ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ki-seong Park (1995). The Semantics and Pragmatics of Case Marking in Korean.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/soc-sci/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/park/KSPdiss.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1273&langcode=kor (2019-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    (1.4)   a.       ku     kulus-eyse     mwul-i say-n-ta
    the    bowl-from      water-NOM leak-PRE-DEC
    `Water leaks from the bowl.'
Example #2:

    (3.6)   a.     sensayngnim-i o-si -nta.
    teacher-NOM           come-HON-DEC
    `The teacher comes.'
Example #3:

    b. *   Chelswu-ka            sensayngnim-ul           manna-si-ess-ta
    C.-NOM                teacher-ACC              meet-HON-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu met the teacher.'
Example #4:

    c. *   sensayngnim-uy        sonca-ka        crib-ey nwue iss-usi -ta
    teacher-GEN grandson-NOM              crib-in        lie      be-HON-DEC
    `The teacher's grandson is lying in the crib.'
Example #5:

    d.     Chelswu-uy            sensayngnim-i o-si-nta
    C.-GEN                teacher-NOM              come-HON-DEC
    `Chelswu's teacher comes.'
Example #6:

    (3.8)   a.      sensayngnim-uy             son-i        khu-si-ta
    teacher-GEN                hands-NOM be big-HON-DEC
    `The teacher's hands      are big.'
Example #7:

    b.      sensayngnim-uy             caysan-i             manh-usi-ta
    teacher-GEN                possessions-NOM      be many-HON-DEC
    `The teacher is rich.'
Example #8:

    sayngki-si-ess-ta
    appear-HON-PST-DEC
    `A mark appeared on the teacher's face.'
Example #9:

    tteleci-*si-ess-ta
    appear-*HON-PST-DEC
    `Bird droppings fall down on the teacher's head.'
Example #10:

    (3.12) a.      emenim-i               nwun-i        khu-si-ta
    mother-NOM             eyes-NOM              big-HON-DEC
    `It is mother whose eyes are big.'
Example #11:

    b.      emenim-uy              nwun-i        khu-si-ta
    mother-GEN             eyes-NOM              big-HON-DEC
    `Mother's eyes are big.'
Example #12:

    khu-(*si)-ta
    big­HON-DEC
    `It is grandfather whose grandson has a big nose.'
Example #13:

    khu-(*si)-ta
    big­HON-DEC
    `The grandfather's grandson has a big nose.'
Example #14:

    ponaye-ci-ess-ta
    send-PASS-PST-DEC
    `Chelsu i was sent to hisi brother by Minsu.'
Example #15:

    iss-ta
    be-DEC
    `Swuni's book is on her desk.'
Example #16:

    kippukey        ha-ess-ta
    please          do-PST-DEC
    `That she won pleased Yenghi.'
Example #17:

    a. John-ka             Mary-lul                  anc-hi-ess-ta
    J.-NOM              M.-ACC                    sit-CAU-PST-DEC
    `John seated Mary.'
Example #18:

    b. John-ka Mary-eyuihaye          anc-hi-e                               ci-ess-ta
    J.-NOM M.-by                   sit-CAU-CONN                           PASS-PST-DEC
    `John was seated by Mary.'
Example #19:

    sokay-toy-ess-ta
    introduce-PASS-PAST-DEC
    `I was introduced to his brother by Minsu.'
Example #20:

    b. John-ka           Mary-eyuihaye/eykey cap-hi-ess-ta
    J.-NOM            M.-by               catch-PASS-PST-DEC
    `John was caught by Mary.'
Example #21:

    a.     John-ka                Mary-lul                 haykoha-ess-ta
    J.-NOM                 M.-ACC                   fire-PST-DEC
    `John fired Mary.'
Example #22:

    b.     John-ka                Mary-eyuihaye            haykotangha -ess-ta
    J.-NOM                 M.-by                    be fired-PST-DEC
    `John was fired by Mary.'
Example #23:

    (3.18) a.      John-i na-eykeyse/*lul       chayk-ul      ppayass-ess-ta
    J.-NOM         I-ABL/ACC book-ACC          take away-PST-DEC
    `John took away a book from me.'
Example #24:

    b.      nay-ka John-eyuyhay chayk-ul        ppayass-ki-ess-ta
    I-NOM          J.-by         book-ACC      take away-PASS-PST-DEC
    `I was taken away a book by John.'
Example #25:

    (3.19) a.        John-i         na-eykeyse/*lul     chayk-ul      kangthalha-ess-ta
    J.-NOM         I-ABL/ACC           book-ACC      take away-PST-DEC
    `John took away a book from me.'
Example #26:

    b.       nay-ka John-eykey chayk-ul         kangthaltangha -ess-ta
    I-NOM          J.-by         book-ACC     be taken away-PST-DEC
    `I was taken away a book by John.'
Example #27:

    (3.21) a.      John-i        Mary-uy/lul          son-ul        cap-ess-ta
    J. -NOM       M.-GEN/ACChand-ACC          catch-PST-DEC
    `John caught Mary by the hand.'
Example #28:

    cap-hi-ess-ta
    catch-PASS-PST-DEC
    `Mary was caught by the hand by John.'
Example #29:

    (3.23) a.      Chelswu-ka Swuni-eykey os-lul        ip-hi-ess-ta
    C.-NOM        S.-DAT     clothes-ACC wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu dressed Swuni.'
Example #30:

    ip-hie-ci-ess-ta
    wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    `Swuni was dressed by Chelswu.'
Example #31:

    ip-hie-ci-ess-ta
    wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    `Swuni was dressed by Chelswu.'
Example #32:

    (3.24) a.         Swuni-ka        ku    cip-ey         peyint-lul      chilha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM          the   house-LOC paint-ACC            spray-PST-DEC
    `Swuni sprayed the house with paint.'
Example #33:

    chilhaye-ci-ess-ta
    spray-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The house was sprayed the paint by Swuni.'
Example #34:

    chilaye-ci-ess-ta
    spray-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The paint was sprayed at the house by Swuni.'
Example #35:

    (3.25) a.      [pappu-myense(to) ] Minswu-nun               Swuni-lul      kaluchi-nta
    be busy-although        M.-TOP               S.-ACC         teach-DEC
    `Although he is busy, Minswu teaches Swuni.'
Example #36:

    kamki-ey       kelli-nta
    cold-by        catch-DEC
    `Although he is healthy, Minswu frequently catches a cold.'
Example #37:

    Swunij-eykey            ton-ul        cwu-si-ess-ta
    S.-DAT                  money-ACC give-HON-PST-DEC
    `Though he is a student, father gave money to Swunhi.'
Example #38:

    (3.26) [pucai-i-myense(to)] ku         halapecii-ka          cha-ka        eps-ta
    rich-be-although       the      grandfather-NOM       car-NOM       not.be-DEC
    `Though the grandfather is rich, he does not have a car.'
Example #39:

    (3.27) [pucai-i-myense(to)] ku         apecii-ka             atul-i        kananha-ta
    rich-be-although       the      father-NOM            son-NOM       poor-DEC
    `Though the father is rich, his son is poor.'
Example #40:

    (3.28) *[pucai-i-myense(to)] ku       halapecii-uy             cha-ka      eps-ta
    rich-be-although     the      grandfather-GEN          car-NOM     not.be-DEC
    `Though the grandfather is rich, there is no car for him.'
Example #41:

    (3.30) a.           Tom-un            Swuni-ka        chencay-la-ko                 mit-nun-ta
    T.-TOP            S.-NOM          genius-DEC-CMPL               believe-PRE-DEC
    `Tom believes     that Swuni is a genius.'
Example #42:

    b.        Tom-un            Swuni-lul       chencay-la-ko                 mit-nun-ta
    T.-TOP            S.-ACC          genius-DEC-CMPL               believe-PRE-DEC
    `Tom believes     Swuni to be a genius.'
Example #43:

    manhi            sa-nta-ko              mit-nun-ta
    many             live-DEC-CMPL          believe-PRE-DEC
    `I believe that L.A. has the largest Korean population.'
Example #44:

    chwu-ess-ta-ko                 sayngkakha-ess-ta
    cold-PST-DEC-CMPL              think-PST-DEC
    `John thinks that it was cold yesterday.'   K-S Hong (1990)
Example #45:

    (4.6)   a.      Bill-i          John-Ř        chayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          J.-Ř          book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #46:

    b.      Bill-i          John-eykey           chayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          J. -DAT              book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #47:

    c.      Bill-i          John-eykey-lulchayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          J.-DAT-ACC           book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #48:

    d.      Bill-i          John-lul                   chayk-ul            cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          J. -ACC                    book-ACC            give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #49:

    (4.7)   Bill-i          John-ul                 chayk-ul        cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          J.-ACC                  book-ACC        give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #50:

    (4.8)   na-nun Chelswu-lul            pap-ul           mek-i-ess-ta
    I-TOP           C.-ACC                  rice-ACC      eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `I made Chelswu eat the cooked rice.'
Example #51:

    (4.9)   Swuni-ka        emeni-ka                kuli-wess-ta
    S.-NOM          mother-NOM              miss-PST-DEC
    `Swunhi missed her mother.'
Example #52:

    (4.10) John-i        na-eyuyhay pap-ul                  mek-hi-ess-ta
    J.-NOM        I-by             rice-ACC          eat-PASS-PST-DEC
    `John was caused to eat the rice by me.'
Example #53:

    (4.11) John-i          apeci-ka                khi-ka     ku-ta
    J.-NOM          father-NOM              height-NOM big-DEC
    `John's father is tall.'
Example #54:

    a.    ku              ay-ka          kuphi-lul               mek-ess-ta
    the             child-NOM quickly-ACC                  eat-PST-DEC
    `The child ate quickly.'
Example #55:

    b.    na-nun mikwuk-ey       ka-key-lul              toy-ess-ta
    I-TOP           U.S.A-LOC go-CMPL-ACC                  become-PST-DEC
    `I got a chance of going to the United States.'
Example #56:

    Swunhi-ka                nwun-i          khu-ta
    S.-NOM                   eye-NOM                 big-DEC
    `Swunhi's eyes are big.'
Example #57:

    Chelswu-ka               tongsayng-i             cwuk-ess-ta
    C.-NOM                   brother-NOM             die-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu's brother died.'
Example #58:

    Semyukongcang-i          pul-i           na-ess-ta
    textile factory-NOM fire-NOM             break out-PST-DEC
    `Fire broke out in the textile factory.'
Example #59:

    Swuni-ka                 emeni-ka                kuli-wess-ta
    S.-NOM                   mother-NOM              miss-PST-DEC
    `Swunhi missed her mother.'
Example #60:

    Woykukin-tul-i           seys-i          hakkyo-ey       o-ess-ta
    foreigner-PL-NOM 3-NOM                   school-to       come-PST-DEC
    `Three foreigers came to school.'
Example #61:

    Chelswu-ka               uysa-ka                 toy-ess-ta
    C.-NOM                   doctor-NOM              become-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu became a doctor.'
Example #62:

    Pihayngki-ka             747-i           khu-ta
    airplane-NOM747-NOM              big-DEC
    `Among airplanes, the 747 is big.'
Example #63:

    Chelswu-ka               senmwul-i               cue     ci-ess-ta
    C.-NOM                   present-NOM             give PASS-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu was given a present.'
Example #64:

    Chelswu-ka               Swuni-ka        ul-key          ha-ess-ta
    C.-NOM                  S.-NOM          cry-CMPL        do-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu made Swuni cry.'
Example #65:

    Yeksasosel-i                     ilk-ki-ka               swip-ta
    historical novel-NOM             read-NOML-NOM easy-DEC
    `It is easy to read historical novels.'
Example #66:

    (5.3)     sensayngnim-i caysan-i        manhu-si-ta
    teacher-NOM            wealth-NOM big-HON-DEC
    `The teacher is wealthy.'
Example #67:

    b.      Swunhi-ka             kay-ka coh-ta
    S.-NOM                dog-NOM       like-DEC
    `Swunhi likes the dog.'
Example #68:

    (5.10) a.      Swuni-eykey/?ka      mwues-i        coh-ni ?
    S.-DAT/?NOM          what-NOM likeable-QUE
    `What does Swuni like ?'
Example #69:

    b.     Swuni-eykey/?ka      kay-ka coh-ta
    S.-DAT/?NOM          dog-NOM        likeable-DEC
    `Swuni likes a dog.'
Example #70:

    c.     nwu(kwu)-eykey/ka kay-ka coh-ni ?
    who-DAT/NOM          dog-NOM        likeable-QUE
    `Who likes a dog ?'
Example #71:

    d.     Swuni-eykey/ka       kay-ka coh-ta
    S.-DAT/NOMdog-NOM           likeable-DEC
    `Swuni likes a dog.'
Example #72:

    b.       kongcang-i                pwul-i          na-ess-ta
    factory-NOM               fire-NOM        break out-PST-DEC
    `Fire broke out in the   factory.'
Example #73:

    (5.12) a.        mwusenil-i                ilena-ess-ni ?
    what-NOM                  happen-PST-QUE
    `What happened ?'
Example #74:

    b.       thoyoil-ey     mwusenil-i       ilena-ess-ni ?
    Saturday-on what-NOM            happen-PST-QUE
    `What happened on Saturday ?'
Example #75:

    na-ess-ta
    break out-PST-DEC
    `Fire broke out in the factory on Saturday.'
Example #76:

    c.      thoyoil-ey     kongcang-eysemwusenil-i       ilena-ess-ni ?
    Saturday-on factory-LOC                what-NOM happen-PST-QUE
    `What happened at the factory on Saturday ?'
Example #77:

    na-ess-ta
    break out-PST-DEC
    `Fire broke out in the factory on Saturday.'
Example #78:

    (5.13) a.      thoyoil-i               kongcang-i     pwul-i   na-ess-ni ?
    Saturday-NOM            factory-NOM fire-NOM    break out-PST-QUE
    `Fire broke out in the factory on Saturday.'
Example #79:

    na-ess-ta
    break out-PST-DEC
    `NO. Fire broke out in the factory on Friday.'
Example #80:

    na-ess-ta
    break out-PST-DEC
    `No. Fire broke out in the store on Saturday.'
Example #81:

    a.    i       uyca-ey /*ka         Chelswu-ka anc-ess-ta
    this    chair-LOC/*NOM       C.-NOM     sit-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo sat on this chair.'
Example #82:

    b.    cinan ilyoil-ey/*ka          Swuni-ka   ttena-ess-ta
    last    Sunday-at/*NOM       S. -NOM    leave-PST-DEC
    `Suni left last Sunday.'
Example #83:

    c.    i       pang-eyse/*ka Yengswu-ka nao-ess-ta
    this    room-from            Y. -NOM    come out-PST-DEC
    `Yengswu came out of this room.'
Example #84:

    a.    ku     kulus-eyse/i            mwul-i say-nta
    the    bowl-ABL/NOM            water-NOM leak-DEC
    `Water leaks from the bowl.'
Example #85:

    mwul-i say-nta
    water-NOM leak-DEC
    `The water which I put into the bowl right before leaks from the bowl.'
Example #86:

    b.       Chelswu-ka             tongsayng-i                    yeyppu-ta
    C.-NOM                 sister-NOM                     pretty-DEC
    `Chelswu's sister is pretty.'
Example #87:

    b.       Kim sensayngnim-i              kwutwu-ka              ccic-eci-ess-ta
    Kim teacher-NOM                shoes-NOM              tear-PASS-PST-DEC
    `Professor Kim's shoes have been torn.'
Example #88:

    (5.18) a.        Lee sensayngnimi -i ttal-i                            yeyppu-(*si i )-ta
    Lee teacher-NOM       daughter-NOM                    pretty-*HON-DEC
    `Professor Lee's daughter is pretty.'
Example #89:

    b.       Lee sensayngnimi -i kapang-i                          khu-(*sii )-ta
    Lee teacher-NOM       briefcase-NOM                   big-*HON-DEC
    `Professor Lee's briefcase is big.'
Example #90:

    (5.19) a.     nwu-ka         tonsayng-i              yeyppu-ni ?
    who-NOM                sister-NOM            pretty-QUE
    `Whose sister is pretty ?'
Example #91:

    b. * Chelswu-ka              nwu-ka          yeyppu-ni
    C.-NOM                 who-NOM               pretty-QUE
    `(literally) Who of Chelswu's is pretty ?
Example #92:

    b. TV-ka              Zenith-ka                        thunthunha-ta
    -NOM            Z.-NOM                           strong-DEC
    `As for TV, Zenith is durable.'
Example #93:

    a. hay-nun      ttenun          hay-ka mesiss-ta
    sun -TOP rising             sun-NOM         beautiful-DEC
    `As for the sun, a rising sun is beautiful.'
Example #94:

    b. hay-ka       ttenun          hay-ka mesiss-ta
    sun -NOM rising             sun-NOM         beautiful-DEC
    `As for the sun, a rising sun is beautiful.'
Example #95:

    a.       apeci-k a pang-ey           tul-e           ka-si-n-ta
    father-NOM         room-LOC         enter-PFgo-HON-PRE-DEC
    `Father is entering a room.'                [Voicing of `k' Sound]
Example #96:

    b.       apeci     k apang-ey        tul-e           ka-si-n-ta
    father bag-LOC              enter-PFgo-HON-PRE-DEC
    `Father is entering a bag.'         [No Voicing of `k' Sound]
Example #97:

    c.     i        pang-i              pwul-(i) k a-ess-ta [Sentence Focus ]
    this     room-NOM            light-(NOM)        go out-PAST-DEC
    `The light just went out in this room.'
Example #98:

    d.     John-(i)          k a-ess-ta                    [Predicate Focus ]
    J.-(NOM)        go-PAST-DEC
    `John went.'
Example #99:

    b.    John-ka               meli-ka                aphe-ta
    J.-NOM                head-NOM                           sick-DEC
    `John has a headache.'
Example #100:

    (5.27) a.      sensaynim-i           meli-kaaphe-si-ta
    teacher-NOM           head-NOM sick-HON-DEC
    `The teacher has a headache.'
Example #101:

    b. *    sensaynim-i           sonca-ka          aphe-si-ta
    teacher-NOM           grandson-NOM      sick-HON-DEC
    `The teacher's grandson is sick.'
Example #102:

    (5.28) a.      Mary-ka         elkwul-i      ppalkan-ta
    M.-NOM          face-NOM      red-DEC
    `Mary's face is red.'
Example #103:

    b. *    Mary-ka                ppalkan-ta
    M.-NOM                 red-DEC
    `Mary is red.'
Example #104:

    c.       ku    elkwul-i        ppalkan-ta
    the   face-NOM        red-DEC
    `The face is red.'
Example #105:

    (5.29) Mary-ka        elkwul-i        ppalkan-ta
    M.-NOM         face-NOM        red-DEC
    `It is Mary whose face is pretty.'
Example #106:

    (5.30) Bill-i          John-eykey/-ulchayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    B.-NOM         J.-DAT/ACC           book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `Bill gave the book to John.'
Example #107:

    Swuni-nun           pat-ci                anh-ess-ta
    S.-TOP              receive-CMPL NEG-PST-DEC
    `# Although Minswu gave a book to Swuni, she did not receive it.'
Example #108:

    nay-ka ai-tul-uli               seysi chayk-ul                     cwu-ess-ta
    I-NOM           child-PL-ACC three book-ACC                        give-PST-DEC
    `I gave three children a book.'
Example #109:

    (5.33) a.           ne-nun nwukwu-eykey/lul       chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ni ?
    you-TOP       who-DAT/ACC            book-ACC     give-PST-QUE
    `To whom did you give the book ?'
Example #110:

    b.       ne-nun John-eykey/?ul         mwuess-ul    cwu-ess-ni ?
    you-TOP       J.-DAT/ACC             what-ACC     give-PST-QUE
    `What did you give to John ?'
Example #111:

    (5.34) a.      na-nun ai-tul-eykey             pap-ul         mek-i-ess-ta
    I-TOP           child-PL-DAT rice-ACC          eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `I fed the cooked rice to the children.'
Example #112:

    b       na-nun ai-tul-ul                pap-ul         mek-i-ess-ta
    I-TOP           child-PL-ACC rice-ACC          eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `I made the children eat the cooked rice.'
Example #113:

    ai-tul-i               pap-ul         mek-ci an-ess-ta
    child-PL-NOM           rice-ACC       eat-CMPL        NEG-PST-DEC
    `Even though I made the children eat the cooked rice, the children did not eat.'
Example #114:

    (5.36) a.        John-un       nwues-lul             ha-ess-ni ?
    J.-TOPwhat-ACC               do-PST-QUE
    `What did John do.'
Example #115:

    b.       John-un       Mary-eykey/lul        pap-ul         mek-i-ess-ta
    J.-TOPM.-DAT/ACC rice-ACC           eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `John made Mary eat rice.'
Example #116:

    (5.37) a.        John-un       Mary-eykey/?lul       nwues-lul      mek-i-ess-ni ?
    J.-TOPM.-DAT/?ACC            what-ACC       eat-CAU-PST-QUE
    `What did John make Mary eat.'
Example #117:

    b.       John-un       Mary-eykey/?lul       pap-ul         mek-i-ess-ta
    J.-TOPM.-DAT/?ACC            rice-ACC       eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `John made Mary eat rice.'
Example #118:

    (5.38) a.        John-un       nwukwu-eykey/lul      pap-lul mek-i-ess-ni ?
    J.-TOPwho-DAT                rice-ACC       eat-CAU-PST-QUE
    `Who did John make eat the rice ?'
Example #119:

    b.       John-un       Mary-eykey/lul        pap-ul         mek-i-ess-ta
    J.-TOPM.-DAT/ACC rice-ACC           eat-CAU-PST-DEC
    `John made Mary eat rice.'
Example #120:

    (5.39) a.      Chelswu-ka Yenghi-lul       son-ul            cap-ess-ta
    C.-NOM        Y.-ACC        hand-ACC          catch-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo caught Yenghi on the hand.'
Example #121:

    b.      Chelswu-ka Yenghi-uy        son-ul            cap-ess-ta
    C.-NOM        Y.-GEN        hand-ACC          catch-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo caught Yenghi's hand.'
Example #122:

    (5.40) a. *    Chelswu-ka     Yenghi-lul     tongsayng-ul           po-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         Y.-ACC         brother-ACC            see-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo saw   Yenghi's brother.'
Example #123:

    b.      Chelswu-ka     Yenghi-uy      tongsayng-ul           po-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         Y.-GEN         brother-ACC            see-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo saw   Yenghi's brother.'
Example #124:

    (5.41) a.      Nay-kaku        ai-lul         ilum-ulpwul-ess-ta
    I-NOM           the     child-ACC     name-ACC       call-PST-DEC
    `I called the child by name.'
Example #125:

    b. *    Nay-kaku        ai-lul         ilum-ulsse-ess-ta
    I-NOM           the     child-ACC     name-ACC       write-PST-DEC
    `I wrote the child's name.'
Example #126:

    c.      Nay-kaku        ai-lul          somay-ul     cap-ess-ta
    I-NOM           the     child-ACC     sleeve-ACC catch-PST-DEC
    `I caught the child by the sleeve.'
Example #127:

    (5.42) a.      John-i        Mary-lul       *(sonthop-ul)              kkak-ess-ta
    J.-NOM        M.-ACC         fingernail-ACC             clip-PST-DEC
    `John clipped Mary by the fingernail.'
Example #128:

    b.      John-i        Mary-lul       *(meli-ul)                 cal-ess-ta
    J.-NOM        M.-ACC         hair-ACC                   cut-PST-DEC
    `John cut Mary by the hair.'
Example #129:

    a.     nay-ka ai-lul           son-ul        cap-ess-ta
    I-NOM           child-ACC       hand-ACC      hold-PST-DEC
    `I held the child by the hand.'
Example #130:

    b.     ai-ka           son-i/ul              cap-hi-ess-ta
    child-NOM hand-NOM/ACC                hold-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The child was held by the hand.'
Example #131:

    (5.44) a.      Chelswu-ka            namwu-lul      kaci-lulcal-ess-ta
    Chelswu-NOM           tree-ACC       branch-ACC cut-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu trimmed the tree's branches.'
Example #132:

    cal-li-ess-ta
    cut-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The tree's branches were cut by Chelswu.'
Example #133:

    noh-ess-ta
    give-PST-DEC
    `I gave Yumi's arm a shot.'
Example #134:

    a.      encey Seoul-ul         o-ess-ni ?
    when Seoul-ACC come-PST-QUE
    `When did you come to Seoul ?'
Example #135:

    b.      John-i         New York-ul tanye-o-ess-ta
    J.-NOM         NY-ACC          go-come-PST-DEC
    `John has been to New York.'
Example #136:

    a.      pihayngki-ka           hanul-ul       nal-ess-ta
    airplane-NOMsky-ACC            fly-PST-DEC
    `An airplane flew in the sky.'
Example #137:

    b.      keli-lul       ket-ta
    street-ACC             walk-DEC
    `walk down the street'
Example #138:

    a.      sahul-ul               o-ta
    three day-ACCcome-DEC
    `come for three days'
Example #139:

    b.      twu sikan-ul           camca-ta
    two hours-ACC                  sleep-DEC
    `sleep for two hours'
Example #140:

    chesccay-lul           ka-ta
    first-ACC              go-DEC
    `go first'
Example #141:

    chenli-lul                      ttwi-ta
    1000 league-ACC                 leap-DEC
    `leap a thousand league'
Example #142:

    a.      John-i         Seoul-ul         ttena-ess-ta
    J.-NOM                  Seoul-ACC leave-PST-DEC
    `John left Seoul.'
Example #143:

    b.      John-i bus-ul           nayli-ess-ta
    J.-NOM         bus-ACC          get off-PST-DEC
    `John got off the bus.'
Example #144:

    John-i       san-ul    olla-ess-ta
    John-NOM mountain-ACC climb-PST-DEC
    "John climbed the mountain."
Example #145:

    * Nay-ka        san-eyi         seysi          olla-ess-ta
    I-NOM        mountain-DAT           three           climb-PST-DEC
    `I climbed three mountains.'
Example #146:

    Nay-ka      san-uli         seysi         olla-ess-ta
    I-NOM       mountain-ACC            three         climb-PST-DEC
    `I climbed three mountains.'
Example #147:

    manun salam-tul-i             san-ey               olla-ess-ta
    many            person-PL-NOM        mountain-DAT          climb-PST-DEC
    `Many people climbed up the mountain.'
Example #148:

    manun salam-tul-i             san-ul               olla-ess-ta
    many            person-PL-NOM        mountain-ACC          climb-PST-DEC
    `Many people climbed up the mountain.'
Example #149:

    san-i           manun salam-tul-eyuyhay    olla-ci-ess-ta
    mountain-NOM manyperson-PL-by              climb-PASS-PST-DEC
    `This mountain was climbed by many people.'
Example #150:

    a.    John-i             hakkyo-lul               ka-ess-ta
    J.-NOM             school-ACC               go-PST-DEC
    `John went to     school.'
Example #151:

    b*    hakkyo-ka          John-eyuyhay             ka-ci-ess-ta
    school-NOM         J.-by                    go-PASS-PST-DEC
    `John went to     school.'
Example #152:

    Swuni-ka            emma-eykey/*lul                      ka-nta.
    S.-NOM              mother-DAT/*ACC                      go-DEC
    `Swuni goes to Mother.'
Example #153:

    talli-ess-ta
    run-PST-DEC
    `The car ran at overspeed in the rain / on the rainy road.'
Example #154:

    talli-ess-ta
    run-PST-DEC
    `The rain / The rainy road, the car ran at overspeed.'
Example #155:

    talli-ess-ta
    run-PST-DEC
    `The car oversped in the rain / on the rainy road.'
Example #156:

    (6.16) a.       i       kongcang-ey/*-ul               pwul-i       na-ess-ta
    this    factory-DAT/*ACC               fire-NOM     break out - PST-DEC
    `Fire broke out in this factory.'
Example #157:

    (6.17) a.       ku-nunsyoping-ul          ka-ess-ta
    he-TOP        shopping-ACC        go-PST-DEC
    `He went shopping.'
Example #158:

    b.      ku-nunsanyang-ul          ka-ess-ta
    he-TOP        hunting-ACC         go-PST-DEC
    `He went hunting.'
Example #159:

    (6.18) Swuni-ka      emma-eykey/*lul                     ka-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        mother-DAT/*ACC                     go-PASS-DEC
    `Swuni went to mother.'
Example #160:

    noh-ess-ta
    put-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu put this book on the desk.'
Example #161:

    (6.20) a.     keli-lul cilcwuha-nun         chalyang-tul
    street-ACC      run-REL               vehicle-PL
    `vehicles which are running up the street'
Example #162:

    b.     Ai-tul-i        wuntongcang-lul       ttwi-n-ta
    child-PL-NOM           playground-ACC         run-PRE-DEC
    `Children are running up the playground.'
Example #163:

    c.     John-i          New York-ul           tanye-o-ess-ta
    J.-NOM          NY-ACC                go&come-PST-DEC
    `John went to New York and came back from there.'
Example #164:

    d.     Tom-i           cip-ul        naka-ess-ta
    T.-NOM          house-ACC go out-PST-DEC
    ` Tom went out of the house.' (= `Tom ran away from home.')
Example #165:

    e.     Bill-i          Boston-ul             ttena-ess-ta
    B.-NOM          B.-ACC                leave-PST-DEC
    `Bill left Boston.'
Example #166:

    (6.21) a.       Chelswu-nun tosekwan-eyse / *-ul          chayk-ul         ilk-ess-ta
    C.-TOP        library-LOC/ *ACC           book-ACC         read-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo read a book at the library.'
Example #167:

    b.      Chelswu-nun canti-eyse / *-ul             kong-ul          cha-ess-ta
    C.-TOP        lawn-LOC/ *ACC              ball-ACC         kicked-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo kicked a ball on the lawn.'
Example #168:

    (6.22) a.       Swuni-ka      emma-eykey/*lul             ka-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        mother-to/ACC               go-PASS-DEC
    `Swunhi went to mother.'
Example #169:

    b.      Swuni-ka      siktang-ey /*lul            cepkunha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        restaurant-to/ACC           approach-PASS-DEC
    `Swunhi approached a restaurant.'
Example #170:

    (6.23) a.        ku-nun        syoping-ul         ka-ess-ta
    he-TOP               shopping-ACC        go-PST-DEC
    `He went shopping.'
Example #171:

    b.       ku-nun        sanyang-ul         ka-ess-ta
    he-TOP               hunting-ACC         go-PST-DEC
    `He went hunting.'
Example #172:

    (6.24) a.        sicheng-kkaci           keli-*eyse/lul           ttwi-ta
    City Hall-to            street-*LOC/ACC          run-DEC
    `run to the City Hall in the street'
Example #173:

    hanul-*eyse/ulnal-ess-ta
    sky-*LOC/ACC            fly-PST-DEC
    `An airplane flew in the sky from Seoul to Pusan.'
Example #174:

    c.       han     sikan-tongan ku          keli-eyse/lul           ket-ta
    one     hour-during the          street-LOC/ACC          walk-DEC
    `walk down the street for an hour'
Example #175:

    d.       han     sikan-maney ku           keli-*eyse/lul          ket-ta
    one     hour-inthe      street-LOC/ACC           walk-DEC
    `walk down the street in an hour'
Example #176:

    (6.25) a.        miti       o       aruku
    street     ACC walk-IMP
    `I will   walk down the street.'
Example #177:

    a.        Mary-nun         John-ul wuyhay ppang-ulkwu-ess-ta
    M.-TOPJ.-for              cake-ACC       bake-PAST-DEC
    `Mary baked a cake for John.'
Example #178:

    b.*       Mary-nun         John-ul ppang-ulkwu-ess-ta
    M.-TOPJ.-ACC              cake-ACC       bake-PAST-DEC
    `Mary baked a cake for John.'
Example #179:

    kwu-e            cwu-ess-ta
    bake-CONN        give-PAST-DEC
    `Mary baked John a cake.'
Example #180:

    (6.30) a.      Chelswu-ka chayk-ul           sey pen(-ul)           ilk-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         book-ACC       three times(-ACC)      read-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo read books for three hours.'
Example #181:

    senmul-ul      ha-ess-ta
    gift-ACC       do-PST-DEC
    `Cheli presented Mary with a ring twice.'
Example #182:

    a.     Chelswu-ka twupen-ul/*-i           ka-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         2 times-ACC/*NOM go-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo went two times.'
Example #183:

    b.     Chelswu-ka twu        sikan tongan-ul/*-i      ca-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         two    hours for-ACC/*NOM       sleep-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo slept for two hours.'
Example #184:

    c.     Chelswu-ka twupen-ul/*i            oych-ess-ta
    C.-NOM         2 times-ACC/*NOM yell-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo yelled two times.'
Example #185:

    a.      Chelswu-ka chayk-ul            twupen-ul/*i        ilk-ess-ta
    C.-NOM          book-ACC       2 times-ACC/*NOM read-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo read the book two times.'
Example #186:

    b.      Chelswu-ka thophwul-ul hansigan-ul/*i po-ess-ta
    C.-NOM          TOEFL-ACC 1 hour-ACC/*NOM take-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo took the TOEFL for one hour.'
Example #187:

    kwukyeng-ha-ess-ta
    sightsee-do-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo saw Niagara Falls two times.'
Example #188:

    a.     cha-ka          twupen-i/%ul                   memchu-ess-ta
    car-NOM         2 times-NOM/%ACC               stop-PST-DEC
    `The car stalled two times.'
Example #189:

    b.     mwun-i          twupen-i/%ul                   yelli-ess-ta
    door-NOM 2 times-NOM/%ACC                      open (passive)-PST-DEC
    `The door opened two times.'
Example #190:

    a.     uyca-ka        twupen-i/%ul               pwuse-ci-ess-ta
    chair-NOM 2 times-NOM/%ACC break-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The chair was broken two times.'
Example #191:

    b.     ku     chayk-itwupen-i/%ul        ilk-hi-ess-ta
    the    book-NOM 2 times-NOM/%ACC read-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The book was read two times.'
Example #192:

    (6.36) a.           Chelswu-nun twupen-ul                 chayk-ul    ilk-ess-ta
    C.-TOP        two times-ACC           book-ACC    read-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu read the book two times.'
Example #193:

    b.         Chelswu-nun twupen-ul                 po-i-ess-ta
    C.-TOP        two times-ACC           see-CAU-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu showed (it) two times.'
Example #194:

    c.         Chelswu-nun senmwul-ul twupen-ul                  pat-ess-ta
    C.-TOP        gift-ACC         two times-ACC      receive-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu received a gift two times.'
Example #195:

    d.      ipen kyewul-un          twupen-i/*-ul                     chwu-ess-ta
    this   winter-TOP two-times-NOM/*ACC                      be cold-PST-DEC
    `This winter, it was cold two times.'
Example #196:

    tol-i         entek alay-lo twupen-i/ul               kwul-less-ta
    stone-NOM hill         bottom-LOC 2 times-NOM/ACC roll-PST-DEC
    b. NOM adverbial: it happened twice that a stone rolled down the hill.
Example #197:

    kwul-less-ta
    roll-PST-DEC
    `This stone rolled down the hill two times.'
Example #198:

    o-ess-ta
    come-PST-DEC
    `Chelswu came to my house two times.'
Example #199:

    o-ess-ta
    come-PST-DEC
    `Letters arrived at my house two times.'
Example #200:

    yel-li-ess-ta
    open-PASS-PST-DEC
    `The door opened two times by itself.'
Example #201:

    cha-i-ess-ta
    kick-PASS-PST-DEC
    `Swuni was kicked by the boss two times.'
Example #202:

    Totwuk-i      twupen-i/ul                     cap-hi-ess-ta
    thief-NOM     two-times-NOM/ACCarrest-PASS-PST-DEC
    b. NOM adverbial: two (different) thieves were arrested.
Example #203:

    (6.42) Chelswu-ka chayk-ul          sey pen-ul                         ilk-ess-ta
    C.-NOM        book-ACC       3 times-ACC                        read-PST-DEC
    `Chelsoo read books for three hours.'
Example #204:

    (6.48) a.      Swuni-ka      yenge-lul      kongpwu-lul         ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        English-ACC study-ACC              do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni studied English.'
Example #205:

    b.      cekkwun-i     tosi-lul phakoy-lul        ha-ess-ta
    enemy-NOM city-ACC           destroy-ACC         do-PST-DEC
    `The enemy destroyed the city.'
Example #206:

    c.      Swuni-ka      phiano-lul     yencwu-lul          ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        piano-ACC playing-ACC              do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni played the piano.'
Example #207:

    (6.49) a.      Swuni-ka      yenge-lul      kongpwu-ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        English-ACC study-do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni studied English.'
Example #208:

    b.      cekkwun-i     tosi-lul phakoy-ha-ess-ta
    enemy-NOM city-ACC           destruction-do-PST-DEC
    `The enemy destroyed the city.'
Example #209:

    c.      Swuni-ka      phiano-lul     yencwu-ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM        piano-ACC play-do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni played the piano.'
Example #210:

    (6.50) a.      Swuni-ka               kuket-lul    kongpwu-lul ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM                 it-ACCstudy-ACC do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni studied it.'
Example #211:

    yenge-i-ta
    English-be-DEC
    `What Swuni studied is English.'
Example #212:

    c. *    Swuni-ka               yenge-lul    kuket-lul      ha-ess-ta
    S.-NOM                 it-ACCit-ACCdo-PST-DEC
    `Swuni did it (to) English.'
Example #213:

    kongpwu-i-ta
    study-be-DEC
    `What Swuni did to English was study it.'
Example #214:

    (6.51) a.      Swuni-ka             kongpwu-lul       ha-n            yenge
    S.-NOM               study-ACC         do-REL          English
    `English which Swuni studied'
Example #215:

    b. *    Swuni-ka             yenge-lul         ha-n            kongpwu
    S.-NOM               English-ACC       do-REL          study
    `study which Swuni did of English'
Example #216:

    (6.52) a.      yenge-lul     Swuni-ka         kongpwu-lul             ha-ess-ta
    English-ACC S.-NOM             study-ACC               do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni studied English.'
Example #217:

    b. *    kongpwu-lul Swuni-ka           yenge-lul               ha-ess-ta
    study-ACC S.-NOM               English-ACC             do-PST-DEC
    `Swuni studied English.'
Example #218:

    ku     tosi-ka phakoy-toy-ci                  anh-ess-ta
    the    city-NOM      destroy-PASS-CMPL NEG-PST-DEC
    `The enemy destroyed the city, but the city was not destroyed.'
Example #219:

    ku     tosi-ka phakoy-toy-ci                  anh-ess-ta
    the    city-NOM      destroy-PASS-CMPL NEG-PST-DEC
    `The enemy destroyed the city, but the city was not destroyed.'
Example #220:

    b. * ku-ka             ecey           phikon-ul           ha-ess-ta
    he-NOM          yesterday      tiredness-ACCdo-PST-DEC
    `John was tired yesterday.'
Example #221:

    ssu-key                ha-si-ess-ta
    writer-COMP            do-HON-PST-DEC
    `The teacher made Mary (DAT) and John (DAT) write letters.'
Example #222:

    manhun         phyenci-lul     ssu-key             ha-si-ess-ta
    many           letter-ACC      writer-COMP         do-HON-PST-DEC
    `The teacher made John (DAT) write more letters than Mary (DAT).'
Example #223:

    sakwa-lul      cwu-ess-ta
    apple-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `John gave more apples to Sue (DAT/ACC) than Mary (DAT/*ACC).'
Example #224:

    philyoha-ta
    need-DEC
    `John (DAT/NOM) needs more money than Mary (DAT/*ACC).'
Example #225:

    ka-ess-ta
    go-PST-DEC
    `I went to Pusan (LOC/ACC) more often than Seoul (LOC/(*) ??ACC).'
Example #226:

    chayk-ulcwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC           give-PST-DEC
    `John gave books to two students.'
Example #227:

    noh-ess-ta
    give-PST-DEC
    `I gave Yumi a shot in the arm.'
Example #228:

    pwucilenha-ta
    diligent-DEC
    `Than John, certainly   Mary is more diligent.'
Example #229:

    pwucilenha-ta
    diligent-DEC
    `*And John, certainly   Mary are diligent.'
Example #230:

    chayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the woman more books than the man.'
Example #231:

    chayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the woman more books than the man.'
Example #232:

    chayk-ul      cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC      give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the woman more books than the man.'
Example #233:

    manhun        chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    many          book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the woman more books than the man.'
Example #234:

    chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the man and the woman many books.'
Example #235:

    chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the man and the woman many books.'
Example #236:

    chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the man and the woman many books.'
Example #237:

    chayk-ul     cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC     give-PST-DEC
    `(Someone) gave the woman and the man many books.'
Example #238:

    chayk-lul             cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC              give-PST-DEC
    `John gave a book to Yumi and Mary.'
Example #239:

    chayk-lul             cwu-ess-ta
    book-ACC              give-PST-DEC
    `John gave a book to Yumi and Mary.'
Example #240:

    (7.15) a.      Mary-(*ka)-pota       John-i            (te)         hyenmyengha-ta
    Mary-*NOM-than        John-NOM          more         smart-DEC
    `John is smarter than Mary.'
Example #241:

    mek-ess-ta
    eat-PST-DEC
    `John ate more potatoes than apples.'
Example #242:

    (te)           manhi          cwu-ess-ta
    more           many           give-PST-DEC
    `John gave more gifts to Mary than (to) Yumi.'
Example #243:

    cacwu          manna-ess-ta
    often          meet-PST-DEC
    `We met in the bar more often than in the coffee shop.'
Example #244:

    (7.17) a.        John-(*i)-kwa Mary-ka         hakkyo-ey      ka-ess-ta
    John-(*NOM)-CONJMary-NOM school-LOC go-PST-DEC
    `John and Mary went to school.'
Example #245:

    b.      John-i         Yumi-(*lul)-wa         Mary-lul       cohaha-n-ta
    John-NOM Yumi-(*ACC)-CONJ Mary-ACC like-PRE-DEC
    `John likes Yumi and Mary.'
Example #246:

    cwu-ess-ta
    give-PST-DEC
    `John gave a gift to Yumi and Mary.'
Example #247:

    manna-ess-ta
    meet-PST-DEC
    `We met only in the coffee shop and in the bar.'
Example #248:

    cwu-ess-ta
    give-PST-DEC
    `John gave the gift to Mary and Yumi.'
Example #249:

    (7.21) a.       nay-ka Swuni-ka/eykey/lul ka-key ha-ess-ta
    I-NOM           S.-NOM/DAT/ACC                 go-CMPL           do-PST-DEC
    `I made Sooni leave.'
Example #250:

    seltukha-ess-ta
    persuade-PST-DEC
    `I persuaded Sooni to leave.'
Example #251:

    mit-ess-ta
    believe-PST-DEC
    `John believed that Sooni was pretty.'
Example #252:

    (7.22) a.         na-nun     sensayngnim-lul/eykey ka-si-key              ha-ess-ta
    I-TOP      teacher-ACC/DAT             go-HON-CMPL      do-PST-DEC
    `I made the teacher leave.'
Example #253:

    seltukha-ess-ta
    persuade-PST-DEC
    `I persuaded the teacher to leave.'
Example #254:

    mit-ess-ta
    believe-PST-DEC
    `John believed that the teacher was pretty.'
Example #255:

    nwukwuna       caki atul-i/*ul                ttokttokha-ki-(lul) pala-nta
    everyone       self   son-NOM/*ACC            smart-CMPL-(ACC) want-DEC
    `Everyone wants his son to be smart.'
Example #256:

    molu-ess-ta
    not;know-PST-DEC
    `Tom did not know that Sam was smart.'
Example #257:

    plakhienay-ess-ta
    prove-PST-DEC
    `Tom proved that Sam was the criminal.'
Example #258:

    seltukha-ess-ta
    persuade-PST-DEC
    `The teacher persuaded all the students to go.'
Example #259:

    seltukha-ess-ta
    persuade-PST-DEC
    `The teacher persuaded the students to read the book.'
Example #260:

    ha-ess-ta
    do-PST-DEC
    `The teacher made all the students go.'
Example #261:

    ha-ess-ta
    do-PST-DEC
    `The teacher made the students read the book.'
Example #262:

    nay-ka Inho-ka/eykey/lulo-key             mos          ha-ess-ta
    I-NOM I.-NOM/DAT/ACC                come-CMPL          unable do-PST-DEC
    `I couldn't cause Inho to come.'
Example #263:

    a. * John-un        Mary-eykey kicelha-key ha-ess-ta
    J.-TOPM.-DAT         faint-CMPL do-PST-DEC
    `John made Mary faint.'
Example #264:

    b.    John-un       Mary-lul      kicelha-key ha-ess-ta
    J.-TOPM.-ACC         faint-CMPL do-PST-DEC
    `John made Mary faint.'
Example #265:

    mit-ess-ta
    believe-PST-DEC
    `The teacher believed the students to be all honest.'
Example #266:

    mit-nun-ta
    believe-PRE-DEC
    `John believes that Mary's eyes are pretty.'
Example #267:

    ka-si-ci       an-ess-ta
    go-HON-CMPL            not-PST-DEC
    `I made the teacher leave, but he did not.'
Example #268:

    ka-si-ci       an-ess-ta
    go-HON-CMPL            not-PST-DEC
    `I persuaded the teacher to leave, but he did not.'
Example #269:

    ka-si-ci       an-ess-ta
    go-HON-CMPL            not-PST-DEC
    `I made the teacher leave, but he did not.'
Example #270:

    seltukha-ess-una       ka-si-ci         an-ess-ta
    persuade-PST-but       go-HON-CMPL              not-PST-DEC
    `I persuaded the teacher to leave, but he did not.'
Example #271:

    (7.43) John-i       Sue-eykey      chayk-ul               ilk-key ha-ess-ta
    J.-NOM       S.-DAT         book-ACC               read-CMPL do-PST-DEC
    `John made Sue read the book.'
Example #272:

    na-eyuyhay       Swuni-ka          yeppu-ta-ko                  mite-ci-ess-ta
    I-by             S.-NOMpretty-DEC-CMPL                 believe-PASS-PST-DEC
    `Swuni is believed by me to be pretty.'
Example #273:

    manhi            sa-nta-ko              mit-nun-ta
    many             live-DEC-CMPL          believe-PRE-DEC
    `I believe that L.A. has the largest Korean population.'
Example #274:

    chwu-ess-ta-ko                 sayngkakha-ess-ta
    cold-PST-DEC-CMPL              think-PST-DEC
    `John thinks that it was cold yesterday.'   K-S Hong (1990)
Example #275:

    nalssi-ka              chwu-ess-ta-ko                 sayngkakha-ess-ta
    weather-NOM cold-PST-DEC-CMPL                 think-PST-DEC
    `John thought that it was colder yesterday than the day before yesterday.'
Example #276:

    (7.49) a.      Minswu-ka pap-i/ul                       mek-ko   siph-ta
    M.-NOM            rice-NOM/ACC           eat-CMPL want-DEC
    `Minswu wants to eat steamed rice.'
Example #277:

    elyep-ta
    difficult-DEC
    `It is difficult for me to learn English.'
Example #278:

    (7.50) a.      Minswu-ka pap-i             mek-ko             siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-NOM       eat-CMPL           want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #279:

    b.      Minswu-ka pap-ul            mek-ko             siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-ACC       eat-CMPL           want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #280:

    (7.52) a. ?* Minswu-ka pap-i             mek-ko         siph-e-ha-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-NOM       eat-CMPL       want-CONN-do-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #281:

    b.    Minswu-ka pap-ul            mek-ko         siph-e-ha-ess-ta
    M.-NOM      rice-ACC       eat-CMPL        want-CONN-do-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #282:

    (7.53) a. *         Minswu-ka pap-i             mek-ki(-lul)              wuenha-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-NOM       eat-CMPL                  want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #283:

    b.       Minswu-ka pap-ul            mek-ki(-lul)              wuenha-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-ACC       eat-NOML                  want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #284:

    (7.54) a.           Minswu-ka         pap-i             an  mek-ko                 siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM            rice-NOM          NEG eat-CMPL               want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu did not want to eat steamed rice.'
Example #285:

    b. *    Minswu-ka pap-i               mek-ko       an           siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-NOM         eat-CMPL     NEG          want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu did not want to eat steamed rice.'
Example #286:

    c.      Minswu-ka pap-ul              an     mek-ko             siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-ACC         NEG eat-CMPL              want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to not eat steamed rice.'
Example #287:

    d. *    Minswu-ka pap-ul              mek-ko       an           siph-ess-ta
    M.-NOM       rice-ACC         eat-CMPL     NEG          want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to not eat steamed rice.'
Example #288:

    (7.55) a.    Minswu-eykey-(nun) pap-i             mek-ko       siph-ess-ta
    M.-DAT-(TOP)         rice-NOM        eat-CMPL     want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #289:

    b. ?* Minswu-eykeypap-ul          mek-ko         siph-ess-ta
    M.-DAT               rice-ACC        eat-CMPL     want-PST-DEC
    `Minswu wanted to eat steamed rice.'
Example #290:

    (7.56) ku      siktang-i               nay-ka ka-ko      siph-ta
    the     restaurant-NOM          I-NOM        go-CMPL      want-DEC
    `I want to go to the restaurant.'
Example #291:

    (7.58) a.       nay-ka yenge-ka           paywu-ki(-ka) elyep-ta
    I-NOM             English-NOM learn-NOML(-NOM) difficult-DEC
    `It is difficult for me to learn English.'
Example #292:

    b.     nay-ka yenge-lul          paywu-ki(-ka) elyep-ta
    I-NOM             English-ACC learn-NOML(-NOM) difficult-DEC
    `It is difficult for me to learn English.'
Example #293:

    (7.59) a.       nay-eykey         yenge-ka        paywu-ki(-ka) elyep-ta
    I-DAT             English-NOM learn-NOML(-NOM) difficult-DEC
    `It is difficult for me to learn English.'
Example #294:

    b. *   nay-eykey         yenge-lul       paywu-ki(-ka) elyep-ta
    I-DAT English-ACC learn-NOML(-NOM) difficult-DEC
    `It is difficult for me to learn English.'
Example #295:

    yipen kumyoil-i     wulitul-i         kongpwuha-ki(-ka)      swui-wulkesi-ta
    this   Friday-NOM we-NOM              study-CMPL             easy-FUT-DEC
    `This Friday is easy for our studying.'
Example #296:

    (7.63) a.      pamsay           i       chayk-iilk-ki          elyew-ess-ta
    all night long this      book-NOM read-CMPL difficult-PST-DEC
    `All night long, this book was difficult to read.'
Example #297:

    b.      pamsay           i       chayk-ul        ilk-ki        elyew-ess-ta
    `all night long this     book-ACC        read-CMPL difficult-PST-DEC
    `It was difficult to read this book all night.'
Example #298:

    (8.4)   ai-ka          chayk-ul                  ilk-ess-ta
    child-NOM book-ACC                       read-PST-DEC
    `The child read the book.'
Example #299:

    (8.9)   John-i          ttena-ess-ta
    J.-NOM          leave-PST-DEC
    `John left.'
Example #300:

    (8.10) John-i         chayk-ul          ilk-ess-ta
    J.-NOM         book-ACC          read-PST-DEC
    `John is reading the book.'
Example #301:

    (8.16) a.           nay-ka ku       nolay-ka      coh-ta
    I-NOM           the     song-NOM be likable-DEC
    `I like the song.'
Example #302:

    b.       nay-ka ku       nolay-lul     coh-e-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM           the     song-ACC     be likable-CONN-do-PRE-DEC
    `I like the song.'
Example #303:

    (8.21) a.      M:    cwussumasi-ess-e ?
    juice           drink-PST-QS
    `Did (you) drink juice ?'
Example #304:

    b.      C:    cwussu-ka [lul]        masi-ess-e
    juice-NOM              drink-PST-DC
    `(I) drank juice.'     (H, 1;9)
Example #305:

    (8.22) a.      A:    i       ke      nwu-kasacwu-ess-e ?
    this    thing who-NOM         buy-PST-QS
    `Who bought this (for you) ?'
Example #306:

    b.      C:    emma-ka
    mommy-NOM
    `Mommy'
Example #307:

    c.      A:     emma-ka       nwukwu-hanthey     sacwu-ess-e ?
    mommy-NOM           who-DAT      buy-PST-QS
    `For whom did mommy buy (it) ?'
Example #308:

    d.      C:     Minjae-ka [hanthey]
    Minjae-NOM
    `Minjae'                  (MJ, 2;3)
Example #309:

    a.     kong-ul       Hyucki-ka      tenci-e
    ball-ACC      Hyuck-NOM throw-DC
    `Hyuck throws a ball.'
Example #310:

    b.     cwuss-lul     masi-e
    juice-ACC     drink-DC
    `(Somebody) is drinking juice.'
Example #311:

    tha-ess-e
    ride-PST-DC
    `This is a train. The train daddy rode.'    (H, 2;0)
Example #312:

    b. C:   cacenke          emma-ka              sacwu-ess-e
    bicycle mommy-NOM              buy-PST-DC
    `Mommy bought (me) a bicycle.'
Example #313:

    (8.25) a.        M:       ne       ilum-i        nwue-ci ?
    you      name-NOM what-QS
    `What is your name ?'
Example #314:

    c.       M:       emma            ilum-un ?
    mommy           name-TOP
    `(What is) your mom's name ?'
Example #315:

    e.       M:       Hyuckiemma-ya
    Hyuck mommy-DC
    `(It) is Hyuck's mommy.'
Example #316:

    f.       H:       Hyucki-ka [Ř]          emma-ci
    Hyuck-NOM mommy-DC
    `(It) is Hyuck's mommy.'      (H, 1; 10)
Example #317:

    nonunke-ya
    play-DC
    `Daddy frog is playing with the little frog.' (MJ, 2;4)
Example #318:

    cacenke        emma-ka                sacwu-ess-e
    bicycle mommy-NOM             buy-PST-DC
    (for me).'                           (MJ, 2;6)
Example #319:

    a.    pi-ka           o-ess-e         pi-ka. (SVS)
    rain-NOM        come-PST-DCrain-NOM
    `It rained.'            (H, 2;4)
Example #320:

    b.    emma-ka                 caenke sao-ess-e        emma-ka (SOVS)
    mommy-NOM               bicycle buy-PST-DC mother-NOM
    `Mommy bought a bicycle.' (MJ, 2;7)
Example #321:

    kkos-ul
    flower-ACC
    `The girl is picking up a flower.'      (H, 2;4)
Example #322:

    d.    chayk-ul        po-a            chayk-ul        (OVO)
    book-ACC        see-DC          book-ACC
    `(He) is reading a book.'               (H, 2;4)