ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Nakamura, Wataru (1997). A Constraint-Based Typology of Case Systems - Chapter 1.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/nakamura/nakamurach.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-31).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1183&langcode=jpn (2018-01-20).

 

Example #1:

    1.       Taroo-ga       Hanako-o     naguri-hajime-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Hanako-ACC hit-begin-PAST
    'Taro began to hit Hanako'.
Example #2:

    2.       Taroo-ga      okasi-o        tabe-ta-daroo.
    Taro-NOM      cake-ACC       eat-PAST-probably
    'Taro might have eaten a cake'.
Example #3:

    3.       Taroo-ga        Hanako-ni             hanasi-owara-nakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM        Hanako-DAT            talk-finish-NEG-PAST
    'Taro did not finish talking to Hanako'.
Example #4:

    Kooen-de      Taroo-ga       arui-te-i-ta.
    park-INSTR Taro-NOM          walk-LINK-be-PAST
    'Taro was walking in the park'.
Example #5:

    (59) a.       Taroo-ga       Eigo-o         iti-jikan        benkyoo-si-ta.
    Taro-NOM       English        one-hour         study-do-PAST
    'Taro studied English for an hour'.
Example #6:

    b.      Taroo-ga       hon-o          iti-jikan        yon-da.
    Taro-NOM       book-ACC       one-hour         read-PAST
    'Taro read a book for an hour'.
Example #7:

    c.      Taroo-ga      TV-o           san-jikan         mi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      TV-ACC         three-hour        watch-PAST
    'Taro watched TV for three hours'.
Example #8:

    d.      Taroo-ga      biiru-o          iti-jikan       non-da.
    Taro-NOM      beer-ACC         one-hour        drink-PAST
    'Taro drank beer for an hour'.
Example #9:

    (86) a.       Warai-nagara,         John-ga          Tom-o           korosi-ta.
    smile-while           John-NOM         Tom-ACC         kill-PAST
    'While laughing, John killed Tom'.
Example #10:

    b.      Hasiri-nagara,        John-ga          tegami-o        yon-da.
    run-while             John-NOM         letter-ACC      read-PAST
    'While running, John read a letter'.
Example #11:

    c.      Warai-nagara,         John-ga          ana-ni          oti-ta.
    laugh-while           John-NOM hole-DAT                fall-PAST
    'While laughing, John fell into a hole'.
Example #12:

    eigo-ga                 hanas-e-nai.
    English-NOM             speak-can-NEG
    'Although born in Boston, Hanako cannot speak English'.
Example #13:

    (88) a.       Yamada-san-ga       hon-o               yuusoo-nasat-ta.
    Yamada-Mr.-NOM book-ACC                 mail-do:HON-PAST
    'Mr. Yamada mailed a book'.
Example #14:

    b.      Yamada-san-ga      watasi-no      kaisha-ni            irasshat-ta.
    Yamada-Mr.-NOM I-GEN              office-DAT           come.over-PAST
    'Mr. Yamada came over to MY office'.
Example #15:

    c.      Yamada-san-ni-wa          eigo-ga     o-wakari-da.
    Yamada-Mr.-DAT-TOP        English-NOM HON-understand-be
    'Mr. Yamada understands English'.
Example #16:

    oi/*j -nagur-are-ni-nat-ta.
    HON-hit-PASS-DAT-become-PAST
    'My. Yamada was hit by Mr. Tanaka'.
Example #17:

    (96) Taroo-ga      Hanako-o                  but-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-ACC                hit-PAST
    'Taro hit Hanako'.
Example #18:

    Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni/*o         kaimono-ni iku-yoo                    meireisi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT/ACC shopping-DAT go-CMPL                        order-PAST
    'Taro ordered Hanako to go shopping'.
Example #19:

    Taroo-ga      Hanako-*ni/o         kaimono-ni iku-yoo settokusi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT/ACC shopping-DAT go-CMPL persuade-PAST
    'Taro persuaded Hanako to go shopping'.
Example #20:

    (27) a.       Taroo-ga       sensei-ni                 choosensi-ta.
    Taro-NOM       teacher-DAT               defy-PAST
    'Taro defied the teacher'.
Example #21:

    b.      Sensei-ga     Taroo-ni                   choosens-are-ta.
    teacher-NOM Taro-DAT                     defy-PASS-PAST
    'The teacher was defied by Taro'.
Example #22:

    (28) a.       Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni                  yorikakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT                 lean.on-PAST
    'Taro leaned on Hanako'.
Example #23:

    b.      Hanako-ga           Taroo-ni             yorikakar-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          Taro-DAT             lean.on-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was leaned on by Taro'.
Example #24:

    b.   Ku      kongcang-i              pwul-i           na-ss-ta.
    the     factory-NOM             fire-NOM         break.out-PAST-DEC
    'The factory is such that fire broke out (in it)'.
Example #25:

    b.     Haksayng-i             ton-i                   philyoha-ta.
    student-NOM            money-NOM               need-DEC
    'Students need money'.
Example #26:

    (48) a.       Taroo-ga       Jiroo-ni        okasi-o                age-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Jiro-DAT        cake-ACC               give-PAST
    'Taro gave a cake to Jiro'.
Example #27:

    b.      Taroo-ga       Jiroo-ni      sono     uwasa-o         kii-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Jiro-DAT      that     rumor-ACC       hear-PAST
    'Taro heard that rumor from Jiro'.
Example #28:

    (51) a.       Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni             but-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Hanako-DAT            hit-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was hit by Hanako'.
Example #29:

    b.     Kadan-ni             tanpopo-ga            sai-tei-ta.
    flower.bed-DAT       dandelion-NOM         bloom-PROG-PAST
    'Dandelions were blooming in the flower bed'.
Example #30:

    c.     Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni      kuruma-o               kat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT car-ACC                    buy-PAST
    'Taro bought a car for Hanako'.
Example #31:

    d.     Taroo-ga       gan-ni        taore-ta.
    Taro-NOM       cancer-DAT    die-PAST
    'Taro died from cancer'.
Example #32:

    e.     Taroo-ga      kanemoti/binboo-ni             umare-ta.
    Taro-NOM      rich.man/poor-DAT              be.born-PAST
    'Taro was born rich/poor'.
Example #33:

    (27) a.      Taroo-ga       sensei-ni             choosensi-ta.
    Taro-NOM       teacher-DAT           defy-PAST
    'Taro defied the teacher'.
Example #34:

    b.     Sensei-ga     Taroo-ni               choosens-are-ta.
    teacher-NOM Taro-DAT                 defy-PASS-PAST
    'The teacher was defied by Taro'.
Example #35:

    (28) a.      Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni              yorikakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT             lean.on-PAST
    'Taro leaned on Hanako'.
Example #36:

    b.     Hanako-ga           Taroo-ni         yorikakar-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          Taro-DAT         lean.on-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was leaned on by Taro'.
Example #37:

    f.     Ja             scitaju                    Sasu         durakom.
    1SG:NOM        consider:PRES              Sasha:ACC    fool:INSTR
    'I consider Sasha a fool'.
Example #38:

    (134) a.      Taroo-ga        naihu-de               sakana-o                kit-ta.
    Taro-NOM        knife-INSTR            fish-ACC                cut-PAST
    'Taro cut the fish with a knife'.
Example #39:

    b.      Taroo-ga       nuno-de        tukue-o          oot-ta.
    Taro-NOM       cloth-INSTR desk-ACC            cover-PAST
    'Taro covered the desk with a cloth'.
Example #40:

    c.     Taroo-ga       mesi-o        yasai-to/*de                  maze-ta.
    Taro-NOM       rice-ACC      vegetable-COM/INSTR           mix-PAST
    'Taro mixed rice with vegetables'.
Example #41:

    d.     Taroo-ga       Hanako-to/*de                eiga-ni        dekake-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Hanako-COM/INSTR             movie-DAT      go.out-PAST
    'Taro went to the movie with Hanako'.
Example #42:

    e.     Taroo-ga      gakusha-de            at-ta.
    Taro-NOM      scholar-INSTR         exist-PAST
    'Taro was a scholar'.
Example #43:

    f.     Taroo-ga      Hanako-o      satujinhan-to/*de              minasi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-ACC murderer-QOT/INSTR                find-PAST
    'Taro found Hanako to be a murderer'.
Example #44:

    g.     Taroo-ga      sono koinu-o          Hanako-to/*de    nazuke-ta.
    Taro-NOM      that   puppy-ACC      Hanako-QOT/INSTR name-PAST
    'Taro named that puppy Hanako'.
Example #45:

    h.     Taroo-ga      hadaka-de             odot-ta.
    Taro-NOM      nude-INSTR            dance-PAST
    'Taro danced nude'.
Example #46:

    i.     Taroo-ga        sakana-o            nama-de        tabe-ta.
    Taro-NOM        fish-ACC            raw-INSTR      eat-PAST
    'Taro ate fish raw'.
Example #47:

    j.     Hanako-ga           isha-toshite/*de        hatarai-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          doctor-as/INSTR         work-PAST
    'Hanako worked as a doctor'.
Example #48:

    (150) Taroo-ga                hayaku         hashit-ta.
    Taro-NOM                fast           run-PAST
    'Taro ran fast'.
Example #49:

    (151) Hune-ga        oki-de              sizun-da.
    ship-NOM       off.the.coast-INSTR sink-PAST
    'The ship sank off the coast'.
Example #50:

    (152) Hanako-ga           Taroo-ni           ker-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          Taro-DAT           kick-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was kicked by Taro'.
Example #51:

    (153) Hanako-ga           Taroo-ni           sakaraw-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          Taro-DAT           disobey-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was disobeyed by Taro'.
Example #52:

    (154) Taroo-ga      Hanako-o                 ket-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-ACC               kick-PAST
    'Taro kicked Hanako'.
Example #53:

    (155) Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni                sakarat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT               disobey-PAST
    'Taro disobeyed Hanako'.
Example #54:

    (156) Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni      okasi-o           atae-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT cake-ACC              give-PAST
    'Taro gave cakes to Hanako'.
Example #55:

    (158) a.        Taroo-ni      eigo-ga               wakat-ta.
    Taro-DAT      English-NOM           understand-PAST
    'Taro understood English'.
Example #56:

    b.        Taroo-ni      musume-ga             i-ta.
    Taro-DAT      daughter-NOM          exist-PAST
    'Taro had a daughter'.
Example #57:

    c.        Taroo-ni      kane-ga                nakat-ta.
    Taro-DAT      money-NOM              lack-PAST
    'Taro lacked money'.
Example #58:

    (159) a.        Taroo-ga      eigo-ga                wakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      English-NOM            understand-PAST
    'Taro understood English'.
Example #59:

    b.        Taroo-ga      musume-ga              i-ta.
    Taro-NOM      daughter-NOM           exist-PAST
    'Taro had a daughter'.
Example #60:

    c.        Taroo-ga      kane-ga                nakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      money-NOM              lack-PAST
    'Taro lacked money'.
Example #61:

    (161)          a.      Okasi-ga             Hanako-ni                 ataer-are-ta.
    cake-NOM             Hanako-DAT                give-PASS-PAST
    'Cakes were given to Hanako'.
Example #62:

    b.      Hanako-ga           okasi-o                    ataer-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          cake-ACC                   give-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was given cakes'.
Example #63:

    (162)          a.      Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni     okasi-o                   okut-ta.
    Taro-NOM       Hanako-DAT cake-ACC                     send-PAST
    'Taro sent cakes to Hanako'.
Example #64:

    b.      Okasi-ga             Hanako-ni                 okur-are-ta.
    cake-NOM             Hanako-DAT                send-PASS-PAST
    'Cakes were sent to Hanako'.
Example #65:

    c.      Hanako-ga           okasi-o                    okur-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          cake-ACC                   send-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was sent cakes'.
Example #66:

    (163)            a.    Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni      okasi-o                 nage-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT cake-ACC                    throw-PAST
    'Taro threw cakes to Hanako'.
Example #67:

    b.    Okasi-ga             Hanako-ni                nager-are-ta.
    cake-NOM             Hanako-DAT               throw-PASS-PAST
    'Cakes were thrown to Hanako'.
Example #68:

    c.    Hanako-ga           okasi-o                   nager-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          cake-ACC                  throw-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was thrown cakes'.
Example #69:

    (164)            a.    Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni     okasi-o                  watashi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT cake-ACC                    hand-PAST
    'Taro handed cakes to Hanako'.
Example #70:

    b.    Okasi-ga             Hanako-ni                watas-are-ta.
    cake-NOM             Hanako-DAT               hand-PASS-PAST
    'Cakes were handed to Hanako'.
Example #71:

    c.    Hanako-ga           okasi-o                   watas-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM          cake-ACC                  hand-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was handed cakes'.
Example #72:

    (165)            a.    Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni    okasi-o                   simesi-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT cake-ACC                    show-PAST
    'Taro showed cakes to Hanako'.
Example #73:

    b.    Okasi-ga            Hanako-ni                 simes-are-ta.
    cake-NOM            Hanako-DAT                show-PASS-PAST
    'Cakes were shown to Hanako'.
Example #74:

    c.    Hanako-ga          okasi-o                    simes-are-ta.
    Hanako-NOM         cake-ACC                   show-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was shown cakes'.
Example #75:

    Taroo-ga             okasi-o                  ataer-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM             cake-ACC                 give-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was given cakes'. (Japanese)
Example #76:

    Hanako-ga            utukusii           odori-o         odot-ta.
    Hanako-NOM           beautiful          dance-ACC       dance-PAST
    'Hanako danced a beautiful dance'.
Example #77:

    Utukusii       odori-ga      Hanako-niyotte odor-are-ta.
    beautiful      dance-NOM Hanako-by.means.of dance-PASS-PAST
    'A beautiful dance was danced by Hanako'.
Example #78:

    Taroo-ga       jibun-wa       byooki-da-to             it/kii-ta.
    Taro-NOM       self-TOP       sick-be-CMPL             say/hear-PAST
    'Taro said/heard that he was sick'.
Example #79:

    Taroo-ga        jibun-wa       byooki-da-to                    wakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM        self-TOP       sick-be-CMPL                    realize-PAST
    'Taro realized that he was sick'.
Example #80:

    Taroo-ga        byooki/yoogisha-to                             wakat-ta.
    Taro-NOM        sick/suspect-CMPL                              turn.out-PAST
    'Taro turned out to be sick/a suspect'.
Example #81:

    Taroo-ga      yoogisha-ni/to/*yoogisha-da-to                   nat-ta.
    Taro-NOM      suspect-DAT/COM/suspect-be-CMPL                  become-PAST
    'Taro became a suspect'.
Example #82:

    Taroo-ga       kooen-de/*ni               ason-dei-ta.
    Taro-NOM       park-INSTR/DAT             play-PROG-PAST
    'Taro was playing in the park.
Example #83:

    Tarop-ga       kooen-ni/*de               i-ta.
    Taro-NOM       park-DAT/INSTR             stay-PAST
    'Taro stayed in the park'.
Example #84:

    Taroo-ga        wain-o          nom-e-ru.
    Taro-NOM        wine-ACC        drink-can-PRES
    'Taro can drink wine'.
Example #85:

    Taroo-ga     Hanako-o                 hasir/aruk-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM     Hanako-ACC               run/walk-CAUS-PAST
    'Taro made Hanako run/walk'.
Example #86:

    Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni               hasir/aruk-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM      Hanako-DAT              run/walk-CAUS-PAST
    'Taro let Hanako run/walk'.