ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Nakamura, Wataru (1997). A Constraint-Based Typology of Case Systems - Chapter 1.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/nakamura/nakamurach.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-31).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1183&langcode=kor (2019-07-21).

 

Example #1:

    (97) a.       John-i          sikthak-ey     sikthakpo-lul           tep-ess-ta.
    John-NOM table-DAT             table.cloth-ACC         cover-PAST-DEC
    'John put the table cloth on the table'.
Example #2:

    b.      John-i         sikthak-ul      sikthakpo-lo            tep-ess-ta.
    John-NOM table-ACC             table.cloth-with        cover-PAST-DEC
    'John covered the table with the table cloth'.
Example #3:

    Haksayngi -i           seyi -myeng chayk-ul                     ilk-ess-ta.
    student-NOM            three-CLASS book-ACC                     read-PAST-DEC
    'Three students read a book'.
Example #4:

    Haksayng-i             chayki -ul        seyi -kwen             ilk-ess-ta.
    student-NOM            book-ACC          three-CLASS            read-PAST-DEC
    'A students read three books'.
Example #5:

    Haksayngi -i           seyi -myeng               ttena-ss-ta.
    student-NOM            three-CLASS               leave-PAST-DEC
    'Three students left'.
Example #6:

    *Haksayngi -eykey      seyi -myeng                 ton-i          philyoha-ta.
    student-DAT           three-CLASS                 money          need-DEC
    'Three students need money'.
Example #7:

    *John-i         haksayngi -eykey seyi -myeng chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta.
    John-NOM student-DAT            three-CLASS book-ACC give-PAST-DEC
    'John gave a book to three students'.
Example #8:

    Taroo-ga       daigaku-ni                dekake-ta.
    Taro-NOM       college-DAT               go.out-PAST
    'Taro went to the college'.
Example #9:

    b.   Mary-ka        truck-ul        cim-ul           sil-ess-ta.
    Mary-NOM       truck-ACC       luggage-ACC      load-PAST-DEC
    'Mary loaded luggage on trucks'.
Example #10:

    b.   John-i          haksayng-ul            chayk-ul       cwu-ess-ta.
    John-NOM        student-ACC            book-ACC       give-PAST-DEC
    'John gave the books to students'.
Example #11:

    b.   John-i         haksayng-ul             pap-ul       mek-i-ess-ta.
    John-NOM       student-ACC             rice-ACC     eat-CAUS-PAST-DEC
    'John made students eat the rice'.
Example #12:

    cokum-ul       cal-lass-ta.
    bit-ACC        cut-PAST-DEC
    'I cut the octopus on the end part of the leg a bit'. (O'Grady 1991: 77)
Example #13:

    b.   Columbus-ka  sintaylywuk-ul    palkyen-ul    hay-ss-ta.
    Columbus-NOM new.continent-ACC discovery-ACC do-PAST-DEC
    'Columbus made the discovery of a new continent'.
Example #14:

    (37) a.   Ku      kongcang-ey              pwul-i       na-ss-ta.
    the     factory-DAT              fire-NOM     break.out-PAST-DEC
    'Fire broke out in the factory'.
Example #15:

    b.     Haksayng-i             chayk-i  cwu-e-ci-ess-ta.
    student-NOM            book-NOM give-INF-become-PAST-DEC
    'Students were given the books'.
Example #16:

    b.     Haksayng-i             pap-i            mek-i-ess-ta.
    student-NOM            rice-NOM         eat-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'Students were made to eat the rice'.
Example #17:

    cala-ci-ess-ta.
    cut-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'The octopus was cut on the end part of the leg a bit'.
Example #18:

    b.      Sintaylywuk-i     palkyen-i                    toy-ess-ta.
    new.continent-NOM discovery-NOM                become-PAST-DEC
    'A new continent was made the discovery of'.
Example #19:

    (53) a.       John-i        wuli chayk-ul           seypen-ul       ilk-ess-ta.
    John-NOM my          book-ACC         three.times-ACC read-PAST-DEC
    'John read my book three times'.
Example #20:

    b.      John-i         twupen-ul              oych-ess-ta.
    John-NOM two.times-ACC                yell-PAST-DEC
    'John yelled twice'.
Example #21:

    c.      John-i         chayk-ul      twusikan-ul              ilk-ess-ta.
    John-NOM book-ACC            two.hour-ACC             read-PAST-DEC
    `John read the book for two hours'.
Example #22:

    (91) a.          Nay-ka          ecey      chayk-ul       seys-ul   ilk-ess-ta.
    1SG-NOM         yesterday book-ACC       three-ACC read-PAST-DEC
    'I read three books'.
Example #23:

    b.     Haksayng-i             ecey           seys-i         ttena-ss-ta.
    student-NOM            yesterday      three-NOM      leave-PAST-DEC
    'Three students left yesterday'.
Example #24:

    c.     Nay-ka         chayk-ul       seys-i                 ilk-ess-ta.
    1SG-NOM        book-ACC       three-NOM              read-PAST-DEC
    'Three students read a book'.
Example #25:

    hay-ss-ta.
    do-PAST-DEC
    'I made three students leave'.
Example #26:

    chayk-ul       cwu-ess-ta.
    book-ACC       give-PAST-DEC
    'John gave three students books'.
Example #27:

    cwu-ess-ta.
    give-PAST-DEC
    'John gave students three books'.
Example #28:

    c.    *Nay-ka          haksayng-ul sey-myeng-i             po-ass-ta.
    1SG-NOM         student-ACC three-CLASS-NOM         see-PAST-DEC
    'I saw three students.
Example #29:

    d.    *Haksayng-i      sey-myeng-ul         nay-lul        po-ass-ta.
    student-NOM three-CLASS-ACC          1SG-ACC        see-PAST-DEC
    'Three students saw me'.
Example #30:

    macin-ta-ko             mit-ess-ta.
    drink-DEC-CMPL          believe-PAST-DEC
    'John believed that students drank wine a lot'.
Example #31:

    macin-ta-ko             mit-ess-ta.
    drink-DEC-CMPL          believe-PAST-DEC
    'John believed students to drink wine a lot'.
Example #32:

    macin-ta-ko               mit-e-ci-ess-ta.
    drink-DEC-CMPL            believe-INF-PAST-DEC
    'Students were believed to drink wine a lot'.
Example #33:

    cal             macin-ta-ko             mit-ess-ta.
    well            drink-DEC-CMPL          believe-PAST-DEC
    'John believed three students to drink wine a lot'.
Example #34:

    hay-ss-ta.
    do-PAST-DEC
    'I made three students leave'.
Example #35:

    (136) a.       John-i        yelsoy-lo      mwun-ul        yel-ess-ta.
    John-NOM key-INSTR door-ACC                 open-PAST-DEC
    'John opened a door with a key'.
Example #36:

    b.     John-i       sikthak-ul      sikthakpo-lo          tep-ess-ta.
    John-NOM table-ACC           tablecloth-INSTR      cover-PAST-DEC
    'Minswu covered the table with a tablecloth'.
Example #37:

    c.     John-i        chayso-lul       pap-wa/*ulo         sekk-ess-ta.
    John-NOM vegetable-ACC rice-COM/INSTR              mix-PAST-DEC
    'John mixed vegetable with rice'.
Example #38:

    d.     John-i         Mary-wa/*lo         san-ul ol-lass-ta.
    John-NOM Mary-COM/INSTR mountain-ACC climb-PAST-DEC
    'John climbed the mountain with Mary'.
Example #39:

    e.     John-i        uysa-ka/lo                    toy-ess-ta.
    John-NOM doctor-NOM/INSTR                   become-PAST-DEC
    'John became a doctor'.
Example #40:

    f.     Ku-ka          Yumi-lul      chencay-lo       yeki-ko-iss-ta.
    he-NOM         Yumi-ACC genius-INSTR consider-PROG-be-DEC
    'He considers Yumi a genius'. (Maling and Kim 1992: 55)
Example #41:

    g.     Yukwonca-ka ku-lul            taythonglyeng-ulo     ppop-ass-ta.
    voter-NOM he-ACC              president-INSTR       choose-PAST-DEC
    'The voters elected him president'. (Maling and Kim 1992: 55)
Example #42:

    h.     John-i        nude-lo                chwu-ess-ta.
    John-NOM nude-INSTR                  dance-PAST-DEC
    'John danced nude'.
Example #43:

    i.     John-i         mwune-lul             nalkes-ulo    mek-ess-ta.
    John-NOM octopus-ACC                 raw-INSTR     eat-PAST-DEC
    'John ate the octopus raw'.
Example #44:

    j.    John-i        uysa-lo                  ilhay-ss-ta.
    John-NOM doctor-INSTR                  work-PAST-DEC
    'John worked as a doctor'.
Example #45:

    (137) a.      Nay-ka        ai-lul          uysa-lo/lul      mantul-ess-ta.
    1SG-NOM       child-ACC       doctor-INSTR/ACC make-PAST-DEC
    'I made my child (as) a doctor'.
Example #46:

    b.    Inho-ka       ku ai-lul           chinkwu-lo/lul         sam-ass-ta.
    Inho-NOM      that child-ACC friend-INSTR/ACC            make-PAST-DEC
    'Inho made that child (as) a friend'.
Example #47:

    (138) a.      Ai-ka         uysa-lo/*ka     mantul-eci-ess-ta.
    child-NOM doctor-INSTR/NOM make-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'My child was made a doctor'.
Example #48:

    b.    Ku      ai-ka        chinkwu-lo/*ka sam-aci-ess-ta.
    that child-NOM friend-INSTR/NOM make-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'That child was made a friend'.
Example #49:

    Ku     pwun-i           cam-ul          ca-ss-ta.
    that one-NOM            sleep-ACC       sleep-PAST-DEC
    'He slept a sleep'.
Example #50:

    Ku     pwun-i        chwum-ul           chwu-ess-ta.
    that one-NOM         dance-ACC          dance-PAST-DEC
    'He danced a dance'.
Example #51:

    Ku     pwun-i         sei    sikan-tongan               chwu-ess-ta.
    that one-NOM          three hour-for                    dance-PAST-DEC
    'He danced for three hours'.
Example #52:

    (3)   a.      Chelswu-ka            twupen-ul                 oych-ess-ta.
    Chelsoo-NOM           two.times-ACC             yell-PAST-DEC
    'Chelsoo yelled twice'.
Example #53:

    b.      Uyca-ka              twupen-i/#ul      pwuse-ci-ess-ta.
    chair-NOM            two.times-NOM/ACC break-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'The chair was broken twice'.
Example #54:

    c.      Chelswu-ka           twupen-ul     chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta.
    Chelsoo-NOM          two.times-ACC book-ACC read-PAST-DEC
    'Chelsoo read the book two times'.
Example #55:

    d.      Chayk-i      twupen-i/#ul                       ilk-hi-ess-ta.
    book-NOM two.times-NOM/ACC                      read-PASS-PAST-DEC
    'The book was read twice'.
Example #56:

    senmul-ul      hay-ss-ta.
    gift-ACC       do-PAST-DEC
    'Cheli presented Mary with a ring twice'.2
Example #57:

    toy-ess-ta.
    become-PAST-DEC
    'Mary was presented a ring twice'.
Example #58:

    c.      John-i          haksayng-ulo             pap-ul        mek-i-ess-ta.
    John-NOM        student-INSTR            rice-ACC      eat-CAUS-PAST-DEC
    'John made students eat the rice'.