ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bingfu Lu (1998). Left-right asymmetries of word order variation.

URL: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ealc/chinling/articles/dis364.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1216&langcode=cmn (2018-04-24).

 

Example #1:

    (3) a. lai-le keren.
    came guest(s)
    `Here came some (unexpected) guest(s)'
Example #2:

    b.   keren lai-le
    guest came
    `the guest(s) came'
Example #3:

    b.      ta ( X ) yijing zhende likai-le
    he          already true         left
    `He has really left.' (not just hidden)
Example #4:

    c.      ta zhende yijing ( Y ) likai-le
    he true     already         left
    `It is true that he has left.'
Example #5:

    (3)    a.         zhe 3-ben lan de shu
    the 3-CL blue book
    `these three blue books'
Example #6:

    b.     zhe lan de 3-ben shu
    the blue 3-CL book
    `these three books which are blue'
Example #7:

    c.     lan de zhe 3-ben shu
    blue the 3-CL book
    `these three books which are blue'
Example #8:

    (i)      zhao-ben shu kan-kan
    find -CL book look-look
    `looking for a book to read'
Example #9:

    na 2-ben zui     youqu de gudian xiaoshuo
    that 2-CL most amusing de classical novel
    `those two most amusing classical novels'
Example #10:

    (8)     a.     gao fangzi
    tall house
    `tall house'
Example #11:

    c.      100 mi      gao * (de) fangzi
    100 meter tall         house
    `a 100-meter tall house'
Example #12:

    d.      bi   shan gao *(de) fangzi
    than hill tall       house
    `a house that is higher than a hill'
Example #13:

    (9)      hen man de kuai-che
    very slow       fast train
    `the express train that moves slowly'
Example #14:

    (10)     zhen de jia-hua
    true      false-flower
    `truly artificial flowers'
Example #15:

    (9) a. yishujia de yi-shuang shou
    artist        one-pair hand
    `the hands of the artist'
Example #16:

    (10)    a.      liang-bang pingguo
    two-pound apple
    `two pounds of apples'
Example #17:

    (11)    a.      na liang-bang pingguo
    that two-pound apple
    `those two pounds of apples'
Example #18:

    (12)    pingguo liang-bang, juzi     san-bang,   dou zai zhuozi shang
    apple   two-pound orange three-pound all locate table-on
    `Two pounds of apples and three pounds of oranges are on the table.'
Example #19:

    (15)    wo qu kan haizi-men
    I go visit child-Pl
    `I go to see *(the) children.'
Example #20:

    (16)    tamen shi hao pengyou(*men)
    they be good friend-Pl.
    `They are (*the) good friends.'
Example #21:

    (18)     a.       keren lai-le
    guest came
    `The guest(s) came.'
Example #22:

    b.       lai-le keren.
    came guest(s)
    `Here came some (unexpected) guest(s).'
Example #23:

    (26)     a.       hong de san-ben shu hen youqu
    red      three-CL book very interesting
    `the three red books are very interesting'
Example #24:

    b.       ? san-ben hong de shu hen youqu
    three-CL red          book very interesting
    `lit. three red books are very interesting'
Example #25:

    (27)     a.       * zhuozi-shang you hong de san-ben shu
    table-top      have red       3-CL        book
    `lit. there are the three red books on the table'
Example #26:

    (2)      na laoshi xie de liang-pian zuowen
    that teacher write two-CL composition
    `those two compositions written by teachers' (na modifies zuowenu)
Example #27:

    b.      na 2-ben Lisi de zhuanji /shu
    that 2-CL         biography/book
    `those two biographies/books of/by/belonging to Lisi'
Example #28:

    (6)     A jigou           de na-bi B jigou             de juankuan/jijin
    A organization that-CL B organization donation/fund
    `That donation/fund of A organization by/from B organization'
Example #29:

    (7)     3-ge Shangdi de xintu
    3-CL God          de believer
    `three believers in God'
Example #30:

    (8)     qunian de na-pi             gongyuan-qian 1000 nian de wenwu
    last year     that-batch B.C.                 1000 year      relic
    `last year's batch of historical relics of 1000 B.C.'
Example #31:

    (9)      zuotian     de na-zhang 5-yue 3-ri de baozhi
    yesterday     that-CL    May 3rd      newspaper
    lit. `yesterday's newspaper of May 3rd'
Example #32:

    (10) chaoji shichang-li na-pi Jia-zhou de tiancheng
    super market-Loc that-CL California sweet citrus
    `that batch of California sweet citrus in the supermarket'
Example #33:

    (11) a. zhe 2-ke zui gao de/ jiao            gao de/gao de/hen gao de/ gao-gao de songshu
    the 2-CL most tall        relatively tall    tall    /very tall       tall-tall     pine tree
    `these two tallest/tall/taller/very tall /pretty tall pine trees'
Example #34:

    b. zui gao de /jiao         gao de /gao de /?hen gao de/??gao-gao de zhe 2-ke songshu
    most tall de/relatively tall        tall    very tall          tall-tall   the 2-CL pine tree
    `these two pine trees which are the tallest/tall/taller/very tall/pretty tall'
Example #35:

    (12)     duan-duan de xiabai,          gao-gao de ken
    short            lower hem high               slit,
    `nice and short skirt, with nice and high slits'
Example #36:

    (13)     huai-huai de shi-le-ge zhuyi,          guyi         ba lian-shang nong-de zang-zang de
    bad           do-Perf-CL ruse, intentionly Ba face-surface make-De dirty
    `mischievously used a ruse and purposely made her face lovely and dirty'
Example #37:

    (14)     a.       wo xihuan zui-gao / gao de
    I like     most-tall tall
    `I like the tallest/tall (one)'
Example #38:

    b.       * wo xihuan hen gao/gao-gao de.
    I like       very tall/tall-tall
    `I like the very tall/rather tall (one)'
Example #39:

    (15)   hen gao de na 1-ke shengdan-shu
    very tall    that 1-CL Chritmas tree
    `that Christmas tree which is very tall'.
Example #40:

    (18)    a.      zhexie bu biyao       de langfei
    these not necessary     extravagancy
    `these extravagancies, which are not necessary'
Example #41:

    (19)    a.      ta zuotian de na 1-fen baozhi.
    he yesterday      that 1-CL newspaper
    `the newspaper that he mentioned/ looked for .....yesterday'
Example #42:

    b.      ta de zuotian de na 1-fen baozhi.
    he yesterday       that 1-CL newspaper
    `yesterday's newspaper of his'
Example #43:

    (20)     a.       zhuozi-shang (de) na 2-ben shu
    table-on              that 2-CL book
    `the two books on the table'
Example #44:

    b.       zai zhuozi-shang ?(de)na 2-ben shu
    in table-on         that 2-CL book
    `the two books that are on the table'
Example #45:

    zhe (ge) ren52
    this CL person
    `this person'
Example #46:

    (24)            na-ge      (*de) ren
    which-CL          person
    `which person'
Example #47:

    (25)            san-ge (*de) ren
    three-CL      person
    `three persons'
Example #48:

    (26)    a.      san-zhang (*de) zhi
    three-piece        paper
    `three pieces of paper'
Example #49:

    b.      san-da-zhang (de) zhi
    three-big-piece        paper
    `three big pieces of paper'
Example #50:

    (27)    a.     xuduo (*de) xuesheng lai-le
    many         student     came
    `many students came'
Example #51:

    b.     lai-le xuduo (de) xuesheng
    came many        student
    `there came numerous students'
Example #52:

    (28)    a      zui     gao (de) na-ge xuesheng
    most tall      that-CL student
    `the tallest student'
Example #53:

    b.     na-ge     zui gao *(de) xuesheng
    that-CL most tall          student
    `that tallest student'
Example #54:

    (33)     a.        zhe-ge zuijin        lai *(de) ren
    this-CL recently come            person
    `the person who recently came.'
Example #55:

    (i)       zui gao na-ke songshu
    most tall that-CL pine-tree
    `the tallest pine-tree'
Example #56:

    (10)    a.      zui gao de na liang-ke shu                 AD Q N
    most tall that two-CL tree
    `the tallest two trees'
Example #57:

    b.      na zui     gao de liang-ke shu               DAQ N
    that most tall     two-CL tree
    `the two trees that are the tallest'
Example #58:

    c.      na liang-ke zui gao de shu                  D QAN
    that two-CL most tall      tree
    `the two tallest trees'
Example #59:

    a.       song yi-pi        tushu gei ji-ge     xuexiao                Ind.     Ind.
    give one-batch book to some-CL school
    `to give one batch of books to several schools'
Example #60:

    b.       song yi-pi tushu gei zhe-ge xuexiao                          Ind.     Def.
    give one-batch book to some-CL school
    `to give one batch of books to this school'
Example #61:

    c.   song zhe-pi    tushu gei yi-ge xuexiao         Def.   Ind.
    give zhe-batch book to one-CL school
    `to give this batch of books to a school'
Example #62:

    d.   song zhe-pi    tushu gei na-ge xuexiao         Def.   Def.
    give this-batch book to taht-CL school
    `to give this batch of books to that school'
Example #63:

    a.   ? song ji-ge    xuexiao yi-pi      tushu       Ind.   Ind.
    give some-CL school one-batch book
    `to give some schools one batch of books'
Example #64:

    b.   * song ji-ge    xuexiao zhe-pi     tushu       Ind.   Def.
    give some-CL school this-batch book
    `to give some schools this batch of books'
Example #65:

    c.   song zhe-ge xuexiao yi-pi       tushu          Def.   Ind.
    give this-CL school one-batch book
    `to give this batch of books to one school'
Example #66:

    d.   ? song zhe-ge xuexiao na-pi       tushu        Def.   Def.
    give some-CL school one-batch book
    `to give this batch of books to that school'
Example #67:

    (24)    a.      Ta ba zhe-ge xuesheng zixidi          daliang-le yi-zhen.
    he ACC this-CL student carefully scrutinized one-period
    `He looked the student up and down for a while'.
Example #68:

    b.      Ta zixidi    ba     zhe-ge xuesheng daliang-le yi-zhen.
    he carefully ACC this-CL student scrutinized one-period
    `He looked the student up and down for a while'.