ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Baker, Mark & Osamuyimen T. Stewart (1999). On Double-Headedness and the Anatomy of the Clause.

URL: http://ling.rutgers.edu/people/faculty/baker/SVCarch-ss.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1212&langcode=bin (2018-01-21).

 

Example #1:

    (1) z gh d yn r.
    Ozo FUT buy yam eat
    `Ozo will buy yams and eat them.'
Example #2:

    (3) a. z gh gb w khin hnmwn rn. COVERT COORDINATION (CC)
    Ozo FUT hit goat sell head                  its
    `Ozo will kill the goat and sell its head.'
Example #3:

    b. z gh gb w khin.                                 CONSEQUENTIAL SVC (CSVC)
    Ozo FUT hit goat sell
    `Ozo will kill the goat and sell it.'
Example #4:

    c. z gh gb w w.                                    RESULTATIVE SVC (RSVC)
    Ozo FUT hit goat die
    `Ozo will strike the goat dead.'
Example #5:

    (5) z gh d m kp (pro).
    Ozo FUT buy drum play (it)
    `Ozo will buy a drum and play it.'
Example #6:

    (8) a. m r           z gi!gi     tu y       krb.
    water FOC Ozo quickly pour into bucket
    `It's water that Ozo quickly poured into the bucket.'
Example #7:

    b. m r z t-r            gi!gi tV y krb.
    water FOC Ozo pour-RV quickly              into bucket
    `It's water that Ozo has quickly poured into the bucket.'
Example #8:

    (9)      vbr r z l-(*r) khin(-*rn).                         CSVC
    food     FOC Ozo cook-RV sell(-RV)
    `It's food that Ozo has truly cooked and sold.'
Example #9:

    (10)     z gh/gh!/m/                  gb!-l w khin!-n hnmwn rn.
    Ozo FUT/PIMPF/PNEG/NPNEG kill-PL goat sell-PL head                 their
    `Ozo will/used to/didn't/won't kill goats and sell their heads.'
Example #10:

    (11)    z tbr gh gi!gi l          vbr.
    Ozo by.self FUT quickly cook food.
    `Ozo by himself will quickly cook the food.'
Example #11:

    (12)    z gh (gi!gi) tbr l        vbr.
    Ozo FUT quickly by.self cook food
    `Ozo will quickly cook the food by himself.'
Example #12:

    (13)    z minmin y tbr l         vbr.
    Ozo forgot      to by.self cook food
    Ozo forgot to cook the food by himself.
Example #13:

    (14) a. z gh tbr l       vbr rr r.
    Ozo FUT by.self cook food eat it
    `Ozo will cook the food by himself and eat it.'
Example #14:

    b. z l    z tbr rr r.
    Ozo cook rice by.self ate it
    `Ozo cooked rice and ate it by himself.'
Example #15:

    b. (?)mi!w r z d -- (*vb) l            yn.
    meat          FOC Ozo buy         and   cook yam
    `It's meat that Ozo bought and cooked some yams.'
Example #16:

    (17)     z gh d mi!w l.
    Ozo will buy meat        cook
    `Ozo will buy some meat and cook it.'
Example #17:

    (18)       a. z gh tbr l         vbr r.
    Ozo FUT by.self cook food eat
    `Ozo will by himself cook the food and eat it.'
Example #18:

    b. *z l       vbr tbr r.
    Ozo cooked food by.self ate
    `Ozo cooked some food and by himself ate it.'
Example #19:

    (22)    z d n!n b ti gb n!kr.
    Ozo buy the book read act that.is.first
    `Ozo bought the book (of plays) and read the first act.'
Example #20:

    (23)    z d n!n b ti.
    Ozo buy the book read
    `Ozo bought the book and read it.'
Example #21:

    (24)   a. z gh giegie (tobore) dunmwun yn.
    Ozo FUT quickly (by.self) pound         yams
    `Ozo will quickly pound yams (by himself).'
Example #22:

    b. *z gg gh dunmwun yn.
    Ozo quickly will pound       yams.
    `Ozo quickly will pound yams.'
Example #23:

    (26)   a. z gi!gi gb! vn        bl k
    Ozo quickly plant coconut peel corn
    `Ozo quickly planted the coconut and [he] peeled the corn.'
Example #24:

    b. z gi!gi gb! vn        gi!gi b!l k.
    Ozo quickly plant coconut quickly peel corn
    `Ozo quickly planted the coconut and [he] quickly peeled the corn.'
Example #25:

    (27)     a. z gi!gi dn!mwn m khin!-n
    Ozo quickly pound        yam sell-PL
    'Ozo quickly pounded the yams and sold them.'
Example #26:

    b. *z gi!gi dn!mwn m gi!gi khi!n-n
    Ozo quickly pound         yam quickly sell-PL
    'Ozo quickly pounded the yams and sold them.'
Example #27:

    (29)    a. z su y d.
    Ozo push Uyi fall.
    `Ozo pushed Uyi, causing him to fall.'
Example #28:

    b. kt kh hinmwn ldin.
    dog    chase bird         exit
    `The dog chased a bird away (causing it to leave).'
Example #29:

    (30)    a. * z su y s.
    Ozo push Uyi shout
    `Ozo pushed Uyi, causing him to shout.'
Example #30:

    b. * kt kh hinmwn tn.
    Dog     chase bird          fly
    `The dog chased a bird, causing it to fly.'
Example #31:

    (33)     y s w l           vn.
    Uyi push goat enter hole
    `Uyi pushed the goat into the hole.'
Example #32:

    (34)     vn r y s! w l               --.
    Hole FOC Uyi push goat enter --
    `It's a hole that Uyi pushed the goat into.'
Example #33:

    (36)   a.  gh gi!gi gu!gh kh.
    I FUT quickly break          pot.
    `I will quickly break the pot.'
Example #34:

    (39)   a. *y gb z rh!rh w.
    Uyi hit Ozo quickly die
    `Uyi beat Ozo so that he died quickly.'
Example #35:

    (40)     a. z l    vbr rh!rh r.
    Ozo cook food quickly eat
    `Ozo cooked the food and quickly ate it.'
Example #36:

    b. z vb khkh gn          gi!gi khin.
    Ozo pluck chicken feathers quickly sell
    `Ozo plucked the chicken of feathers and quickly sold them.'
Example #37:

    (44)     z dnmwn m            khin gg.
    Ozo pound      yam.pudding sell quickly.
    `Ozo pounded the yam pudding, and sold it quickly.'
Example #38:

    (45)     a. z ti y rr       gg.
    Ozo call Uyi come quickly
    (NOT: Ozo called Uyi so that Uyi came quickly.)
Example #39:

    b. z h kpn ff gg.
    Ozo wash dress fade quickly.
    (NOT: `Ozo washed the dress such that it faded quickly.')
Example #40:

    (47)     *z su   kh gg/ vb   w d.
    Ozo push pot quickly/ in house fall
    `Ozo pushed the pot quickly/in the house down.'
Example #41:

    (48)   -khin-mwn r z khin b.
    nom-sell-nom FOC Ozo sell book
    `It is selling that Ozo did to the book (he didn't give it as a gift).'
Example #42:

    b. -l-mwn         r z l         vbr khin.
    nom-cook-nom FOC Ozo cook food sell
    `It's cooking that Ozo did to the food and sold it.'
Example #43:

    b. ??-f-mwn       r  f         kh gu!gh.
    nom-throw-nom FOC he throw pot break
    `Its by throwing that he made the pot break (not by striking it).'
Example #44:

    (53)     z gugh kptn ki.
    Ozo break     box     open
    `Ozo broke the box open.'
Example #45:

    (54)     a. * wn kp k.
    I drink cup dry
    `I drank the cup dry.'
Example #46:

    b. *kt gb dsw rhi!rr
    dog    bark Adesuwa wake.up
    `The dog barked Adesuwa awake.'
Example #47:

    (i)       m n!n w (*gi!gi) gb .
    he take the       goat (quickly) kill
    `He killed the goat.'
Example #48:

    (55)   a. bl wrri (*gi!gi)ldin
    ball   roll quickly exit
    `The ball rolled (*quickly) out.'
Example #49:

    b. m d (*gi!gi)w.
    child fall quickly die
    `The child fell and (*quickly) died.'
Example #50:

    b. tswi d wk y (--) tbrk
    Otasowie buy dress wear          by.self
    `Otasowie bought the dress and wore it by itself.'
Example #51:

    (58)     a. *z kk dswk ms             (--) tbrk
    Ozo raise Adesuwa be.beautiful                   by.self
    `Ozo raised Adesuwa to be beautiful by herself.'
Example #52:

    b. *z s gk d (--) tbrk
    Ozo push bottle fall -- by.self
    `Ozo pushed the bottle down by itself.'
Example #53:

    (59)    a. y d       tbr.
    Uyi fall by.self
    `Uyi fell by himself.'
Example #54:

    b. dsw ms           tbr.
    Adesuwa be.beautiful by.self
    `Adesuwa is beautiful by herself.'
Example #55:

    (60)    z s rhn khrh d-l.                            RSVC
    Ozo push tree       few    fall-PL
    `Ozo pushed a few trees down.'
Example #56:

    (61)    z d b khhr t.                                 CSVC
    Ozo buy book little      read
    `Ozo bought a few books and read them.'
Example #57:

    (63)   Ama ato       aduani adi        [e] i                   (Saah 1992:234)
    Ama has.bought       food       has.eaten        pro
    `Ama has bought food and eaten it.'
Example #58:

    (65)   Kofi frE Yaw ba.         (Campbell 1996)
    Kofi calls Yaw come
    `Kofi calls Yaw to him.'
Example #59:

    (66)     vb khrh d      LGB t.
    People few     buy LGB read
    `Few people buy LGB (Lectures on Government and Binding) and read it.'
Example #60:

    (68)     a. z d      b    ti.
    Ozo buy book read
    `Ozo bought a book and (then) read it.'
Example #61:

    b. *z ti     b d.
    Ozo read book buy
    `Ozo read a book and (then) bought it.'
Example #62:

    (71)   a. z rhi kpni y kptn khin proi.                   PP in VP1
    Ozo put cloth into box           sell    pro
    `Ozo put some cloth into a box and sold it (the cloth).'
Example #63:

    b. z d khI rhi proI y kptn.                  PP in VP2
    Ozo buy pot put pro into box
    `Ozo bought a pot and put it in the box.'
Example #64:

    c. z vb-l khkh gni khin proi.                        IO in VP1
    Ozo pluck-PLchicken feathers sell pro.
    `Ozo plucked the chicken of feathers and sold them.'
Example #65:

    d. z min ghi (gi!gi) h y proi.                      IO in VP2
    Ozo find money (quickly) pay Uyi pro.
    `Ozo found some money and (quickly) payed Uyi it.'
Example #66:

    e. z vb khkh gni rhi proi n y.                        IO in VP1, PP in VP2
    Ozo pluck chicken feather give pro to Uyi.
    Ozo plucked the chicken of its feathers and gave them to Uyi.'
Example #67:

    b. kptn       r z d       khi rhi proi y         --
    box      FOC Ozo buy pot put pro into --
    `It's a box that Ozo bought a pot and put it in.'
Example #68:

    (73)   a. *z vb-l khkhi gn           khin proi.           Goal bad as antecedent
    Ozo pluck-PLchicken                 feathers     sell     pro.
    `Ozo plucked the chicken of feathers and sold it.'
Example #69:

    b. *z min yi h proi gh.                             Goal bad as pronominal.
    Ozo find Uyi pay pro money.
    `Ozo found Uyi and paid him money.'
Example #70:

    (74)   a. * z y    [m!tni prh] khin proi.          ECMed subject bad as antecedent.
    Ozo make metal        be.flat sell pro.
    `Ozo made some metal flat and sold it.'
Example #71:

    b. * z d m!tni y [proi prh].                           ECMed subject bad as pronominal.
    Ozo buy metal     make pro be.flat.
    `Ozo bought some metal and made it flat.'
Example #72:

    (75)     a. * kt (gi!gi) gb kh hinmwn.
    dog     (quickly) bark chase bird.
    `The dog (quickly) barked and chased a bird.'
Example #73:

    b. *kt kh hinmwn gb.
    Dog chase bird           bark
    `The dog chased a bird and barked.'
Example #74:

    (i)      ... *z gi!gi rh!l s!n.
    ... Ozo quickly run           jump
    `(To win the atheletic contest), Ozo quickly ran and jumped.'
Example #75:

    (ii)     ... *hinmwn gi!gi tn s.
    ... bird            quickly fly shout
    `(To protect her babies,) the bird quickly flew and shouted.'
Example #76:

    (76)   ts gh        d bi,  gh ti proi.
    Teacher COND buy book, I FUT read pro.
    `If the teacher buys a book, I will read it.'
Example #77:

    (79)     a. z m y b n.
    Ozo show Uyi book this
    `Ozo showed Uyi this book.'
Example #78:

    b. z h t gh.
    Ozo pay Ota money
    `Ozo paid Ota money.'
Example #79:

    b. z gugh y m!tn
    Ozo break Uyi metal
    `Ozo broke Uyi's metal on him.'
Example #80:

    (83)   a. *z rhi dsw b m.
    Ozo take Adesuwa book show
    `Ozo showed Adesuwa a (her) book.'
Example #81:

    b. *z gb y m!tn gugh.
    Ozo hit Uyi metal break.
    `Ozo beat Uyi's metal to pieces.'
Example #82:

    (84)   a. z h gh n y                                      goal PP
    Ozo pay money to Uyi
    `Ozo paid some money to Uyi.'
Example #83:

    b. z su b y kptn                                   goal PP
    Ozo push book into box
    `Ozo pushed a book into the box.'
Example #84:

    c. z gi dsw w.                                 bare locative NP
    Ozo send Adesuwa house
    `Ozo sent Adesuwa home.'
Example #85:

    d. z gugh kh gighgigh                 resultative AP
    Ozo break pot small-pieced
    `Ozo broke the pot into little pieces.'
Example #86:

    e. z f     kh fu.                         particle.
    Ozo throw pot away
    `Ozo threw a pot away.'
Example #87:

    (89)    a. z rhi (*y) bl y tk                              *IO+goal PP
    Ozo put Uyi       ball     into trash
    `Ozo put (Uyi's) ball in the trash (*on him).'
Example #88:

    b. z gi (*dsw)          m d.                  *IO+loc. NP
    Ozo send Adesuwa child (to)Benin
    `Ozo sent (Adesuwa's) child to Benin City (*on her).'
Example #89:

    c. z kk (*dsw)         m msms                *IO+resultative AP
    Ozo raise Adesuwa child beautiful
    `Ozo raised (Adesuwa's) child to be beautiful (*for her).'
Example #90:

    d. z f     (*y) bl fu                                 *IO+particle
    Ozo throw Uyi      ball away
    `Ozo threw (Uyi's) ball away (*on him).'
Example #91:

    (91)   z kk m msms/ ms.
    Ozo raise child beautiful(A)/ be.beautiful(V)
    `Ozo raised the child (to be) beautiful.'
Example #92:

    b. * z f     kh fu     gugh.                  *Prt + V2
    Ozo throw pot away break
    `Ozo threw the pot away so that it broke.'
Example #93:

    c. # z gi dsw k         kp                 *Loc NP + V2
    Ozo send Adesuwa (to)market leave
    `Ozo sent Adesuwa to the market away.'
Example #94:

    d. * z gb m!tn prh gugh.                    *Resultative AP + V2
    Ozo beat metal flat break
    `Ozo beat the metal flat to pieces.'
Example #95:

    (95)   * z gb y m!tn gugh.
    Ozo beat         Uyi             metal          break
    `Ozo beat the metal flat on/for Uyi.'