The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Paul Kiparsky (1998). Partitive Case and Aspect.

URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~kiparsky/Papers/wuppertal.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1238&langcode=fin (2018-10-23).


Example #1:

    (1)        a. Ammu-i-n karhu-a / kah-ta karhu-a / karhu-j-a
    shoot-Pst-1Sg bear-Part / two-Part bear-Part / bear-Pl-Part
    `I shot at the (a) bear / at (the) two bears / at (the) bears'
Example #2:

    b. Ammu-i-n karhu-n / kaksi karhu-a / karhu-t
    shoot­Pst-1Sg bear-Acc / two-Acc bear-Part / bear-PlAcc
    `I shot the (a) bear / two bears / the bears'
Example #3:

    (2)       a. saa-n #karhu-a / #kah-ta karhu-a / karhu-j-a
    get-1Sg bear-Part / two-Part bear-Part / bear-Pl-Part
    `I'll get the (a) bear / (the) two bears / bears'
Example #4:

    b. saa-n karhu-n / kaksi karhu-a / karhu-t
    get-1Sg bear-Acc / two-Acc bear-Part / bear-PlAcc
    `I'll get the (a) bear / two bears / the bears'
Example #5:

    (3)       a. etsi-n karhu-a / kah-ta karhu-a / karhu-j-a
    seek-1Sg bear-Part / two-Part bear-Part / bear-Pl-Part
    `I'm looking for the (a) bear / (the) two bears / (the) bears'
Example #6:

    b. etsi-n #karhu-n / #kaksi karhu-a / #karhu-t
    seek-1Sg bear-Acc     / two-Acc bear-Part / bear-PlAcc
    `I'm looking for the (a) bear / two bears / the bears'
Example #7:

    (4)        a. omista-n #karhu-a / #kah-ta karhu-a / karhu-j-a
    own-1Sg     bear-Part / two-Part bear-Part / bear-Pl-Part
    `I own the (a) bear / (the) two bears / bears'
Example #8:

    b. omista-n karhu-n / kaksi karhu-a / karhu-t
    own-1Sg     bear-Acc / two-Acc bear-Part / bear-PlAcc
    `I own the (a) bear / two bears / the bears'
Example #9:

    (8)       a. Anu-lla on           loistava-t     oppilaa-t
    Anu-Adess be-3Sg brilliant-PlAcc student-PlAcc
    `Anu has brilliant students'
Example #10:

    b. Anu-lla on           loistav-i-a     oppila-i-ta
    Anu-Adess be-3Sg brilliant-PlPart student-PlPart
    `Anu has (some) brilliant students'
Example #11:

    (12) Matti ampu-u usein Lapi-ssa          hauliko-lla karhu-j-a
    Matti shoot-3Sg often Lapland-Iness shotgun-Adess bear-Pl-Part
    `Matti often shoots (at) (the) bears with a shotgun in Lapland.'
Example #12:

    (13) Ost-i-n     lehde-n          ja kirjo-j-a.
    buy-Pst-1Sg newspaper-SgAcc and book-Pl-Part
    `I bought the/a newspaper and books'
Example #13:

    (14)         a. Matti koskett-i kirja-a
    Matti touch-Pst3Sg book-Part
    `Matti touched the/a book.'
Example #14:

    b. *Matti koskett-i.
    Matti     touch-Pst3Sg
    `Matti touched.'
Example #15:

    (16)         a. Ve-i-n         vieraa-n      huonee-see-nsa.
    bring-Pst-1Sg guest-SgAcci room-Illat-3Sgi
    `I brought the guest into his/her room.'
Example #16:

    b. Ve-i-n         viera-i-ta     huone-i-sii-nsa.
    bring-Pst-1Sg guest-Pl-Parti room-Pl-Illat-3Pli
    `I brought guests into their rooms.'
Example #17:

    (21)     a. Matti        ost-i      maito-a       (tunni-n)
    Matti-SgNom buy-Pst3Sg milk-SgPart (hour-Acc)
    `Matti bought milk (for an hour)'
Example #18:

    b. Matti        ost-i      maido-n (tunni-ssa)
    Matti-SgNom buy-Pst3Sg milk-SgAcc (hour-Iness)
    `Matti bought the milk (in an hour)'
Example #19:

    c. Matti        luk-i       kirjo-j-a        (tunni-n)
    Matti-SgNom read-Pst3Sg book-Pl-Part (hour-Acc)
    `Matti read books (for an hour)'
Example #20:

    d. Matti        luk-i       kirja-t          (tunni-ssa)
    Matti-SgNom read-Pst3Sg book-Pl-Part (hour-Iness)
    `Matti read the books (in an hour)'
Example #21:

    e. Anu suutel-i Esa-a / #Esa-n (tunni-n / #tunni-ssa)
    Anu kiss-Pst3Sg Esa-Part / #Esa-Acc (hour-Acc / hour-Iness)
    `Anu kissed Esa (for an hour / #in an hour)'
Example #22:

    (27)    a. Muoti lyhensi             hameenhelma-a
    fashion shorten-Past3Sg hemline-Part
    `Fashion shortened the hemline.' [made it shorter]
Example #23:

    b. Muoti lyhensi       hameenhelma-n
    Fashion shorten-Past3Sg hemline-Acc
    [made it short]
Example #24:

    (29)      a. Matti lainas-i           kello-a
    Matti borrow-Past3Sg watch-Part
    `Matti borrowed a watch.' [temporarily]
Example #25:

    b. Matti lainas-i           kello-n
    Matti borrow-Past3Sg watch-Acc
    `Matti borrowed a watch.'
Example #26:

    b. Omista-t talo-j-a.
    Own-2Sg house-Pl-Part.
    `You own houses.'
Example #27:

    (44)     a. Matti koett-i        tappa-a karhu-n
    Matti try-Pst-3Sg kill-Inf   bear-SgAcc
    `Matti tried to kill a/the bear'
Example #28:

    b. Matti koett-i        tappa-a karhu-a
    Matti try-Pst-3Sg kill-Inf   bear-SgPart
    `Matti tried to kill a/the bear'
Example #29:

    (45)     a. Matti          e-i     myy-nyt talo-a         (#talo-n).
    Matti-SgNom not-3Sg sell-PstPart house-SgPart (house-SgAcc)
    `Matti didn't sell the/a house'
Example #30:

    b. Matti               odott-i       #tunti-a      (tunni-n)
    Matti-SgNom wait-Pst-3Sg hour-SgPart (hour-SgAcc)
    `Matti waited an hour'
Example #31:

    c. Matti               e-i       odotta-nut tunti-a        (tunni-n)
    Matti-SgNom not-3Sg wait-PstPrtc hour-SgPart (hour-SgAcc)
    `Matti didn't wait an hour'
Example #32:

    `Aki got Jari to force Sake read the book (through).'
Example #33:

    kirja-a (loppu-un)
    book-Part (end-Ill)
    `Aki didn't get Jari to force Sake to read the book (through).'
Example #34:

    (48) Taitamaton koripalloilija pudott-i                jatkuvasti pallo-a.
    unskilled     basketball player drop-Past3Sg continually ball-Part
    `The unskilled basketball player kept dropping the ball.'
Example #35:

    (49)      a. Tapo-i-n juuri karhu-a.
    kill-Pst1Sg just   bear-Part
    `I was just killing the bear.'
Example #36:

    b. Matti ost-i         (juuri) auto-a,          (kun. . . )
    Matti buy-Pst3Sg (just)        car-SgPart, (when. . . )
    `Matti was (just) buying a car, (when. . . )'
Example #37:

    (51)      a. #Matti voitt-i        kilpajuoksu-a.
    Matti    win-Past3Sg race-Part
    `Matti was winning the race.'
Example #38:

    b. Matti ol-i voitta-ma-ssa kilpajuoksu-a.
    Matti was win-Prtcpl-Iness race-Part
    `Matti was winning the race.'
Example #39:

    e. Jussi         maalas-i      talo-n      (punaise-ksi)
    Jussi(NOM) paint-Pst3Sg) house-Acc (red-Transl)
    `Jussi painted the (a) [whole] house (red)'
Example #40:

    f. Jussi        maalas-i           talo-a       (punaise-ksi)
    Jussi(NOM) paint-PAST(3SG) house-Part (red-Transl)
    `Jussi was painting the (a) house (red)'
Example #41:

    g. Luin              kirja-n (loppu-un) / (repale-i-ksi)
    read-PAST-1SG book-Acc (end-Illat)         / (shred-Pl-Transl)
    `I read the book (to the end) / (to shreds)'
Example #42:

    h. Luin          kirja-a
    read-Pst-1sg book-Part
    `I was reading the book.'
Example #43:

    (57) Lue-skel-i-n        sen      kirja-n (loppu-un)
    read-freq-Past-1Sg that-Acc book-Acc (end-Ill)
    `I read that book off and on (through).'
Example #44:

    (63)       a. Karhu          kuol-i
    bear-SgNom die-Pst-3Sg
    `The bear died'
Example #45:

    c. Karhu-t        kuol-i-vat
    bear-PlNom die-Pst-3Pl
    `The bears died'
Example #46:

    d. Karhu-j-a kuol-i
    bear-PlPart die-Pst-3Sg
    `Bears died'
Example #47:

    b. Piha-lla           leikki-i laps-i-a
    courtyard-Adess play-3Sg child-Pl-Part
    `There are children playing in the courtyard'
Example #48:

    c. Laps-i-a        leikki-i piha-lla
    child-Pl-Part play-3Sg courtyard-Adess
    `There are children playing in the courtyard'
Example #49:

    d. #Piha-lla          hymyile-e laps-i-a
    courtyard-Adess smile-3Sg       child-Pl-Part
    `There are children smiling in the courtyard'
Example #50:

    e. #Laps-i-a hymyile-e piha-lla
    child-Pl-Part smile-3Sg      courtyard-Adess
    `There are children smiling in the courtyard'
Example #51:

    a. Nyt on       synty-nyt lapsi           (lapsi-a)
    now be-3Sg born-PP         child-SgNom (child-PlPart)
    `Now a child has been born'
Example #52:

    b. Sytty-i           sota
    break out-Pst-3Sg war-SgNom
    `War broke out' (Vilkuna 1989, 165)
Example #53:

    c. Lapsi          (lapsi-a)      on nyt      synty-nyt
    child-SgNom (child-PlPart) now be-3Sg born-PP
    `The/a child (children) has (have) been born now'
Example #54:

    d. Sota         sytty-i
    war-SgNom break out-Pst-3Sg
    `War broke out'
Example #55:

    (68)     a. #Hymyil-i lapsi             (lapsi-a)
    smile-Pst-3Sg child-SgNom (child-PlPart)
    `The/a child (children) smiled'
Example #56:

    c. Lapsi        (#lapsi-a) hymyil-i
    child-SgNom (child-PlPart) smile-Pst-3Sg
    `The/a child (#children) smiled'
Example #57:

    d. Ruotsalainen (#ruotsalais-i-a) voitt-i
    Swede-SgNom (#Swede-PlPart)         win-Pst-3Sg
    `The/a Swede (#Swedes) won'
Example #58:

    (69)     a. Poika      saapu-i
    Boy (Nom) arrive-Pst3Sg
    `The/a boy ([+B)] arrived ([+B]).'
Example #59:

    b. Poik-i-a saapu-i
    Boy-Pl-Part arrive-Pst3Sg
    `Boys ([­B]) arrived ([+B]).'
Example #60:

    (70)     a. Karhu lymyile-e
    Bear    (Nom)        lurk-3Sg
    `A bear ([+B]) is lurking ([­B]).'
Example #61:

    b. *Karhu-a lymyile-e
    Bear-Part lurk-3Sg
    `A bear ([+B]) is lurking ([­B]).'