PST QT believe FP
    '(lit.) Does Ken believe that who stole the money?'
Example #288:

    B:     Taro da yo
    COP FP
    '(It) is Taro.'
Example #289:

    A:     dono     kyoozyu ga suisensiteiru      hito     ga saiyoosare soo   desu ka
    which prof.           recommending person      employ:PAS likely COP Q
    '(lit.) A person that which professor is recommending is likely to be employed?'
Example #290:

    B:      # Suzuki kyoozyu ga suisensiteiru
    prof.       recommending
    '(It is the person that) Prof. Suzuki is recommending.'
Example #291:

    A:        Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda toiu] uwasa o sinziteru no?
    who money OBJ steal:PST QT rumor OBJ believe FP
    'Who does Ken believe the rumor that ___ stole the money?'
Example #292:

    B:      # Taro ga nusunda toiu
    steal:PST QT
    '(It is the rumor that) Taro stole.'
Example #293:

    A:        Ken wa [dare ga okane o nusunda tte] sinziteru no?
    who    money OBJ steal:PST QT believe FP
    '(lit.) Does Ken believe that who stole the money?'
Example #294:

    B:        Taro ga nusunda tte
    steal:PST QT
    '(Ken believes that) Taro stole.'
Example #295:

    a.        Hanako ga [Ken ga katta]   hon o karita       no?
    buy:PST book OBJ borrow:PST FP
    'Did Hanako borrowed the book which Ken bought?'
Example #296:

    a.       Ken ga [Taro ga okane o nusunda toiu] uwasa o sinziteru no?
    money OBJ steal:PST QT rumor OBJ believe FP
    'Does Ken believe the rumor that Taro stole the money?'
Example #297:

    a.       Ken ga [dare ga okane o nusunda tte] sinziteru no?
    who    money OBJ steal:PST QT believe FP
    '(lit.) Does Ken believe that who stole the money?'
Example #298:

    A:       Ken wa [dare ga iku nara] konsaato ni iku no?
    who    go if        concert to go QT
    '(lit.) Will Ken go to the concert if who goes (to the concert)?'
Example #299:

    B':   [Hanako ga iku nara] iku tte
    go if go QT
    '(I heard) if Hanako goes, (Ken) will go.'
Example #300:

    A:     Ken wa [dare ga ike ba] konsaato ni iku no?
    who    go if concert to go QT
    '(lit.) Will Ken go to the concert if who goes (to the concert)?'
Example #301:

    B':   [Hanako ga ike ba] iku tte
    go if go QT
    '(I heard) if Hanako goes, (Ken) will go.'
Example #302:

    A:     Ken wa [dare ga i ttara] konsaato ni iku no?
    who    go if concert to go QT
    '(lit.) Will Ken go to the concert if who goes (to the concert)?'
Example #303:

    B':   [Hanako ga i ttara] iku tte
    go if go QT
    '(I heard) if Hanako goes, (Ken) will go.'
Example #304:

    A:     Ken wa [dare ga kuru to] isshoni terebi o miru no?
    who    come if together TV OBJ watch FP
    '(lit.) Does Ken watch TV together if who comes?'
Example #305:

    B':   [Hanako ga kuru to] miru
    come if watch
    'If Hanako comes, (Ken) watches (TV together).'
Example #306:

    A:     Ken wa [dare ga iku kara/node] konsaato ni iku no?
    who    go because       concert to go QT
    '(lit.) Will Ken go to the concert because who goes (to the concert)?'
Example #307:

    B':   [Hanako ga iku kara/node] iku tte
    go because go QT
    '(I heard) because Hanako goes, (Ken) will go.'
Example #308:

    A:      Hanako wa [Ken ga kuru nara] konsaato ni ikanai tte?
    come if     concert to go:NEG QT
    'Is Hanako not going to the concert if Ken comes?'
Example #309:

    B:     ? iya Taro ga kuru nara
    no            come if
    'No, if Taro comes, (Hanako is not going to the concert).'
Example #310:

    A:      Hanako wa [Ken ga kure ba] konsaato ni ikanai tte?
    come if concert to go:NEG QT
    'Is Hanako not going to the concert if Ken comes?'
Example #311:

    B:     ? iya Taro ga kure ba
    no            come if
    'No, if Taro comes, (Hanako is not going to the concert).'
Example #312:

    A:      Hanako wa [Ken ga ki tara] konsaato ni ikanai tte?
    come if concert to go:NEG QT
    'Is Hanako not going to the concert if Ken comes?'
Example #313:

    B:     ? iya Taro ga ki     tara
    no            come if
    'No, if Taro comes, (Hanako is not going to the concert).'
Example #314:

    A:      Hanako wa [Ken ga kuru to] isshoni terebi o miru tte?
    come if together TV OBJ watch       QT
    'Does Hanako watch TV together if Ken comes?'
Example #315:

    B:     ? iya Taro ga kuru to
    no            come if
    'No, if Taro comes, (Hanako watches TV together).'
Example #316:

    A:       Hanako wa [Ken ga kuru kara/node] konsaato ni ikanai tte?
    come because       concert to go:NEG QT
    'Is Hanako not going to the concert because Ken will come?'
Example #317:

    B:       iya Taro ga kuru kara/node
    no           come because
    'No, (Hanako is not going to the concert) because Taro will come.'
Example #318:

    a.       Ken ga Hanako ni     sono hon o ageta
    DAT that book OBJ give:PST
    'Ken gave the book to Hanako.'
Example #319:

    a.       Ken wa Hanako ni     sono hon o ageta
    DAT that book OBJ give:PST
    'Ken gave the book to Hanako.'
Example #320:

    a.       sono hon wa Ken ga Hanako ni ageta
    that book                      DAT give:PST
    'Ken gave the book to Hanako.'
Example #321:

    Ken wa/ga [Hanako ga okane o Taro ni kasita node]
    money OBJ       DAT lend:PST because
    'Ken was surprised because Hanako lent money to Taro.'
Example #322:

    a.       kyoo wa [toshokan de hon o yonde] [hayaku uchi ni kaerinasai yo]
    today      library in book OBJ read        early home to return:IMP FP
    'Today, read books in the library and go home early.'
Example #323:

    a.       kinoo     wa [daigaku de kaigi       ga arimasita] ga [ikimasita ka]
    yesterday      university at meeting     exist:PST CONJ go:PST Q
    'Yesterday, there was a meeting at the university, and did you go (there)?'
Example #324:

    a.        Ken ga [benkyoo o sezu         ni]    [tesuto o uketa        yo]
    study OBJ do:NEG CMPL test           OBJ take:   PST FP
    'Ken took the test without studying.'
Example #325:

    a.        Ken wa [kaimono o si ni]           [Toronto ni ikanakatta yo]
    shopping OBJ do CMPL               to go:NEG:PST FP
    'Ken didn't go to Toronto to do the shopping.'
Example #326:

    a.        anata wa [pikunikku ni Ken o tsuretekite] ii           yo
    you       picnic     to     OBJ bring      be-permitted FP
    'You may bring Ken to the picnic.'
Example #327:

    a.       sono tokee ga [mada shuurisinaide] [aru yo]
    that clock        yet    repair:NEG    exist FP
    'That clock hasn't been repaired yet.'
Example #328:

    a.       Ken wa gaikoku         ni itte [simatta yo]
    foreign-country to go put:PST FP
    'Ken has gone to a foreign country, to my regret.'
Example #329:

    a.       Ken wa Hanako ni     sono hon o ageta
    DAT that book OBJ give:PST
    'Ken gave the book to Hanako.'
Example #330:

    a.       sono hon o ageta         n     da tte sensee ga Ken ni
    that book OBJ give:PST NOM COP QT teacher             DAT
    '(I heard) the teacher gave the book to Ken.'
Example #331:

    a. ? sono hon o ageta          n     da tte sensee wa Ken ni
    that book OBJ give:PST NOM COP QT teacher            DAT
    '(I heard) the teacher gave the book to Ken.'
Example #332:

    (35) * [kinoo ___ katta] kuruma o mita          yo Ken ga
    yesterday buy:PST car        OBJ see:PST FP
    '(I) saw the car which Ken bought yesterday.'
Example #333:

    (36) * [Ken ga kinoo      ___ katta     tteyuu] uwasa o kiita     yo kuruma o
    yesterday       buy:PST QT      rumor OBJ hear:PST FP car   OBJ
    '(I) heard the rumor that Ken bought a car yesterday.'
Example #334:

    a. ? ___ gakusee wa saiyoosare soo desu ka [Suzuki kyoozyu ga suisensiteiru]
    student     employ:PAS likely COP Q            prof.       recommending
    'Is the student whom Prof. Suzuki is recommending likely to be employed?'
Example #335:

    (40)   Ken wa sinziteru no? [Taro ga okane o nusunda tte]
    believe FP                money OBJ steal:PST QT
    'Does Ken believe that Taro stole the money?'
Example #336:

    (41) ? Ken wa ___ konsaato ni ikanai tte [Hanako ga iku nara]
    concert to go:NEG QT                 go if
    '(I heard) Ken won't go to the concert if Hanako goes.'
Example #337:

    (42) ? Ken wa ___ konsaato ni ikanai tte [Hanako ga ike ba]
    concert to go:NEG QT                 go if
    '(I heard) Ken won't go to the concert if Hanako goes.'
Example #338:

    (43) ? Ken wa ___ konsaato ni ikanai tte [Hanako ga i ttara]
    concert to go:NEG QT                go if
    '(I heard) Ken won't go to the concert if Hanako goes.'
Example #339:

    (44) ? Ken wa ___ benkyoo dekinai        tte [Hanako ga kuru to]
    study     do:POT:NEG QT              come if
    '(I heard) Ken cannot study if Hanako comes.'
Example #340:

    a. * kore wa [ ___ kinoo kabutteta] boosi da yo Ken ga
    this             yesterday wear:PST hat COP FP
    'This is the hat which Ken was wearing yesterday.'
Example #341:

    b.        kore wa [ ___ kinoo       kabutteta] no da yo Ken ga
    this             yesterday wear:PST NOM COP FP
    'This is the one which Ken was wearing yesterday.'
Example #342:

    a. * [Ken ga ___ ageta] hon o        yonda?     Hanako ni
    give:PST book OBJ read:PST           DAT
    'Did (you) read the book which Ken gave to Hanako?'
Example #343:

    b.     [Ken ga ___ ageta] no yonda? Hanako ni
    give:PST NOM read:PST          DAT
    'Did (you) read the one which Ken gave to Hanako?'
Example #344:

    a. ? [Ken ga ___ hon o       ageta    tteyuu] uwasa o sitteru?   Hanako ni
    book OBJ give:PST QT        rumor OBJ knowing        DAT
    'Do (you) know the rumor that Ken gave a book to Hanako?'
Example #345:

    b.     [Ken ga ___ hon o        ageta   tteyuu] no sitteru? Hanako ni
    book OBJ give:PST QT       NOM knowing        DAT
    'Do (you) know the one that Ken gave a book to Hanako?'
Example #346:

    a.        kore wa boosi da yo
    this       hat COP FP
    'This is a hat.'
Example #347:

    b.      * kore wa no da yo
    this       NOM COP FP
    'This is the one.'
Example #348:

    a.        hon o      yonda?
    book OBJ read:PST
    'Did (you) read the book?'
Example #349:

    b.      * no   yonda?
    NOM read:PST
    'Did (you) read the one?'
Example #350:

    a.        uwasa o sitteru?
    rumor OBJ knowing
    'Do (you) know the rumor?'
Example #351:

    a.     keesatsu wa [ginkoo ni haitta] gootoo o tsukamaeta n      da yo
    police       bank to enter:PST robber OBJ capture      NOM COP FP
    'The police captured the robber who entered the bank.'
Example #352:

    b.     keesatsu wa [gootoo ga ginkoo ni haitta]    no o tsukamaeta n     da yo
    police       robber      bank to enter:PST NOM OBJ capture:PST NOM COP FP
    'The police captured the robber who entered the bank.'
Example #353:

    a. * keesatsu wa [___ haitta]    gootoo o tsukamaeta n      da yo ginkoo ni
    police            enter:PST robber OBJ capture:PST NOM COP FP bank to
    'The police captured the robber who entered the bank.'
Example #354:

    a.        keesatsu wa gootoo o tsukamaeta n       da yo
    police       robber OBJ capture:PST NOM COP FP
    'The police captured the robber.'
Example #355:

    b.      * keesatsu wa no o tsukamaeta n da yo
    police        NOM OBJ capture:PST NON COP FP
    'The police captured (the robber).'
Example #356:

    A:        kore ga [Ken ga kinoo        moratta]    biiru na no?
    this               yesterday receive:PST beer NOM FP
    'Is this the beer which (someone) gave to Ken yesterday?'
Example #357:

    B:      * iya kore wa [___ kinoo     moratta]    wain da yo Ken ga
    no this          yesterday receive:PST wine COP FP
    'No, this is wine which (someone) gave to Ken yesterday.'
Example #358:

    A:     kore ga [Ken ga kinoo        moratta]    biiru na no?
    this               yesterday receive:PST beer NOM FP
    'Is this the beer which (someone) gave to Ken yesterday?'
Example #359:

    B:     iya kore wa [___ kinoo         katta] biiru da yo Ken ga
    no this              yesterday buy:PST beer COP FP
    'No, this is the beer which Ken bought yesterday.'
Example #360:

    A:       [Ken ga takarakuzi o ateta tteyuu] uwasa kiita?
    lottery    OBJ hit:PST QT     rumor hear:PST
    'Did (you) hear the rumor that Ken hit the lottery?'
Example #361:

    B:     * iya sore wa [___ takarakuzi o ateta tteyuu] demakase da yo Ken ga
    no that              lottery    OBJ hit:PST QT lie    COP FP
    'No, it is the lie that Ken hit the lottery.'
Example #362:

    A:       [Ken ga takarakuzi o ateta tteyuu] uwasa kiita?
    lottery    OBJ hit:PST QT     rumor hear:PST
    'Did (you) hear the rumor that Ken hit the lottery?'
Example #363:

    A:        Ken wa [Hanako ga kinoo        kuru tte] omotteta                   no?
    yesterday come QT thinking:PST           FP
    'Did Ken think that Hanako would come yesterday?'
Example #364:

    B:        iya Ken wa [___ ototoi            kuru tte] omotteta   n da yo Hanako ga
    no               day-before-yes. come QT thinking:PST NOM COP FP
    'No, Ken thought that Hanako would come the day before yesterday.'
Example #365:

    A:        Ken wa [Hanako ga kinoo        kuru tte] omotteta   no?
    yesterday come QT thinking:PST FP
    'Did Ken think that Hanako would come yesterday?'
Example #366:

    ga
    no              yesterday come QT misunderstanding:PST NOM COP                  FP
    'No, Ken wrongly understood that Hanako would come yesterday.'
Example #367:

    Joan ga setsumee site nattoku       nasaimasita
    explanation do compliance do:HON:PST
    'Joan explained, and (he) understood (it).'
Example #368:

    * Ken wa sono [dare ga katta] kuruma o untensita no?
    that who buy:PST car             drive:PST FP
    'Who did Ken drive the car which ___ bought?'
Example #369:

    zutto       kuruma o uranaide wa ita          keredo kyonen utte simatta
    long-time car       OBJ sell:NEG     be:PST but    last-year sell end-up:PST
    '(I) kept the car for a long time, but (I) ended up selling (it) last year.'