ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Legate, Julie Anne THE CONFIGURATIONAL STRUCTURE OF A NONCONFIGURATIONAL LANGUAGE

URL: http://www.ling.udel.edu/jlegate/lvyb.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-31).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1230&langcode=wbp (2020-08-10).

 

Example #1:

    a. Ngana-ngku kurdu nyanungu-nyangu paka-rnu?
    who-Erg      child 3-Poss            hit-Npst
    "Whoi hit hisi child?"
Example #2:

    b. Ngana ka         nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss              dog-Erg chase-Npst
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #3:

    a. Purlka-jarra-rlu ka-pala-nyanu             nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual-Erg PresImpf-3Dual-Reflex see-Npst
    "The two old men are looking at each other" (Simpson 1991:163)
Example #4:

    b. * Purlka-jarra ka-nyanu-palangu              nya-nyi
    old.man-Dual PresImpf-Reflex-3DualObj see-Npst
    Lit: Each other are looking at the old men.
Example #5:

    a. * Jakamarra-rlu ka-(nyanu)           nyanungu paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-(Reflex) 3           hit-Npst
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himi " (Simpson 1991:170)
Example #6:

    b. Japanangka-rlu-nyanu yirra-rnu mulukunpa nyanungu-wana
    Japanangka-Erg-Reflex put-Npst bottle        3-Perl
    "Japanangkai set the bottle down beside himi ." (Simpson 1991:171)
Example #7:

    a. Karnta ka-ju          wangka-mi [yarla karla-nja-karra]
    woman PresImpf-1sg speak-Nonpst [yam dig-Inf-SubjC]
    "The woman is speaking to me while digging yams"
Example #8:

    b. Purda-nya-nyi          ka-rna-ngku     [wangka-nja-kurra]
    aural-perceive-Nonpst PresImpf-1sg-2sg [speak-Inf-ObjC]
    "I hear you speaking" (Hale 1983:20)
Example #9:

    c. Wati-rla     jurnta-ya-nu karnta-ku [jarda-nguna-nja-rlarni]
    man-3sgDat away-go-Pst woman-Dat [sleep-lie-Inf-ObvC]
    "The man went away from the woman while she was sleeping" (Hale et al
Example #10:

    a. * Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu             nyanungu paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex 3             hit-Npst
    "Jakamarrai is hitting him(self)i "
Example #11:

    b. Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu            paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex hit-Npst
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himselfi "
Example #12:

    c. Japanangka-rlu-nyanu yirra-rnu mulukunpa nyanungu-wana
    Japanangka-Erg-Reflex put-Npst bottle        3-Perl
    "Japanangkai set the bottle down beside himi ." (Simpson 1991:170-171)
Example #13:

    (8)    a. Jakamarra-rlu ka-nyanu            paka-rni
    Jakamarra-Erg PresImpf-Reflex hit-Npst
    "Jakamarrai is hitting himselfi "
Example #14:

    b. * Jakamarra ka-nyanu            paka-rni
    Jakamarra PresImpf-Reflex hit-Npst
    "Hei is hitting Jakamarrai "
Example #15:

    (12)   Warnapari-rli ka-rla         kurdu-ku ngapurlu yi-nyi.
    dingo-Erg     PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat milk     give-Npst
    "The dingo gives milk to the little one."
Example #16:

    (13)   Ngajulu-rlu kapi-rna-ngku karli-patu           yi-nyi     nyuntu-ku
    I-Erg        FutC-1sgS-2sgO boomerang-pauc give-Npst you-Dat
    "I will give you (the) (several) boomerangs" (Hale et al 1995:1432)
Example #17:

    (14)     a. Karnta-ngku ka-ju           kurdu miliki-yirra-rni nguna-nja-kurra-(ku)
    woman-Erg PresImpf-1sgO child show-put-npst lie-Infin-ObjC-(Dat)
    "The woman is showing the child to me while I am lying down" (Simpson
Example #18:

    b. * Yu-ngu-rna-rla      kurdu parraja-rla     nguna-nja-kurra yali-ki
    give-pst-1sgS-3Dat child coolamon-Loc sleep-Infin-ObjC that-Dat
    "I gave the child which was sleeping in the coolamon to that one" (Simpson
Example #19:

    (16)   Yu-ngu-ju-lu       Jakamarra-kurra
    give-Pst-1sgO-3plS Jakamarra-All
    "They gave me to Jakamarra" (Laughren 1985)
Example #20:

    (17)   Yu-ngu-lu-nyanu yurrkunyu-kurra
    give-Pst-3pl-Reflex police-All
    "They gave themselves up to the police."
Example #21:

    (18)    a.   * Yu-ngu-lu-nyanu-rla yurrkunyu-ku.
    give-Pst-3pl-3Dat police-Dat
    "They gave themselves to the police"
Example #22:

    b.   * Yu-ngu-lu-rla nyanungu-rra yurrkunyu-ku.
    give-Pst-3pl 3-Pl          police-Dat
    "They gave themselves to the police." (Mary Laughren, pc)
Example #23:

    (19)    a. Ngarrka-ngku ka-rla          kurdu-ku japujapu kiji-rni
    man-Erg       PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat ball        throw-Npst
    "The man is throwing the child the ball"
Example #24:

    b. Ngarrka-ngku ka        japujapu kurdu-kurra kiji-rni
    man-Erg       PresImpf ball       child-All throw-Npst
    "The man is throwing the ball to the child" (Hale 1982:253)
Example #25:

    (20)    a. Purturlu kala-rla yilya-ja.
    backbone PstC-3Dat send-Pst
    "He sent her the backbone"
Example #26:

    b. Marnkurrpa-rna yilya-ja Yalijipiringi-kirra
    three-1sgS        send-Pst Alice.Springs-All
    "I sent three to Alice Springs"
Example #27:

    (21)   Karli      yinga-rla paka-rni jinta-kari-rli nyanungu-ku
    boomerang RelC-3Dat chop-Npst one-other-Erg 3-Dat
    "Because the other one will chop a boomerang for him"
Example #28:

    (22)    Ngarrka-ngku ka-ju-rla            ngaju-ku karli-ki       warri-rni
    man-Erg       PresImpf-1sgO-3Dat me-Dat boomerang-Dat seek-Npst
    "The man is looking for a boomerang for me" (Hale 1982:255)
Example #29:

    nguna-nja-kurra-ku
    lie-Infin-ObjC-Dat
    "The girl is cooking food for her mother who is lying down." (Simpson 1991:385)
Example #30:

    (24)    a. Karnta ka-rla      kurdu-ku parnka-mi
    woman PresImpf child-Dat run-Npst
    "The woman is running for the sake of the child"
Example #31:

    b. Nantuwu ka-rla            Japanangka-ku mata-jarri-mi
    horse    PresImpf-3Dat Japanangka-Dat tired-Inch-Npst
    "The horse is tiring on Japanangka" (Hale 1982:254)
Example #32:

    (25)     a. Nantuwu ka-rla            Japanangka-ku mata-jarri-mi
    horse    PresImpf-3Dat Japanangka-Dat tired-Inch-Npst
    "The horse is tiring on Japanangka"
Example #33:

    b. Ngarrka-ngku ka-rla            kurdu-ku karli     jarnti-rni
    man-Erg        PresImpf-3Dat child-Dat boomerang trim-Npst
    "The man is trimming the boomerang for the child"
Example #34:

    nguna-nja-kurra-ku
    lie-Infin-ObjC-Dat
    "The girl is cooking food for her mother who is lying down." (Simpson 1991:385)
Example #35:

    (38)   a. Karnta-ngku ka-ju        kurdu miliki-yirra-rni nguna-nja-kurra-(ku)
    woman-Erg PresImpf-1sgO child show-put-npst lie-Infin-ObjC-(Dat)
    "The woman is showing the child to me while I am lying down" (Simpson
Example #36:

    b.   * Yu-ngu-rna-rla      kurdu parraja-rla     nguna-nja-kurra yali-ki
    give-pst-1sgS-3Dat child coolamon-Loc sleep-Infin-ObjC that-Dat
    "I gave the child which was sleeping in the coolamon to that one" (Simpson
Example #37:

    (39)     a. Kari ka-lu           wangka-mi
    fact PresImpf-3pl speak-Npst
    "I can see/hear that they are speaking." (Laughren, to appear:28)
Example #38:

    b. Kula-nganta kaji-npa        nyuntu pantu-rnu
    CF             NfactC-2sg you      spear-Pst
    "I thought (wrongly) that you must have speared it." (Laughren, to appear:
Example #39:

    nyanungu-yijala-lpa nyangu
    3-also-PstImpf      poss
    exact same fellow that he saw." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #40:

    b. Walyka-lku ka          ngurrju wangka-mi-rni payi-lki
    cold-now PresImpf good blow-Npst-hither wind-now
    "a nice cool breeze is now blowing my way"
Example #41:

    (41)   a. Yarla-lku kala-lu jaala-karla-ja           wini-wini         karlarra-purda.
    yams-then PstC-3pl back.and.forth-dig-Pst burnt.off.country west-towards
    yams."
Example #42:

    (42)   warlu-lku     ka-rnalu          wiri-wiri yirra-rni
    firewood-then PresImpf-1plExcl big-big place-Npst
    "then we put down big pieces of fire-wood" (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #43:

    b. Kari ka          ngurrju-lku nyina nyurnu-jangka-ju.
    fact PresImpf good-now be.Npst sick-after-Top
    I see that he's well now after being sick. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #44:

    (44)   a. Nyarrpara-rna yani-rra? Wurnturu-juku marda kapu-rna pi-nyi.
    where-1sg      go-thither far-continue perhaps FutC-1sg kill-Npst
    "Where will I go? If I go really far perhaps I will kill (some)."
Example #45:

    nyina-nja-ku-rlangu.
    be-Infin-PurpC-for.example
    "Maybe he can sink a bore for Aboriginal people to live from."
Example #46:

    c. Nyuntu-ku marda kapu-ngku turaki-ji yi-nyi.
    you-Dat perhaps FutC-2sgO car-Top give
    "To you perhaps he will give the car." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #47:

    yarnka-ja-rni.
    leave-Past-hither
    (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #48:

    (47)    a. Ngayi-lpa-rnalu       pina-rra      ya-nu munga-ngka.
    only-PstImpf-1plExcl again-thither go-Pst night-Loc
    "We were just going back again at night."
Example #49:

    kaji-ngalpa-rla          rurruny-ya-ni.
    NFactC-1plInclObj-Dat off-go-Npst
    Then, if the decorations come off, we'll tie them on us again. (Warlpiri Dictio-
Example #50:

    kilji    ngurra nyanungu-nyangu-kurra
    quickly home 3-Poss-All
    "Yaruju is like when a person goes along rapidly and quickly to his place"
Example #51:

    c. Ngaju-ju-rna nyurru yarrpu-rnu.
    I-Top-1sg already set.kindling.for.a.fire-Pst
    "I have already set the kindling in place." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #52:

    (49)   a. Jangala ya-nu kapanku nyurru ngurra        nyanungu-nyangu-kurra
    Jangala go-Pst quickly already home        3-Poss-All
    "Jangala has already gone quickly to his   place"
Example #53:

    b. Jangala ya-nu nyurru kapanku ngurra        nyanungu-nyangu-kurra
    Jangala go-Pst already quickly home        3-Poss-All
    "Jangala has already gone quickly to his   place"
Example #54:

    (52)   a. Nyiya ngapa-ngka nyampirl-wanti-ja?
    what water-Loc splash-fall?
    "What fell with a splash into the water?"
Example #55:

    b. Kurdu marda ngapakurra wantija.
    child perhaps water-Loc fall-Pst
    "The child probably fell into the water." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #56:

    (53)   Pikirri-ji-npa        nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc       forget-cause-Pst-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren, to ap-
Example #57:

    (55)   a. Ngana-patu ka-lu         wangka-mi?
    who-Pl      PresImpf-3pl speak-Npst
    "Which ones are speaking?"
Example #58:

    b. Yurntumu-wardingki-patu ka-lu           wangka-mi
    Yuendumu-habitant-Pl       PresImpf-3pl speak-Npst
    "Yuendumu people are speaking"
Example #59:

    c. Nyarrpa-jarri-mi ka-lu     Yurntumu-wardingki-patu?
    how-Inch-Npst PresImpf Yuendumu-habitant-Pl
    "What are the Yuendumu people doing?"
Example #60:

    d. Wangka-mi ka-lu         Yurntumu-wardingki-patu
    speak-Npst PresImpf-3pl Yuendumu-habitant-Pl
    "The Yuendumu people are speaking" (Laughren to appear)
Example #61:

    Ya-nu-pala nyarrpara-kurra kurdu-jarra?
    go-Pst-Dual where-to       child-Dual
    "Where did the children GO?"
Example #62:

    Jangala
    Jangala
    "Who did Jakamarra tell you with that Jangala went hunting?" (Granites et al 197
Example #63:

    Jampijinpa ya-nu]?
    Jampijinpa go-Pst]
    "Where did Jakamarra tell you Jampijinpa went?"
Example #64:

    Maliki-rli-ji  yarlku-rnu wiri-ngki
    dog-Erg-1sgObj bite-Pst big-Erg
    "A big dog bit me." (Hale et al 1995:1434)
Example #65:

    (62)   a. Wati-ngki-nyanu     jurnarrpa ma-nu,      [wurna ya-ninja-kungarnti-rli].
    man-ERG-REFLEX belongings get-PAST, [travel go-INFIN-PREPC-ERG]
    "The man picked up his things before going on a trip." (Hale et al. 1995:1443)
Example #66:

    (63)   a. Karnta-ngku warlu yarrpu-rnu [kuyu purra-nja-kungarnti].
    woman-ERG fire light-PAST [meat cook-INFIN-PREPC]
    "The woman lit the fire in order to cook meat."
Example #67:

    (64)   Ngana ka        nyanungu-nyangu maliki-rli wajili-pi-nyi?
    who PresImpf he-Poss              dog-Erg chase-Npst
    "Whoi is hisi dog chasing?" (Hale et al 1995:1447)
Example #68:

    paju-rnu?
    bite-PAST
    "Who did you see that his dog was biting him?" (Mary Laughren, pc)
Example #69:

    (69)     a. Jakamarra-rlu ka             wajirli-pi-nyi maliki nyanungu-nyangu
    Jakamarra-ERG PRESIMPF chase-NPAST dog 3-POSS
    "Jakamarrai is chasing hisi dog."
Example #70:

    b. Nyanungu-nyangu ka            wajirli-pi-nyi maliki Jakamarra-rlu
    3-POSS             PRESIMP chase-NPAST dog Jakamarra-ERG
    "Jakamarrai is chasing hisi dog." (Simpson 1991:180)
Example #71:

    (70)   Pikirri-ji-npa       nyarrparla-rla warungka-ma-nu-rnu?
    spearthrower-Top-2sg where-Loc forget-cause-Pst-hither
    "Where did you forget the spearthrower on your way here?" (Laughren, to ap-
Example #72:

    (71)   Wawirri, ngula ka          nyina walya-ngka-jala.
    kangaroo, that PresImpf be.Npst ground-Loc-actually
    The kangaroo, it lives on the ground. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #73:

    jaalypa-nyayirni.
    whisper-really
    "Jaalypa is like when one speaks in a low voice, very low."
Example #74:

    kuja-ka-lu          wangka-mi.
    FactC-PresImpf-3pl speak-Npst
    voice when they are plotting  when they speak softly." (Warlpiri Dictionary
Example #75:

    (78)    Yankirri, kula-nganta ngula-ju kaji-npa   nyuntu pantu-rnu
    emu,      CF          that-Top NfactC-2sg you    spear-Pst
    "As for the emu, I thought wrongly that you must have speared it."
Example #76:

    (79)   Nyuntu-ku marda kapu-ngku turaki-ji yi-nyi.
    you-Dat perhaps FutC-2sgO car-Top give
    "To you perhaps he will give the car." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)
Example #77:

    (80)   Ngaju-ju-rna nyurru yarrpu-rnu.
    I-Top-1sg already set.kindling.for.a.fire-Pst
    "I have already set the kindling in place." (Warlpiri Dictionary Project 1993)