The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr. (1999). Generalized Semantic Roles and the Syntax-Semantics Interface.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/rrg/rrg/vanvalin_papers/gensemroles.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1193&langcode=bbc (2022-01-25).


Example #1:

    (8) a. Mang-ida si Ria si Torus.                                   Toba Batak
    ACT-see PNM       PNM
    `Torus sees Ria.'
Example #2:

    b. Di-ida si Torus si Ria.
    `Torus sees Ria.'
Example #3:

    c. Mang-ida si Torus si Ria
    `Ria sees Torus.'
Example #4:

    d. Di-ida si Ria si Torus.
    `Ria sees Torus.'
Example #5:

    (9) a. Mang-ida diri-na         si Torus.                        Toba Batak
    ACT-see self-3sgPOSS
    `Torus sees himself.'                              Actor binds undergoer
Example #6:

    b. *Di-ida diri-na           si Torus.
    UND-see self-3sgPOSS
    *`Himself sees Torus.'                             *Undergoer binds actor
Example #7:

    c. Di-ida si Torus diri-na.
    UND-see        self-3sgPOSS
    `Torus sees himself.'                                Actor binds undergoer