The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bickel, Balthasar (1999). Grammatical relations, agreement, and genetic stability.

URL: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~bickel/research/papers/gr_agr_stab.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-05-31).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1234&langcode=byw (2020-08-13).


Example #1:

    (1)   a.   mai    khiu--na                 misen niu-t-u-ga           i?
    human [3SG.S-]quarrel-NPT-ART     know-NPT-3[SG]O-2[SG.A] Q
    `Do you know the person who is quarreling?'
Example #2:

    b. ka asen     pepar in-u--na                mann-har-e.
    1SG    yesterday cigarette buy-3[SG]O-1SG.A-ART   [3SG.S-]finish-TEL-PT
    `The cigarettes that I bought yesterday are used up.'
Example #3:

    c.   tombhira-a wa        sei-s-u-na                     chitt-he-m.
    lynx-ERG      chicken [3SG.A-]kill-TR.PERF-3[SG]O-ART find-PT[3SG.O]-1PL.A
    `We found the chicken that the lynx had killed.'
Example #4:

    (2)   a.   han ia       lim-yu                     i?    (*lim-ka)
    2[SG] beer    [3SG.S-]be.delicious-NPT Q        be.delicious-NPT:2SG.S
    `Do you like the beer?' (literally, `is the beer delicious to you?')
Example #5:

    b. han-na tombhira kii-t-u-ga                      i?
    2[SG]-ERG lynx         fear-NPT-3[SG]O-2[SG.A] Q
    `Are you afraid of the lynx?'
Example #6:

    b. ia ka-lim-ba                  mai      he-na       ca~"?
    beer ACT.P-be.delicious-M    person which-ART      TOP
    `Which one is the man who likes [the beer]?'
Example #7:

    (4)   a.   *ka-lim-ba                      ia
    ACT.P-be(come).delicious-M     beer
    `delicious beer'
Example #8:

    b. *ka-ten-ba     dhol
    ACT.P-beat-M drum
    `the drum that [one] beats'
Example #9:

    c.   asenle ka-pikga-ba          mai
    lately   ACT.P-fall.down-M    person
    `the man who fell down lately'
Example #10:

    d. tombhira ka-kit-pa      mai
    lynx         ACT.P-fear-M    person
    `the man who is afraid of the lynx'
Example #11:

    b. ka hakli~ua lus-e.
    1SG sweat         [3SG.S-]feel-PT
    `I was/got hot' or `I felt/got sweaty.'
Example #12:

    (6)        [(hani(*-na)) (un-na)          lu-ma] nui-kai.
    2[SG](-ERG) 3[SG]-ERG tell-INF          may-NPT:2SG.S
    `You may be told.'
Example #13:

    (11) a.   a-tla      mi thil
    3SG.S-fall:1 NZR clothes
    `the clothes that fell down'
Example #14:

    b. thil a-bat                       mi law thlaw pa
    clothes 3SG.A[-3SG.O]-hang.up:1 NZR farmer           M
    `the farmer who hung up the clothes'
Example #15:

    b. a-lu          ka-rok       mi law thlaw pa
    3SG.POSS-heart 1SG.S-break:1 NZR farmer         M
    `the farmer who is disappointed with me'
Example #16:

    b. a-ka-thay          mi lawthlaw pa
    3SG.A-1SG.O-know:1 NZR farmer         M
    `the farmer who knows me'
Example #17:

    (17) a.     ka hale ekchumma hani-ni~ua                   ka-tiu-s-ik-kha.
    1SG before sash             2PL.POSS-mind 1SG.O-spend-TR.PERF-2[PL.A]-PERF
    `Before, you liked me for my sash.'
Example #18:

    b. sati     khar-e-iga?
    who(SG) go-PT-2PL
    `Who of you went?'