ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Yang, Byong-Seon (1994). Morphosyntactic Phenomena of Korean in Role and Reference Grammar.

URL: http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/people/students/dissertations/yang/YANGDis.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-06-03).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1274&langcode=kor (2019-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    (1.1)   a. Nay-ka kay-lul    mwusewe-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC be.afraid-do-PRES-DEC
    "I fear the dog."
Example #2:

    b. Na-eykey/ka kay-ka       mwusep-ta
    I-DAT/NOM dog-NOM be.afraid-DEC
    "I am afraid of the dog."
Example #3:

    (1.2)   a. tul- li- wu- si- lswuiss-cianh-ass-kess-up-nita
    hear-CAU-PAS-SH-ABLE-NEG-PST-PRESUM-POL-DEC
    "(I) guess that (he) might (HON) not be heard."
Example #4:

    b. nol - li -si-ess-kess-up-te-ita
    play-CAU-SH-PST-PRESUM-POL-RETRO-DEC
    "(I) remember that (he) might let (HON) (them) play."
Example #5:

    nay-ka pap-lul          mek-ko-iss-ta
    I-NOM dinner-ACC eat-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    " I am eating the dinner."
Example #6:

    ppang-lul kwu-e           pethe-lul    pal- a-       noh-ass-ta
    bread-ACC toast-CONN butter-ACC put.on-CONN-put-PST-DEC
    "[She] toasted the bread and put the butter on it."
Example #7:

    Swunhi-nun hakkyo-ey ka-ss-ko Chelswu-nun tosekwan-ey ka-ss-ta
    -TOP school-to go-PST-CONN        -TOP library-to go-PST-DEC
    "Swunhi went to school and Chulsoo went to library."
Example #8:

    Chelswu-ka     Swunhi-ka/eykey/lul ttena-key   hay-ss-ta
    -NOM          -NOM/DAT/ACC leave-CONN do-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo made Soonhi left."
Example #9:

    Chelswu-ka [ ei kocangna-n]REL kempwuthei- lul kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM       be.broken -COMP computer -ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken."
Example #10:

    (1.9)   a. ce  sey-kay-uy      cakun inhyeng
    DEM three-CL-GEN little doll
    "Those three little dolls"
Example #11:

    c. [Chelswu-ka]S [[ Swunhi-ka cohaha-nun] REL cakun inhyeng-lul]O sa-ss-ta
    DEC
    "Chulsoo bought the little doll that Soonhi liked."
Example #12:

    (1.10) a. Swunhi-ka    sakwa-lul mek-ess-ta                          : Declarative
    -NOM apple-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi ate a/the apple."
Example #13:

    b. Swunhi-ka   sakwa-lul mek-ess-ni ?                         : Question
    -NOM apple-ACC eat-PST-Q
    "Did Soonhi eat a/the apple ?"
Example #14:

    d. sakwa-lul mek-ela                                          : Imperative
    apple-ACC eat-IMP
    "Eat a/the apple."
Example #15:

    Swunhi-ka   emeni-ka       kuli-wess-ta
    -NOM mother-NOM miss-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."                      (C. Youn 1989: 2)
Example #16:

    Swunhi-nun emeni-nun kuli-wess-ta
    -TOP mother-TOP miss-PST-DEC
    "As for Soonhi, she missed mother (but not father)."
Example #17:

    (1.12) a. Swunhi-nun hankwukmal-ul [paywu]V-ko-[iss]V-ta
    -TOP Korean -ACC learn -CONN-be-DEC
    "Soonhi is learning Korean."
Example #18:

    c. ku-nun [cha-lul tha]VP-ko [ka]VP-ss-ta
    he-TOP car-ACC ride-CONN go-PST-DEC
    "He rode the car and went."                   (C.S. Suh 1984:32)
Example #19:

    d. [pi      o]Cl -ko    [palam pwu]Cl-n-ta
    rain come-CONN wind blow-PRES-DEC
    `It is raining and the wind is blowing.'         (Ramstedt 1968:88)
Example #20:

    e.Toli-nun [ku yeca-ka          alumtap]Cl-tako sayngkakha-n-ta
    -TOP the woman-NOM pretty-CONN think -PRES-DEC
    "Toli thinks that the woman is pretty."     (H.K. Yang 1990)
Example #21:

    [ ei     ssingssingha-te-n]REL kokii -ka ssek-ess-ta
    fresh -PST-COMP        fish-NOM rotten-PST-DEC
    "The fish that was fresh was rotten."
Example #22:

    (1.15) a. [payi-ka    kokij-lul cap-un ]REL -kesi/j-i       khu-ta
    boat-NOM fish-ACC catch-COMP             -NOM big-DEC
    "The boat which caught a fish is big./The fish which a boat caught is big."
Example #23:

    b. [payi-ka     kokij-lul cap-un ]REL -kes *i/j-i cwuk-ess-ta
    boat-NOM fish-ACC catch-COMP one-NOM die-PST-DEC
    "The fish which a boat caught was dead."
Example #24:

    c. [payi-ka    kokij-lul cap-un ]REL -kes i/*j-i     pwuseci-ess-ta
    boat-NOM fish-ACC catch-COMP one-NOM broken-PST-DEC
    "The boat which caught the fish was broken."
Example #25:

    b. Na-eykey/ka kay-ka         mwusep-ta
    I-DAT/NOM dog-NOM be.afraid-DEC
    "I am afraid of the dog."
Example #26:

    (2.16) a. Chelswu-nun acikto ku sasil-ul       al-ko-iss-ta
    -TOP still the fact-ACC know-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    "Chulsoo still knows the fact ."
Example #27:

    b. * Chelswu-nun acikto ku sasil-ul       a-nuncwungi-ta
    -TOP still the fact-ACC know-PROG-DEC
    "* Chulsoo is still knowing the fact ."
Example #28:

    (2.17) a. Chelswu-nun acikto ku chayk-ul    kaci-ko-iss-ta
    -TOP still the book-ACC have-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    "Chulsoo still has the book."
Example #29:

    b. *Chelswu-nun acikto ku chayk-ul kaci-nuncwungi-ta
    -TOP still the book-ACC have-PROG-DEC
    "* Chulsoo is still having the book."
Example #30:

    (2.18) a. Chelswu-nun cikum wuntongcang-eyse twi-ko-iss-ta 31
    -TOP now playground- LOC run-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    "Chulsoo is still running in the playground."
Example #31:

    (i)    a. Chelswu-nun wuntongcang-eyse twi-ess-ta :Activity
    -TOP playground-LOC run-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo run in the playground."
Example #32:

    b. Chelswu-nun cip-eysepwuthe wuntongcang- kkaci twi-ess-ta :Accomplishment
    -TOP house-from        playground -to   run-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo run from the house to the playground."
Example #33:

    (ii)   a. Chelswu-nun cip-eysepwuthe wuntongcang- kkaci twi-ko-iss-ta
    -TOP house-from      playground-to         run-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    "Chulsoo is running from the house to the playground."
Example #34:

    (2.23) a. ku salam -un  yocuum ku pimil-lul      a-n-ta  : states
    the man -TOP nowadays the secret-ACC know-PRES-DEC
    "He knows the secret nowadays."
Example #35:

    b. ku-un cikum seul-ey      sa-n-ta                               : states
    he-TOP now Seoul-LOC live-PRES-DEC
    "He lives in Seoul now."
Example #36:

    c. Chelswu-nun hananim-ul mit-nun-ta                              :states
    -TOP GOD-ACC believe-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo believes in God."
Example #37:

    (2.24) a. ku haksayng-i cikum kong-ul         cha-n-ta                   : activity
    the student-NOM now ball-ACC kick-PRES-DEC
    "He is kicking the ball now."
Example #38:

    b. Chelswu-ka    talk-lul cwuk-i-n-ta                             :accomplishment
    -NOM hen-ACC die-CAU-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo is killing a hen."
Example #39:

    c. sikye-ka    pwuse-ci-n-ta                                      : achievement
    watch-NOM broken-become-PRES-DEC
    "The watch is being broken."
Example #40:

    (2.26) a. * Chelswu-nun himchakey/paklyekisskey ku tap-lul          an-ta
    -TOP vigorously/actively       the answer-ACC know-DEC
    "*Chulsoo knows the answer vigorously."        (States)
Example #41:

    b. *Chelswu-nun himchakey//hwalpalhi cwuk-ess-ta
    -TOP vigorously/actively die-PST-DEC
    "* Chulsoo died very vigorously."                (Achievements)
Example #42:

    (2.27) a. Chelswu-nun himchakey /hwalpalhi tali-n-ta
    -TOP vigorously /actively    run-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo runs very vigorously."              (Activities)
Example #43:

    b. Chelswu-nun congi-lul      hwalpalhi thaywu-ess-ta:
    -TOP paper-ACC vigorously burn-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo burnt the paper very vigorously."      (Accomplishment)
Example #44:

    (2.29) a. Swunhi-nun hansikan-tongan ku cip-ul       ci-ess-ta :accomplishment
    -TOP one.hour-for      the house-ACC build-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi built the house for an hour."
Example #45:

    b. ku nal-i      hansikan-tongan chwu-ess-ta                  :state
    that day-NOM one.hour-for    cold-PST-DEC
    "That day was cold for an hour."
Example #46:

    c. Swunhi-nun hansikan-tongan tali-ess-ta                     :activity
    -TOP one.hour-for       run-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi ran for an hour."
Example #47:

    d. ku os-i          hansikan-tongan mal-ass-ta                :durative achievement
    the clothes-NOM one.hour-for dry-PST-DEC
    "The clothes dried for one hour."
Example #48:

    (2.30) a. * Chelswu-nun hansikan-tongan ku cenkipwul-lul kke-ss-ta
    -TOP one.hour-for       the light -ACC turn.off-PST-DEC
    " *Chulsoo turned off the light for one hour."
Example #49:

    b. *ku kyehoyk-i hansikan-tongan pakwi-ess-ta
    the plan-NOM one.hour-for       change-PST-DEC
    "*The plan changed for one hour."
Example #50:

    c. *ku hoyuy-ka       hansikan-tongan sicakhay-ss-ta
    the meeting-NOM one.hour-for       begin- PST-DEC
    "*The meeting began for one hour."
Example #51:

    d. *ku.tul-i    hansikan-tongan kyelhon-hay-ss-ta
    they-NOM one.hour-for        marriage-do-PST-DEC
    "*They married for one hour."
Example #52:

    (i)    a. * ku os-i           hansikan-tongan ppalkah-ta
    the clothes-NOM one.hour-for        red-DEC
    "The clothes are red for one hour."
Example #53:

    b. Chelswu-nun     hansikan-maney wul-ess-ta                 Activity
    -TOP one.hour -in          cry-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo started to cry after an hour."
Example #54:

    c. ku.tul-i    hansikan-maney kyelhon-hay-ss-ta              Punctual Achievement
    they-NOM one.hour-in         marriage-do-PST-DEC
    "They [met and] decided to marry after an hour."
Example #55:

    Chelswu-nun wuntongcang-kkaci hansikan-maney ttwi-ess-ta
    -TOP playground-to         one.hour- in     run-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo ran to the playground within an hour."
Example #56:

    Chelswu-nun cip         han-chay-lul ilnyen-maney ci-ess-ta.
    -TOP house one-CL-ACC one.year-in build-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo built a house in one year."
Example #57:

    ku os-i             hansikan-maney malla-ss-ta
    the clothes-NOM one.hour-in         dry-PST-DEC
    "The clothes dried in an hour."
Example #58:

    (i) Chelswu-nun         cip    -lul   ilnyen-maney ci-ess-ta.
    -TOP          house -ACC one.year-in build-PST-DEC
    b: "Chulsoo built house(s) in one year."
Example #59:

    (2.38) a. Chelswu-nun ku sasil-ul      hansikan-tongan mit-ess-ta          :State
    -TOP the fact-ACC one.hour-for            believe-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo has believed the fact for an hour."
Example #60:

    b. ku nal-i       hansikan-tongan chwu-ess-ta                       :State
    that day-NOM one.hour-for       cold-PST-DEC
    "That day has been cold for an hour."
Example #61:

    c. Swunhi-nun hansikan-tongan tali-ess-ta                           :Activity
    -TOP one.hour-for    run-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi has run for an hour."
Example #62:

    Swunhi-nun hansikan-tongan ku cip-ul          ci-ess-ta
    -TOP one.hour-for     the house-ACC build-PST-DEC
    "Swunhi has built the house for an hour ."
Example #63:

    Chelswu-ka hansikan-tongan phyenci 10-cang -ul sse-ss-ta
    -NOM one.hour-for        letter     10-CL-ACC write- PST-DEC
    " Chulsoo has written 10 letters for one hour."
Example #64:

    ku os-i           hansikan-tongan mal-ass-ta.
    the clothes-NOM one.hour -for     dry-PST-DEC
    "The clothes dried for an hour."
Example #65:

    paci-ka      malu-nuncwungi-ta
    pants-NOM dry.up-PROG-DEC
    "Pants are drying up", but not "Pants have dried up."
Example #66:

    Chelswu-ka cip-lul          cis- uncwungi-ta
    -NOM house-ACC build-PROG-DEC
    "Chulsoo is building (his) house", not "Chulsoo has build (his) house."
Example #67:

    Chelswu-ka kongwen-eyse tali-uncwungi-ta.
    -NOM park-in          run- PROG-DEC
    " Chulsoo is running in the park." and " Chulsoo has run already."
Example #68:

    Chelswu-ka      Swunhi-ka/eykey/lul ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    -NOM          -NOM/DAT/ACC leave-CONN do-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo made Soonhi left."
Example #69:

    emeni-ka       ai-eykey/lul  os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    mother-NOM baby-DAT/ACC clothes-ACC wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    "Mother made the baby wear the clothes."
Example #70:

    emeni-ka       ai-lul     hakkyo-ey ponay-ss-ta
    mother-NOM child-ACC school-to send-PST-DEC
    "Mother sent the child to school."
Example #71:

    b. emeni-ka     ai-lul      hakkyo-ey/lul ponay-ss-ta
    mother-NOM child-ACC school-LOC/LOC send-PST-DEC
    "Mother sent the child to school."
Example #72:

    c. Chelswu-nun senmwul-lul twupen-lul         pat-ess-ta
    -TOP gift-ACC two.times-ACC receive-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo received a gift two times." (K. Park 1993b)
Example #73:

    d. Swunhi-nun chayk sey-kwon-lul hansikan-ul ilk-ess-ta
    -TOP book three-CL-ACC one.hour-ACC read-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi read books for one hour."
Example #74:

    Swunhi-nun yeypwu-ta
    -TOP pretty-DEC
    "Soonhi is pretty."
Example #75:

    Chayk-i    chayksang-wiey iss-ta
    book-NOM desk -on          is -DEC
    "The book is on the desk."
Example #76:

    Chelswu-nun Buffalo-ey sa-n-ta
    -TOP          -at live-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo lives in Buffalo."
Example #77:

    na-nun   haksayng-i-ta
    I-TOP    student-be-DEC
    "I  am a student."
Example #78:

    ai-ka       (hansikan-tongan) wul-ess-ta
    child-NOM one.hour-for           cry-PST-DEC
    "The child cried (for an hour)."
Example #79:

    Chelswu-nun pap-ul       mek-nun-ta
    -TOP dinner-ACC eat-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo eats dinner."
Example #80:

    Swunhi-ka (manhi) yeyppe-ci-ess-ta
    -NOM much pretty-become-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi became pretty."
Example #81:

    nay-ka haksayng-i     toy-ess-ta
    I-NOM student-NOM become-PST-DEC
    "I became a student."
Example #82:

    Chelswu-ka     hakkyo-ey tochakhay-ss-ta
    -NOM school-LOC arrive-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo arrive at school."
Example #83:

    elum-i       nok-ass-ta
    ice -NOM melt-PST-DEC
    "The ice melted."
Example #84:

    emeni-ka      Swunhi-lul  yeyppe-ci-key     mantul-ess-ta
    mother-NOM          -ACC pretty-become-COMP make-PST-DEC
    "Mother made Soonhi pretty."
Example #85:

    apeci-kkeyse         nay-ka haksayng-i toy-key          ha-si-ess-ta
    father-NOM(HON) I-NOM student-NOM become-COMP do-SH-PST-DEC
    "Father let me be a student."
Example #86:

    Chelswu-ka    elum-ul     nok-i-ess-ta
    -NOM ice -ACC melt-CAU-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo made the ice melted."
Example #87:

    (2.53) a. Swunhi-ka emeni-lul    kuliwe-hay-ss-ta.
    -NOM mother-ACC miss-do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."
Example #88:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul mwusewe-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC be.afraid-do-PRES-DEC
    "I fear the dog."
Example #89:

    (2.54) a. Swunhi-eykey/ka    emeni-ka kuliwe-ss-ta
    -DAT/NOM mother-NOM miss-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."
Example #90:

    b. Na-eykey/ka kay-ka       mwusep-ta
    I-DAT/NOM dog-NOM be.afraid-DEC
    "I am afraid of the dog."
Example #91:

    (2.55) a. John-i     thokki-lul yeyppe-ha-n-ta
    -NOM rabbit-ACC lovely-do-PRES-DEC
    "John loves rabbits."
Example #92:

    b. John-i    hippi-lul     pwulewe-ha-n-ta
    -NOM hippie-ACC jealous-do-PRES-DEC
    "John envies hippies."
Example #93:

    (2.56) a. *John-i/eykey      thokki-ka yeypwu-ta
    -NOM/DAT rabbit-NOM lovely-DEC
    "John loves rabbits."
Example #94:

    b. *John-i/eykey    hippi-ka  pwulep-ta
    -NOM/DAT hippie-NOM jealous-DEC
    "John envies hippies."           (I.S. Yang 1972:164)
Example #95:

    (i)    a. *John-i/eykey    hippi-ka      pwulep-ni ?
    -NOM/DAT hippie-NOM jealous-Q
    "Does John envy hippies ?"
Example #96:

    b. ney-ka/eykey    hippi-ka     pwulep-ni ?
    you-NOM/DAT hippi-NOM jealous-Q
    "Do you envy hippies ?"
Example #97:

    (2.57) a. John-i/-eykey       thokki-ka yeyppe-ess-ta
    -NOM/-DAT        rabbit-NOM lovely-PST-DEC
    "John has loved rabbits."
Example #98:

    b. John-i/-eykey     hippi-ka pwulewe-ss-ta
    -NOM/-DAT hippie-NOM jealous-PST-DEC
    "John envied hippies."
Example #99:

    a. *John-i /-eykey     Kim-sensayng-nim-i     kuliwu-si-ta
    -NOM /-DAT         -teacher-HON-NOM miss-SH-DEC
    "John misses (HON) Teacher Kim (HON)."
Example #100:

    b. Kim-sensayng-nim-i /-eykey John-i     kuliwu-si-ta
    -teacher-HON- NOM-DAT        -NOM miss-SH-DEC
    "Teacher Kim (HON) misses (HON) John."
Example #101:

    Swunhii-ka   coh-ass-ta
    -NOM like-PST-DEC
    "Though shei is a student, Teacher Kim (HON) liked Swunhii."
Example #102:

    coh-ass-ta
    miss-PST-DEC
    "Though shei is a student, Swunhii liked Teacher Kim."
Example #103:

    (2.61) a. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul coha-ha-uncwungi-ta
    -NOM           -ACC like-do -PROG-DEC
    "Soonhi is liking Chulsoo./ Soonhi has liked Chulsoo."
Example #104:

    (2.66) a. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul paklyekisskey coha-hay-ss-ta
    -NOM        -ACC vigorously       like -do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi vigorously liked Chulsoo."
Example #105:

    (ii)     a. kay-lul    mwusewe-ha-yela
    dog-ACC fear - do -IMP
    "(You) fear the dog."
Example #106:

    (2.67) a. Nay-ka kay-lul       swutasulepkey mwusewe-hay-ss-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC actively             fear -do- PST-DEC
    "I actively feared the dog."
Example #107:

    (2.69) a. Swunhi-ka    Chelswu-lul hansikan-tongan coha-hay-ss-ta
    -NOM          -ACC      one.hour-for    like -do -PST-DEC
    "Soonhi has liked Chulsoo for an hour.
Example #108:

    b. Swunhi-ka    Chelswu-ka hansikan-tongan coh-ass-ta
    -NOM         - NOM one.hour-for be.likable-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi has liked Chulsoo for an hour."
Example #109:

    (2.70) a. Nay-ka kay-lul       hansikan-tongan mwusewe-hay-ss-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC one.hour-for           fear -do- PST-DEC
    (However, I don't fear the dog anymore.)
Example #110:

    b. Nay-ka kay-ka       hansikan-tongan mwusewe-ss-ta
    I-NOM dog-NOM one.hour-for            fear- PST-DEC
    "I have feared the dog for an hour."
Example #111:

    (2.72) a. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul hansikan-maney coha-hay-ss-ta
    -NOM          -ACC one.hour-in          like -do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi started to like Chulsoo after an hour."
Example #112:

    (2.73) a. Nay-ka kay-lul hansikan-maney mwusewe-hay-ss-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC one.hour-in              fear -do- PST-DEC
    "I started to fear the dog after an hour."
Example #113:

    (2.74) a. *Swunhi-ka Chelswu-ka coh-a-iss-ta
    -NOM         - NOM be.likable-PERF-DEC
    "Swunhi had liked Chelswu."
Example #114:

    b. * Nay-ka kay-ka        mwusewe-iss-ta
    I-NOM dog-NOM fear- PERF-DEC
    " I had feared the dog."
Example #115:

    (2.76) a. Na-nun Swunhi-ka/-eykey/-lul Chelswu-lul coha-ha-key ha-yess-ta50
    I-TOP      -NOM /DAT/ACC           -ACC like-do-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "I made Soonhi like Chulsoo."
Example #116:

    b. Na-nun Swunhi-ka/eykey/-lul Chelswu-ka coha-ci-key    ha-yess-ta
    DEC
    "(lit.) I made Soonhi become to like Chulsoo."
Example #117:

    (2.77) a. Swunhi-nun Nay-ka/-eykey/-lul    kay-lul mwusewe-ha-key ha -yess-ta
    DEC
    "Soonhi caused me to fear the dog."
Example #118:

    mwusewe-ci-key        ha-yess-ta
    fear-BECOME-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "(lit.) Soonhi caused me to become afraid of the dog."
Example #119:

    (2.78) a. ??Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul hansikan-lul coha-hay-ss-ta
    -NOM          -ACC one.hour-ACC like -do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi did like Chulsoo for an hour."
Example #120:

    (2.79) a. ??Nay-ka kay-lul twupen-lul    mwusewe-hay-ss-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC two.times-ACC fear -do- PST-DEC
    "I did fear the dog two times."
Example #121:

    a. Swunhi-ka emeni-lul   kuliwe-hay-ss-ta.
    -NOM mother-ACC miss-do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."
Example #122:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul mwusewe-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC be.afraid-do-PRES-DEC
    "I fear the dog."
Example #123:

    a. Swunhi-eykey/ka     emeni-ka kuliwe-ss-ta
    -DAT/NOM mother-NOM miss-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."
Example #124:

    b. Na-eykey/ka kay-ka       mwusep-ta
    I-DAT/NOM dog-NOM be.afraid-DEC
    "I am afraid of the dog."
Example #125:

    b. Swunhi-ka    kay-ka      mwusewe-ss-ta
    -NOM dog-NOM fear-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi feared the dog."
Example #126:

    (2.101) a. apeci-kkeyse       Swunhi-lul ttayli-si-ess-ta
    father-NOM(HON)         -ACC hit-SH-PST-DEC
    "Father (HON) hit (HON) Soonhi."
Example #127:

    b. apecii-kkeyse   Swunhij-eykey cakii/*j-uy chayk-lul cwu-si-ess-ta
    father-NOM(HON)        -DAT selfi/*j-GEN book-ACC give-SH-PST-DEC
    "Father(HON) gave(HON) his book to Soonhi."
Example #128:

    ton-lul    cwu-si-ess-ta
    money-ACC give-SH-PST-DEC
    "Though hei/*j is a student, fatheri(HON) gave(HON) money to Soonhij."
Example #129:

    a. *John-i /-eykey      Kim-sensayng-nim-i     mwusewu-si-ta
    -NOM /-DAT          -teacher-HON-NOM fear-SH-DEC
    "John fears (HON) teacher Kim (HON)
Example #130:

    b. Kim-sensayng-nim-i /eykey   John-i                  mwusewu-si-ta
    -teacher-HON- NOM/DAT       -NOM                fear-SH-DEC
    "Teacher Kim (HON) fears (HON) John."
Example #131:

    a. *PROi kyengchal-i-myense, Mary-ka/-eykey Swunhii -ka mwusep-ta
    policeman-be-though        -NOM/-DAT           -NOM fear-DEC
    "Though shei is a policeman, Mary fears Soonhii ."
Example #132:

    b. PROi kyengchal-i-myense, Maryi -ka/-eykey Swunhi-ka mwusep-ta
    policeman-be-though        -NOM/-DAT          -NOM fear-DEC
    "Though shei is a policeman, Maryi fears Soonhi."
Example #133:

    b. Swunhi-ka     kay-ka     mwusewe-ss-ta
    -NOM dog-NOM fear-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi feared the dog."
Example #134:

    Swunhi-ka     kay-lul    mwusewe-hay-ss-ta
    -NOM       dog- ACC fear- do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi feared the dog."
Example #135:

    (2.115) a. oykwukin-tul-i      seys-i      hakkyo-ey o-ass-ta
    foreigner-PL-NOM three-PCM school-to come-PST-DEC
    "Three foreigners came to school."            (C. Youn 1989:3)
Example #136:

    b. TV-ka      Zenith-ka      thunthunha-ta
    -PCM          -NOM strong-DEC
    "As for TV, Zenith is durable."                         (I.S. Yang 1972)
Example #137:

    c. ku chayk-i     twu pen-i        ilk-hi-ess-ta
    the book-NOM two.times-PCM read-PAS-PST-DEC
    "The book was read twice."                           (Maling 1989)
Example #138:

    d. Semywukongcang-i pwul-i            na-ss-ta.
    textile.factory-PCM fire-NOM break.out-PST-DEC
    "Fire broke out in the textile factory."    (C. Youn 1989)
Example #139:

    (i)    a. U.B.-ka Baldy Hall-i ywukchung-i kun.pwul-i                 na-ss-ta
    -NOM        -NOM 6th.floor-NOM conflagration-NOM break out-PAST-DEC
    " A conflagration broke out on the 6th floor of Baldy Hall at U.B."
Example #140:

    (2.117) a. Swunhi-ka    kay-ka     mwusewe-ss-ta
    -CFM dog-NOM fear-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi feared the dog."
Example #141:

    b. TV-ka      Zenith-ka thunthunha-ta
    -CFM       -NOM strong-DEC
    "As for TV, Zenith is durable."
Example #142:

    c. Semywukongcang-i pwul-i            na-ss-ta.
    textile.factory -CFM fire-NOM break.out-PST-DEC
    "Fire broke out in the textile factory."
Example #143:

    (3.1)   a. halapeci-kkeyse       hakkyo-ey an-ka-(si)-ess-keyss-upni-ta
    grandfather-NOM(HON) school-to NEG-go-(SH)-PST-GUESS-POL-DEC
    "Grandfather(HON) might not go (HON) to school."
Example #144:

    (3.2)     wus      -usi-      ess-    ess- keyss -sup-    ni      ta
    smile     SH        PST      PST FUT Formal indicative Assertive
    "(He) might   have smiled (HON)."
Example #145:

    (3.6)   a. ttang-ul              nem- ki- si- ess-keyss-sao-ni.
    field-ACC           sell -CAU-SH-PST-GUESS-RETRO-DEC
    "(I) guess that (you) sold(HON) the field."
Example #146:

    b. kulus-lul      kkay-ttuli-si-ess-keyss-te-la
    dish-ACC brake-EMP-SH-PST-GUESS-RETRO-DEC
    "(I) guess that (he) broke (HON) the dish."
Example #147:

    c. os-lul       cap-hi-si-ess-up-nita
    clothes-ACC put -CAU-SH-PST-POL-DEC
    "(He) put (HON) his clothes be (in the pawn shop)."
Example #148:

    d. nul       tampay-man phi-wu-si-kes-ta
    always cigarette-only smoke-CAU-SH-GUESS-DEC
    "(I) guess that (he) smokes(HON) cigarette always."
Example #149:

    e. kuli ha-si-keyss-up-nita
    so do-SH-GUESS-POL-DEC
    "(I) guess that (he) does (HON) so."
Example #150:

    f. ne-to   po-ass-kes-ta
    you-too see-PST-GUESS-DEC
    "(I) guess that you saw (it), too."
Example #151:

    (3.9)    cap-hi-si-esskeyss-saop-nita
    catch-PAS-SH-tense.suffix-humble.suffix-inflectional.ending
    `[He] may have been captured." (H.B. Lee 1989:76)
Example #152:

    (3.23) a. an-   tul- li- wu- (si)- lswuiss-cianh-ass-keyss-up-nita
    NEG-hear-CAU-PAS-(SH)-ABLE-NEG-PST-PRESUM-POL-DEC
    "(I) guess that [He] might [HON] not be heard."
Example #153:

    b. hakkyo-ey ka-(si)-ko-iss-ess-keyss-te-ita
    school-to go-(SH)-CONN-be(CONY)-PST-PRESUM-RETRO-DEC
    "(I) remember that (he) might was going to school."
Example #154:

    c. cap-hi-(si)-ess-keyss-saop-nita
    catch-PAS-(SH)-tense.suffix-humble.suffix-inflectional.ending
    `[He] may have been captured." (H.B. Lee 1989:76)
Example #155:

    (3.25) a. Chelswu-ka Swunhi-eykey malhay-ss-upni-ta                  : Addressee Honorific
    -NOM         -DAT speak-PST-POL-DEC
    "Chulsoo spoke(HON) to Soonhi "
Example #156:

    b. Halapeci-kkeyse Swunhi-eykey malha-si-ess-ta : Subject Honorific
    grandfather -NOM(HON) -DAT speak-SH-PST-DEC
    "Grandfather (HON) spoke(HON) to Soonhi."
Example #157:

    c. Chelswu-ka    halapeci-kkey          malssum-tuli-ess-ta :Object Honorific
    -NOM grandfather-DAT(HON) speak-OH-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo spoke(HON) to grandfather (HON)."
Example #158:

    (3.26) a. halapeci-ka         atul-eykey sinpal-lul sin-ki-(si)-ess-ta
    grandfather-NOM son-DAT shoes-ACC put.on-CAU-(SH)-PST-DEC
    "Grandfather made son put on shoes."
Example #159:

    (3.27) a. apeci-kkeyse      piano-lul chi-(si)-ko-iss-(usi)-ess-ta
    father-NOM(HON) piano-ACC play-(SH)-CONN-CONT-(SH)-PST-DEC
    "Father (HON) was playing (HON) the piano."
Example #160:

    b. apeci-kkeyse          piano-lul chi-(si)-ko       nolay-lul pwulu-(si)-ess-ta
    father-NOM(HON)       piano-ACC play-SH-CONN song-ACC sing-SH-PST-DEC
    "Father (HON)    played the piano and then sang a song."
Example #161:

    emeni-kkeyse      nolay-lul pwulu-(si)-ess-ta
    mother-NOM(HON) song-ACC sing-(SH)-PST-DEC
    "Father (HON) played the piano, while mother (HON) sang a song."
Example #162:

    (3.29) a. halapenim-kkeyse              cwumwusi-n-ta
    grandfather(HON)-NOM(HON) sleep(HON)-PRES-DEC
    "Grandfather (HON) sleeps (HON)."
Example #163:

    b. nay-ka chongcangnim-kkey              selyu-lul      tuli-ess-ta
    I-NOM president(HON)-DAT(HON) document-ACC give(HON)-PST-DEC
    "I gave (HON) the documents to the president (HON)."
Example #164:

    (3.30) a. halapenim-kkeyse             hakkyo-ey ka-si-n-ta
    grandfather(HON)-NOM(HON) school-to go-SH-PRES-DEC
    "Grandfather (HON) goes (HON) to school."
Example #165:

    b. nay-ka chongcangnim-kkey               selyu-lul     ponay-tuli-ess-ta
    I-NOM president(HON)-NOM(HON) document-ACC send-OH-PST-DEC
    "I sent (HON) the documents to the president (HON)."
Example #166:

    (3.31) a. emeni-ka      us-usi-ess-up-nita
    mother-NOM smile-SH-PST-POL-DEC
    "Mother smiled(HON)(POL)."
Example #167:

    (3.32) a. apeci-ka       o-si-ess-ta
    father-NOM come-SH-PST-DEC
    "The father comes (HON)."
Example #168:

    b. phyenci-ka        o-ass-up-nita
    letter-NOM        come-PST-POL-DEC
    "The letter was delivered (POL)."
Example #169:

    (3.33) a. apeci-ka      o-ass-ta
    father-NOM come-PST-DEC
    "The father comes ."
Example #170:

    (i)    pap-lul        mek-ko.iss-ess-ess-ta
    dinner-ACC eat-CONT-PERF-PST-DEC
    "(I) had been eating the dinner."
Example #171:

    (ii)   pap-lul        mek-ko.iss-ulswu.iss-ess-ess-ta
    dinner-ACC eat-CONT-ABLE-PERF-PST-DEC
    "(I) could have been eating the dinner."
Example #172:

    (3.36) a. Chelswu-ka hakkyo-eyse kongpwuha-ko.iss-ulswu.eps-ess-ta
    -NOM school- at     study -be(CONT)-UNABLE-PST--DEC
    " Chulsoo could not be studying at school."
Example #173:

    b. Chelswu-ka cip-ey honca          ka-a.iss-ulswu.iss-ess-ta
    -NOM house-to by.himself go-be(PERF)-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo could have went to the house by himself."
Example #174:

    c. ai-ka        ki-e.o-lswu.iss-ess-ta
    baby-NOM crawl-DIR-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "The baby could crawl (toward me)."
Example #175:

    (i)    a. ai-ka        ki-e         o-ko.iss-lswu.iss-ess-ta
    baby-NOM crawl-CONN come-CONT-able-PST-DEC
    "The baby could crawl and be coming."
Example #176:

    d. kay-ka     ku sangca-lul twienem-e ka-ko.iss-lswu.eps-ess-ta
    dog-NOM the box-ACC jump-CONN go-CONT-unable-PST-DEC
    "The dog could not jump the box and be going."
Example #177:

    (3.37) a. Chelswu-ka pap-lul        manhi    an - mek-ess-ta
    -NOM dinner-ACC much         NEG-eat-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo did not eat much dinner (But he ate a little)."
Example #178:

    b. Chelswu-ka pap-lul           manhi     mek-ci.ahn-ess-ta
    -NOM dinner-ACC much              eat-NEG-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo did not eat much dinner ."
Example #179:

    (i)    a. nay-ka nayil          hakkyo-ey ka-keyss-ta
    I-NOM tomorrow school-to go-FUT-DEC
    "I will go to school tomorrow."
Example #180:

    b. na-nun    nayil hakkyo-ey ka-(ya)-keyss-ta
    I-TOP tomorrow school-to go-OBLIG-DEC
    "I must go to school tomorrow."
Example #181:

    (3.44) hansikan-ceney Swunhi-nun hakkyo-ey tochakhay-ss-te-la
    one.hour-before         -TOP school-LOC arrive-PST-RETRO-DEC
    "Soonhi arrived at school one hour ago [I saw/remember/recall it]."
Example #182:

    (3.45) (ceneyn) i kkos-i           pwulk-te-nya ?
    before this flower-NOM red-RETRO-Q
    "Was this flower red before ?[Did you see/recall it ?]."
Example #183:

    (3.46) (opwuncen-ey)        apeci-kkeyse sinmwun-ul      po-si-te-i-ta
    five.minutes.ago-LOC father-NOM newspaper-ACC see-SH-RETRO-POL-DEC
    "Father(HON) read(HON) the newspaper (five minutes ago) [I saw/recall it]."
Example #184:

    (3.47) hansikan-ceney Swunhi-nun hakkyo-ey tochakhay-ss-tate-la
    one.hour-before        -TOP school-LOC arrive-PST-Hearsay-DEC
    "Soonhi arrived at school one hour ago [I heard it ]."
Example #185:

    (3.48) (ceneyn) i kkos-i          pwulk-ess-tate-nya ?
    before this flower-NOM red-PST-Hearsay-Q
    "Was this flower red before ?[Did you hear it ?]."
Example #186:

    (3.49) (opwuncen-ey) apeci-kkeyse sinmwun-ul        po-si-ess-tate-i-ta
    five.minutes.ago father-NOM newspaper-ACC see-SH-PST-Hearsay-POL-DEC
    "Father(HON) read(HON) the newspaper (five minutes ago) [I heard it]."
Example #187:

    pi-ka         o-keyss-te-la
    V- TENSE- EVID- IF
    "It will be to rain [I recall]."             (H.B. Lee 1989: 95)
Example #188:

    b. Past Perfect Presumptive Tense
    V- TENSE-EVID-IF
    "This bridge might have been longer before." (H.B. Lee 1989:93)
Example #189:

    (i) zyoon wa tomodati ni           a-e-ta -soo-yo
    TOP             DAT meet-can-PST-EVID-IF
    "(I heard that ) Joan could meet her friend."
Example #190:

    Chelswu-ka kuttay      ton-i        pwucokhay-ess-keyss-te-la
    DEC
    "Chulsoo might have been short of money at that time[I thought]."
Example #191:

    ai-ka        wul-ko.iss-te-la
    baby-NOM cry-CONT-RETRO-DEC
    "The baby was crying [I recall]."
Example #192:

    Swunhi-ka kuttay         wul-ko.iss-ess-keyss-te-la.
    -NOM at.that.time cry-CONT-PST-PRESUM-RETOR-DEC
    "Soonhi might have been crying at that time."
Example #193:

    (3.51) a. Chelswu-ka hakkyo-ey ka-ss-ta                        : Declarative
    -NOM school-to go-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo went to school."
Example #194:

    b. Chelswu-ka     hakkyo-ey ka-ss-nya ?                 : Question
    -NOM school-to go-PST-Q
    "Did Chulsoo go to school ?"
Example #195:

    d. Chelswu-ya     hakkyo-ey ka-la                     : Imperative
    -VOC school-to go-IMP
    " Go to school, Chulsoo."
Example #196:

    wus        -usi-       ess. ess-    keyss -supni - ta
    smile +      SH + PST(PERF) + PRESUMP+ POL- DEC
    "(He) (HON) might smile (HON)."
Example #197:

    cap -hi- si- ess- keyss-          saopni- ta
    catch-PAS-SH- PST- PRESUMP - POL -DEC
    "[He] may have been captured."
Example #198:

    (i)    a. tul- ess- keyss- te-       i-     ta
    hear- PST-GUESS-RETRO-POL-DEC
    "(He) might hear (HON) (the sound) [I recall]."
Example #199:

    a. nay-ka pap-lul          [mek]V-ko-[iss]V-ta
    I-NOM dinner-ACC eat-CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    " I am eating the dinner."
Example #200:

    b. ai-ka         [kel]V-e-[o]V-n-ta
    child-NOM walk-CONN-come-PRES-DEC
    "The child walks (toward me)."
Example #201:

    c. Kim-sensayngnim-i     ku yeca-lul     [coh]V-a-[ha]V-si-n-ta
    -teacher(HON)-NOM the woman-ACC like-CONN-do-SH-PRES-DEC
    "Teacher Kim(HON) likes (HON) the woman."     (B.S. Park 1974: 52)
Example #202:

    [tal-i        palk-ki]-ka         nac-kwa kath-ta
    moon-NOM bright-COMP-NOM day-like same-DEC
    "The brightness of the moon was like that of the sun."
Example #203:

    [pesu-ka menci-lul nay-]ko/myense talli-n-ta
    bus-NOM dust-ACC stir.up -CONN             run-PRES-DEC
    `A bus is running, while stirring up the dust.'        (K.S. Nahm 1978:7)
Example #204:

    [ppang-lul kwu]-e         [pethe-lul    pal-a-noh]-ass-ta
    bread-ACC toast-CONN butter-ACC put.on-CONN-put-PST-DEC
    "[She] toasted the bread and put the butter on it."
Example #205:

    Chelswu-ka [Swunhi-ka ttokttokhay-ess]CL-tako sayngkakha-n-ta
    -NOM         -NOM smart- PST -CONN think-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo thinks that Soonhi was smart."
Example #206:

    [satto-(ka)                ttu]-ko        [naphal-(i)      pwul]-ess-ta
    province.governor-NOM arrive-CONN trumpet-NOM sound-PST-DEC
    "It is too late."
Example #207:

    (i)       a. Chelswu-ka Yenghi-eykey kwail cup-lul      masi-key     hay-ss-ta
    -NOM       -DAT fruit juice-ACC drink-CONN do-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo caused Younghi to drink the fruit juice." (ibid.: 584)
Example #208:

    b. Chelswu-ka Yenghi-eykey kwail cup-lul     masi-key     hay-ss-ta
    -NOM        -DAT fruit juice-ACC drink-CONN do-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo caused Younghi to drink the fruit juice." (ibid.: 585)
Example #209:

    kunye-uy cip-ey    cenwha-lul kel-ess-ta
    she -GEN home-at phone-ACC dial-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo called Younghi at home so that she could come to the party."
Example #210:

    Chelswu-ka      Swunhi-ka/eykey/lul ttena-key hay-ss-ta
    -NOM         -NOM/DAT/ACC leave-CONN do-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo made Soonhi left."
Example #211:

    emeni-ka       ai-eykey/lul  os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    mother-NOM baby-DAT/ACC clothes-ACC wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    "Mother made the baby wear the clothes."
Example #212:

    emeni-ka       ai-lul      hakkyo-ey ponay-ss-ta
    mother-NOM child-ACC school-to send-PST-DEC
    "Mother sent the child to school."
Example #213:

    Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul tosekwan-eyse manna-ss-ta
    -NOM         -ACC library-LOC      meet-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi met Chulsoo in the library."
Example #214:

    (4.10) a. ney-ka   Chelswu-lul tosekwan-eyse ettehkey hay-ss-ni ?
    you-NOM           -ACC library-LOC how            do-PST-Q
    "How did you do with Chulsoo in the library ?"
Example #215:

    b. (nay-ka) (Chelswu-lul) (tosekwan-eyse) manna-ss-ta
    I-NOM               -ACC library-LOC      meet-PST-DEC
    "(I) met (Chulsoo) (in the library)."
Example #216:

    Swunhi-ka sakwa-lul mek-ess-ta
    -NOM apple-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi ate an/ the apple."
Example #217:

    (4.12) a. Swunhi-nun sakwa-lul mek-ess-ta107
    -TOP apple-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) Soonhi, ate an/the apple."
Example #218:

    b. Swunhi-nun sakwa-nun mek-ess-ta
    -TOP apple-TOP eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) Soonhi, an/the apple, ate."
Example #219:

    c. sakwa-nun Swunhi-ka mek-ess-ta
    -TOP         -NOM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) An/The apple, Soonhi ate."
Example #220:

    d. sakwa-nun Swunhi-nun mek-ess-ta
    -TOP         -TOP eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) An/The apple, Soonhi, ate."
Example #221:

    (4.13) a. Swunhi-nun sakwa-lul mek-ess-ta
    -TOP apple-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) Soonhi, ate an/the apple."
Example #222:

    b. SWUNHI-NUN108 sakwa-lul mek-ess-ta
    -CTM apple-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) SOONHI, ate an/the apple."
Example #223:

    c. Swunhi-nun SAKWA-LUL mek-ess-ta
    -TOP apple-ACC        eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) Soonhi, ate AN/THE APPLE."
Example #224:

    d. SWUNHI-NUN SAKWA-LUL mek-ess-ta
    -CTM apple-ACC     eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) SOONHI, ate AN/THE APPLE."
Example #225:

    e. Swunhi-nun SAKWA-NUN mek-ess-ta
    -TOP apple- CTM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) Soonhi, AN/THE APPLE, ate."
Example #226:

    f. SAKWA-NUN Swunhi-ka mek-ess-ta
    apple -CTM        -NOM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) AN/THE APPLE, Soonhi ate."
Example #227:

    g. sakwa-nun Swunhi-ka mek-ess-ta
    apple -TOP      -NOM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) An/The apple, Soonhi ate."
Example #228:

    e. sakwa-nun SWUNHI-KA mek-ess-ta
    apple -TOP        -CFM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) An/The apple, SOONHI ate."
Example #229:

    h. sakwa-nun SWUNHI-NUN mek-ess-ta
    -TOP             -CTM eat-PST-DEC
    "(Lit) An/The apple, SOONHI, ate."
Example #230:

    (4.14) a. Swunhi-nun SAKWA-NUN mek-ess-ni ?                  (cf. 4.13a)
    -TOP apple- CTM eat-PST-Q
    "Soonhi, did she eat AN/THE APPLE ?"
Example #231:

    b. kulay, (*Swunhi-nun) SAKWA-NUN mek-ess-ta
    yes              -TOP apple- CTM eat-PST-DEC
    "Yes, she ate AN/THE APPLE."
Example #232:

    (4.15) a. sakwa-nun SWUNHI-KA mek-ess-ni ? (cf. 4.13f)
    apple -TOP        -CFM eat-PST- Q
    "An/The apple, did SOONHI eat it ?"
Example #233:

    b. kulay, (*sakwa-nun) SWUNHI-KA mek-ess-ta
    yes      apple -TOP       -CFM eat-PST-DEC
    "Yes, SOONHI ate it."
Example #234:

    (4.16) a. Swunhi-nun MWUES-NUN mek-ess-ni ?
    -TOP what- CTM eat-PST-Q
    "Soonhi, what did she eat ?"
Example #235:

    b. *nwukwu-nun SAKWA-NUN mek-ess-ni ?
    -TOP apple- CTM eat-PST-Q
    "*Whom, did he/she eat AN/THE APPLE ?"
Example #236:

    (4.17) a. sakwa-nun NWUKWU-KA             mek-ess-ni ?
    apple -TOP   who     -CFM eat-PST-Q
    "An/The apple, who ate it ?"
Example #237:

    b. *mwues-nun SWUNHI-KA mek-ess-ni ?
    what-TOP          -CFM eat-PST- Q
    "*What, did SOONHI eat ?"
Example #238:

    (4.21) a. SWUNHI-ka    emeni-ka      kuliwe-ss-ta
    -CFM mother-NOM miss-PST-DEC
    "SWUNHI missed (her) mother."
Example #239:

    b. SWUNHI-ka     kay-ka     mwusewe-ss-ta
    -CFM dog-NOM be.afraid-PST-DEC
    "SWUNHI feared the dog."
Example #240:

    (4.28) a. Chelswu-ka chayk-lul      po-ass-ta
    -NOM book-ACC see-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo saw the book."
Example #241:

    b. Chelswu-ka chayk-lul ilk-e-po-ass-ta
    -NOM book-ACC read-CONN-try(AUX)-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo tried to read the book."
Example #242:

    (4.29) a. Swunhi-ka panana-lul peli-ess-ta
    -NOM banana-ACC dump-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi dumped the banana."
Example #243:

    b. Swunhi-ka panana-lul       mek-e-peli-ess-ta
    -NOM banana-ACC eat-CONN-PERF-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi had eaten the banana completely."
Example #244:

    ku salam-i,    [nach-i     ttuttusha-key ],     kulensoli-lul hay-ss-eyo.
    the man-NOM face-NOM disgraceful-CONN the talk-ACC do-PST-DEC
    "(I) Being shameful, he spoke the (bad) talk."       (H.B. Choi 1989:829)
Example #245:

    na-nun [nwun-i       o-nun]      nal-lul ceyil cohaha-o
    I-TOP snow-NOM come-REL day-ACC best like-DEC
    "I like days when it snows."                      (ibid.: 830)
Example #246:

    pwucilenhan haksayng-i [sengcek-i cohu-nila]
    diligent       student-NOM grade-NOM good-DEC
    "It is the diligent student that has a good grade."     (ibid.: 830)
Example #247:

    a. kyewul-un cwup-ko         yelum-un      tep-ta
    winter-TOP cold-CONN summer-TOP hot-DEC
    "Winter is cold, and summer is hot."       (ibid.: 833)
Example #248:

    (4.32) a. enni-nun        pwucilenha-cimanun, awu-nun                     keyulu-ta
    older.sister-TOP diligent -though         younger.sister-TOP lazy-DEC
    "Though older sister is diligent, younger sister is lazy."      (ibid.: 835)
Example #249:

    b. pom-i        o-myen, kkos-i           pin-ta
    spring-NOM come-if    flower-NOM bloom-DEC
    "When spring comes, the flowers bloom."                      (ibid.: 836)
Example #250:

    c. hay-ka     ci-ca,             na-nun cip-ulo   tol-a-wa-ss-ta
    sun-NOM disappear-since I-TOP home-to          turn-CONN-come-PST-DEC
    "Since it is dark, I came back home."                    (ibid.: 836)
Example #251:

    (4.35) a. Swunhi-nun hankwukmal-ul paywu-ko-iss-ta
    -TOP Korean -ACC learn -CONN-be(CONT)-DEC
    "Soonhi is learning Korean."
Example #252:

    b. na-nun hakkyo-ey ka-a-iss-ta
    I-TOP school-to go-CONN-be(PERF)-DEC
    "I have been to school."                            (J.I. Kown 1985:20)
Example #253:

    (4.36) a. Toli-nun [ku yeca-ka           alumtap-ta]-ko sayngkakha-n-ta
    -TOP the woman-NOM pretty-DEC-CONN             think -PRES-DEC
    `Toli thinks that the woman is pretty."           (H.K. Yang 1990)
Example #254:

    b. na-nun [Chelswu-ka hakkyo-ey ka-n-ta]-ko       malhay-ss-ta
    I-TOP          -NOM school-to go-PRES-DEC-CONN tell -PST-DEC
    "I told that Chulsoo went to school."     (J.I. Kown 1985:20)
Example #255:

    a. [atul-i     nol-key]CL      emeni-ka       nolay-lul pwul-ess-ta
    son-NOM play-COMP mother-NOM song-ACC sing-PST-DEC
    "The mother sang a song so that the son could play."
Example #256:

    a. Chelswu-ka [Swunhi-ka ttokttokhay-ess]CL-tako             sayngkakha-n-ta
    -NOM           -NOM smart- PST -COMP                think-PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo thinks that Soonhi was smart.
Example #257:

    b. Chelswu-nun [Swunhi-ka acikto ttena-cianh-ass]CL-nyako mwul-ess-ta
    -TOP        -NOM still leave-NEG-PST-COMP        ask-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo asked (me) whether Soonhi left or not."
Example #258:

    [salam-i kyenti-cimos-hakey]
    people-NOM handle-NEG-COMP big wave-NOM push-DIR-PST-DEC
    "The people not being handled, a big wave approached (to the people)."
Example #259:

    [Swunhi-ka ttokttokhay-ess]-tako Chelswu-ka sayngkakha-n-ta
    -NOM smart        -PST-COMP         -NOM think -PRES-DEC
    "Chulsoo thinks that Soonhi was smart."
Example #260:

    awu-nun               mwues-i     toy-ess-ya ?
    younger.brother-TOP what-NOM become-PST-Q
    brother become ?"
Example #261:

    a. Chelswu-nun khi-ka           khu-ko     Swunhi-nun ette ha-nya ?
    -TOP height-NOM tall-CONN               -TOP how is-Q
    "Chulsoo is tall in height and how about Soonhi in height ?"
Example #262:

    b. son-un   ttattushay-ss-ko    pal-un  ette   hay-ss -nya ?
    hand-TOP warm-PST-CONN foot-TOP how.about do-PST- Q
    "Hands were warm, and how were feet ?"
Example #263:

    awu-nun               mwues-i     toy-ess-ya ?
    younger.brother-TOP what-NOM become-PST-Q
    brother become ?"
Example #264:

    b. *son-un  ttattusha-ko    pal-un   ette     hay-ss -nya ?
    hand-TOP warm-CONN foot-TOP how.about do-PST- Q
    "Hands were warm, and how were feet ?"
Example #265:

    (4.52) a. Chelswu-nun piano-lul chi-ko      Swunhi-nun nolay-lul pwulu-ess-ta.
    -TOP piano-ACC play-CONN          -TOP song-ACC sing-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi sang a song while Chulsoo was playing the piano."
Example #266:

    emeni-un     selkesi-lul ha-si-ess-ta
    mother-TOP dishes-ACC do-SH-PST-DEC
    "Mother did the dishes, while father was reading the newspapers."
Example #267:

    (4.53) a. Chelswu-nun piano-lul chi-ess-ko      Swunhi-nun mwues-lul hay-ess-ni ?.
    -TOP piano-ACC play-PST-CONN            -TOP what-ACC do-PST-Q
    "Chulsoo played the piano, and what did Soonhi do ?"
Example #268:

    emeni-un     mwues-lul ha-si-ess-nya ?
    mother-TOP what-ACC do-SH-PST- Q
    "Father read the newspapers, and what did mother do ?"
Example #269:

    apeci-nun sinmwun-ul        ilk-usi-ess-ta
    father-TOP newspaper-ACC read-SH-PST-DEC
    "Father read the newspapers and mother did the dishes."
Example #270:

    Chelswu-nun piano-lul chi-ess- ko Swunhi-nun mwues-lul hay-ss-ni ?
    -CTM piano-ACC play-PST-CONN -CTM waht-ACC do-PST-Q
    "Chulsoo played the piano, and what did Soonhi do ?"
Example #271:

    a. [Chelswu-nun piano-lul chi]-ko      [Swunhi-nun nolay-lul pwule]-ss-ni ?.
    -TOP piano-ACC play-CONN              -TOP song-ACC sing-PST-Q
    "Did Soonhi sing a song while Chulsoo played the piano ?"
Example #272:

    b. [pi-ka       o-ko]         palam-i     pwul-ess-keyss-ta
    rain-NOM fall-CONN wind-NOM blow-PST-PRESUM-DEC
    " (I guess that ) it was raining while the wind was blowing."
Example #273:

    a. [pi-ka   kuchi]-ko(nase) [hay-ka  na]-ss-ta    (K.K. Lee 1976:3)
    rain-NOM stop -CONN      sun-NOM shine-PST-DEC
    "Rain stopped, and then sun shined."
Example #274:

    b. [Chelswu-ka ttena]-ko(nase) [Swunhi-ka    wa]-ss-ta.
    -NOM leave-CONN                -NOM go-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo left, and then Soonhi came."
Example #275:

    c. [satto-(ka)                ttu]-ko        [naphal-(i)      pwul]-ess-ta
    province.governor-NOM arrive-CONN trumpet-NOM sound-PST-DEC
    "It is too late."
Example #276:

    d. [so-(lul) ilh]-ko         [oyyangkan-(lul) kochi]-ess-ta
    cow-ACC steal-CONN cow.house-ACC fix -PST-DEC
    "(I) closed the barn door after the horse was stolen."
Example #277:

    a . [sekywu kaps-i     olu]-ko/ca     [motun mwulka-ka twi]-te-la
    gas price-NOM go.up-CONN            all price-NOM jump.up-RETRO-DEC
    "(I remembered that )the gas price had gone up and all price jumped up."
Example #278:

    (4.64) a. [hay-ka     na]-ko(nase) [pi-ka      kuchi]-ess-ta (cf. 4.62a)
    sun-NOM shine -CONN rain-NOM stop -PST-DEC
    "The un shined and then the rain stopped."
Example #279:

    b.*[na-nun swukcey-lul ha-lswu.eps]-ko/-se [kempwuthe-ka kocangna]-ess-ta
    I-TOP homework-ACC do-not.able-CONN computer-NOM broken-PST-DEC
    " The computer was broken since I could not do (my) homework."
Example #280:

    (4.65) a. maynyen 4 wel-i              toy-(*-ess)-ko,   kkos-i    phi-ess-ta
    every.year April-NOM become-(*PST)-if flower-NOM blossom-PST-DEC
    "If it is April, the flowers blossomed every year."
Example #281:

    b. palam-i     pwul-(*-ess)-myen, phi-ka       o-ass-ta
    wind-NOM blow- (*PST)-if          rain-NOM fall-PST-DEC
    "If the wind blows, then it rained."
Example #282:

    satto-(ka) ttu-   ko   naphal-(i) pwul-ess-ta
    governor-NOM arrive-CONN trumpet-NOM sound-PST-DEC
    "(lit) The governor arrived, and then the fanfare started."
Example #283:

    (4.68) nai-nun hakkyo-lul ka-ss-ko        ei Swunhi-lul manna-ss-ta
    I-TOP school-ACC go-PST-CONN                 -ACC meet-PST-DEC
    "I went to school and met Soonhi."
Example #284:

    na-ka    kongpwu-lul ha-(*ss)-koca, (*na-nun) hakkyo-ey ka-ss-ta.
    I-NOM study-ACC do-PST-for           I-TOP school-to go-PST-DEC
    "I went to school to study."        (J.I. Kwon 1985:109)
Example #285:

    Swunhi-ka kongpwu-lul ha-(*ss)-le, (*Swunhi-ka) hakkyo-ey ka-ss-ta.
    DEC
    "Soonhi went to school in order to study."
Example #286:

    kileki-ka         wul-(*ess)-myense, (*kileki-ka) nalaka-ss-ta
    wild.goose-NOM cry- (PST)-CONN                      fly.away-PST-DEC
    "While crying, a wild goose flies away." (J.I. Kwon 1985:109)
Example #287:

    (i)    pi- ka      o-myense, palam-i       pwun-ta.
    rain-NOM fall-while wind-NOM blow-DEC
    "While it is raining, it is windy."
Example #288:

    c. na-nun [Chelswu-ka     hakkyo-ey ka-ki]-lul      tanpwuhay-ss-ta
    I-TOP            -NOM school-to      go-COMP-ACC ask -PST-DEC
    "I asked for Chulsoo to go to school."         (J.I. Kown 1985:66)
Example #289:

    (4.73) a. [sonyen-i hakkyo-ey ka-m]-ul           po-ass-ni ?
    boy-NOM school-to go-COMP-ACC see-PST-Q
    "Did you see a boy going to school ?"                   (H.B. Lee 1989:172)
Example #290:

    b. na-nun [Chelswu-ka hakkyo-ey ka-m]-lul           yokwuha-ss-ta
    I-TOP           -NOM school-to       go-COMP-ACC request-PST-DEC
    "I requested for Chulsoo to go to school."      (J.I. Kwon 1985:66).
Example #291:

    (4.75) a. emeni-ka    [atul-i    nol-key]     ha-yess-ta
    mother-NOM son-NOM play-COMP do-PST-DEC
    "The mother made the son to play."                    (J.J. Song 1988: 601)
Example #292:

    (i)        a. emeni-ka    [atul-i    nol-key]-(lul)  ha-yess-ta
    mother-NOM son-NOM play-COMP-ACC do-PST-DEC
    "The mother made the son to play."
Example #293:

    b. John-i    [Sue-ka chayk-lul ilk-key]-(lul) hay-ss-ta
    -NOM      -NOM book-ACC read-COMP-ACC do-PST-DEC
    "John made Sue read the book."
Example #294:

    (4.79) a. emeni-ka    atul-eykey/-ul [ nol-key ] hay-ss-ta
    mother-NOM son-DAT/ACC play-COMP do-PST-DEC
    "The mother made the son play."         (J.J. Song 1988: 593)
Example #295:

    (4.80) a. emeni-ka    atul-eykey/-ul [ nol-swu.iss-key ] ha-lswu.eps-ess-ta
    mother-NOM son-DAT/ACC play-ABLE-COMP do-UNABLE-PST-DEC
    "The mother could not make the son be able to play."
Example #296:

    b. John-i Sue-eykey/-lul [chayk-ul ilk-ulswu.eps-key ] ha-lswu.iss-ss-ta
    DEC
    "John could make Sue be unable to read the book."
Example #297:

    c. John-i Sue-eykey/-lul [chayk-ul ilk-ci.mos-key ] ha-lswu.iss-ss-ta
    -NOM -DAT/-ACC book-ACC read-NEG -COMP do-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "John could make Sue not read the book."
Example #298:

    (i)        a.* [emeni-ka hay-ess-ten]-kes -un           atul-eykey/-ul [ nol-key ] i-ta
    mother-NOM do-PST-REL-thing-TOP son-DAT/ACC play-COMP is-DEC
    "*It is the son to play that the mother caused."
Example #299:

    b. [John-i hay-ten]-kes-un Sue-eykey/-lul [chayk-lul ilk-key ] i -ta
    DEC
    "*It is Sue to read the book that John caused."           (cf. 4.79b)
Example #300:

    (4.81) a. emeni-nun   [ nol-swu.iss-key ] [atul-eykey         ha-lswu.eps]-ess-ta
    mother-TOP play-ABLE-COMP son-DAT/ACC do-UNABLE-PST-DEC
    "The mother could not make the son to be able to play."
Example #301:

    b. John-un [chayk-ul ilk-ulswu.eps-key ] [Sue-eykey ha-lswu.iss]-ss-ta
    - TOP book-ACC read-UNABLE-COMP -DAT do-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "John could make Sue to be unable to read the book."
Example #302:

    c. John-un [chayk-ul ilk-ci.mos-key ] [Sue-eykey ha-lswu.iss]-ss-ta
    -TOP book-ACC read-NEG -COMP             -DAT do-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "John could make Sue not to read the book."
Example #303:

    (i)    a. [[pesu-ka       menci-lul nay-]ko         [ talli]]-n-ta
    bus-NOM dust-ACC stir.up -CONN run-PRES-DEC
    "A bus is running, while stirring up the dust." (K.S. Nahm 1978:7)
Example #304:

    b. [[Chelswu-ka nwun-lul kam]-ko         [uyca-ey anca-iss]]-ess-ta
    -NOM eye-ACC close-CONN chair-at sit -be -PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo stayed on the chair while closing (his) eyes."
Example #305:

    (4.83) a. emeni-nun [ nol-key ]     [atul-eykey/-*ul ]   hay-ss-ta
    mother-TOP play-COMP son-DAT/ *ACC               do-PST-DEC
    "The mother made the son play."
Example #306:

    b. John-un      [chayk-lul ilk-key ] [Sue-eykey/-*lul hay]-ss-ta
    - TOP      book-ACC read-COMP      -DAT/-*ACC do-PST-DEC
    "John made Sue read the book."
Example #307:

    (4.84) a. emeni-nun    atul-eykey/-*ul    hay-ss-ta, [ nol-key ...]
    mother-TOP son-DAT/-*ACC do-PST-DEC play-COMP
    "The mother made the son play."
Example #308:

    b. John-un     Sue-eykey/-*lul hay-ss-ta, [chayk-lul ilk-key ...]
    -TOP      -DAT/-*ACC do-PST-DEC book-ACC read-COMP
    "John made Sue read the book."
Example #309:

    (4.87) a. sicheng-lul    chi-e-tul-e-ka-ss-ta
    city.hall-ACC hit-CONN-enter-CONN-go-PST-DEC
    "(They) invaded the City Hall."
Example #310:

    b. Swunhi-ka   na-lul chac-a-o-ss-ta
    -NOM I-ACC find-CONN-come-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi visited me."
Example #311:

    c. i ppang-lul mek-e-peli-kka ?
    this bread-ACC eat-CONN-throw.away-Q
    "Shall (we) eat up this bread ?"
Example #312:

    d. Chelswu-ka cha-lul kilka-ey           seywu-e-noh-ta
    -NOM car-ACC sidewalk-at stop-CONN-put-DEC
    "Chulsoo parked the car at the sidewalk."
Example #313:

    (4.88) a. pem-ul       cap-a         ka-n-ta
    tiger-ACC catch-CONN go-PRES-DEC
    "[They] are taking the tiger with them."
Example #314:

    b. ki-e            o-n-ta
    crawl-CONN come-PRES-DEC
    "[He] comes crawling."
Example #315:

    c. anc-a        swi-l-kka ?
    sit-CONN rest-FUT-Q
    "Shall [we] sit down to rest ?"
Example #316:

    (4.89) a. pem-ul    cap-a         hakkyo-lo ka-n-ta
    tiger-ACC catch-CONN school-to go-PRES-DEC
    "[They] went to school taking the tiger with them."
Example #317:

    c. uycha-ey anc-a            tali-lul  swi-l-kka ?
    sit-CONN rest-CONN leg-ACC rest-FUT-Q
    "Shall [we] sit down on the chair to rest (our) legs ?"
Example #318:

    d. ppang-lul kwu-e            pethe-lul pal-a-mek-ass-ta
    bread-ACC toast-CONN butter-ACC put.on-CONN-eat-PST-DEC
    "[She] ate the bread, toasting and putting butter on it."
Example #319:

    (4.90) a. pem-ul    cap-(*ulswu)-a            ka-lswu.iss-ta
    tiger-ACC catch-(*ABLE)-CONN go-ABLE-DEC
    "[They] can go taking the tiger with them."
Example #320:

    b. ki-(*lswu.eps)-e            o-lswu.eps-ta
    crawl-(*UNABLE)-CONN come-UNABLE-DEC
    "[He] can not come crawling (to me), (but he can fly away)."
Example #321:

    d. ppang-lul kwu-(*ci.ahn)-e            mek-ci.anh-ass-ta
    bread-ACC toast-(*NEG)-CONN eat-NEG-PST-DEC
    "(We) did not eat toasting the bread, (but we ate it steaming.)"
Example #322:

    (4.91) a. ne-nun, pem-ul      cap-ulswu.eps-ko           ka-lswu.(nun)iss-ta
    you-TOP tiger-ACC catch-UNABLE-CONN go-ABLE-DEC
    "[You] cannot catch the tiger, but can go."
Example #323:

    b. ki-lswu.iss-ko           o-lswu.eps-ta
    crawl-ABLE-CONN           come-UNABLE-DEC
    "[He] can crawl, but cannot come (to me)."
Example #324:

    d. ppang-lul kwu-ci.anh-ko           mek-ci.anh-ass-ta
    bread-ACC toast-NEG-CONN eat-NEG-PST-DEC
    "(We) did not toast the bread, and did not eat it."
Example #325:

    (4.94) a. pem-ul       cap-a         ka-n-ta
    tiger-ACC catch-CONN go-PRES-DEC
    "[They] are taking the tiger with them."
Example #326:

    b. ppang-lul kwu-e            mek-ess-ta
    bread-ACC toast-CONN eat-PST-DEC
    "(We) ate the bread, toasting it."
Example #327:

    (4.95) a. pem-ul    cap-ko           ka-n-ta
    tiger-ACC catch-CONN go-PRES-DEC
    " [They] go (somewhere) while holding the tiger."
Example #328:

    b. ppang-lul kwu-ko           mek-ess-ta
    bread-ACC toast-CONN eat-PST-DEC
    " (Some of us) toasted the bread, while (the others) eating it."
Example #329:

    (4.98) a. emeni-ka    atul-eykey [ nol-key ] ha-lswu.iss-ess-ta
    mother-NOM son-DAT       play-CAU do-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "The mother could make the son play."
Example #330:

    b. John-i     Sue-eykey [chayk-lul ilk-key ] ha-lswu.eps-ess-ta
    -NOM       -DAT book-ACC read-CAU do-UNABLE-PST-DEC
    "John could not make Sue read the book."
Example #331:

    (4.100) a. Chelswu-ka achim-lul         mek-ess-ta
    -NOM breakfast-ACC eat-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo ate breakfast."
Example #332:

    b. Chelswu-ka achim-lul        mek-ko-iss-ess-ta      : Continuous
    -NOM breakfast-ACC eat-CONN-be(CONT)-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo was eating breakfast."
Example #333:

    (4.101) a. Chelswu-nun hakkyo-ey (*imi ) wa-ss-ta
    -TOP school-at ( *already ) come-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo came to school."
Example #334:

    b. Chelswu-nun hakkyo-ey imi        wa-a-iss-ess-ta : Perfective
    -TOP school-at already come-CONN-be-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo has been to school already."
Example #335:

    (4.102) a. cwi-ka      ssal han-mal-lul ( ?ta ) mek-ess-ta
    mouse-NOM rice one-CL-ACC all eat-PST-DEC
    "The mice ate one pack of rice."
Example #336:

    b. cwi-ka      ssal han-mal-lul ta mek-e-peli-ess-ta        : Completion
    mouse-NOM rice one-CL-ACC all eat-CONN-throw.away-PST-DEC
    "The mice finished eating one pack of rice."  (B.S. Park 1974: 61)
Example #337:

    (4.103) a. wuli-ka ku swul-lul          masi-keyss-ta
    we-NOM the liquor -ACC drink-MOD-DEC
    "We will drink the liquor."
Example #338:

    b. wuli-ka ku swul-lul         masi-e- po-keyss-ta               : Try
    we-NOM the liquor-ACC drink-CONN-try-MOD-DEC
    "We will try to drink the liquor first."    (B.S. Park 1974: 61)
Example #339:

    (i)    a. na-nun cip-ey    iss-ta
    I-TOP house-LOC be-DEC
    "I am at home."
Example #340:

    c. na-nun sacin-lul     po-ass-ta.
    I-TOP picture-ACC see-PST-DEC
    "I saw the picture."
Example #341:

    b. kay-ka    ttwi-e-o-n-ta
    dog-NOM run-CONN-come-DEC
    "The dog runs (toward me)."          (ibid.: 61)
Example #342:

    (4.106) a. *Say-ka     pihayngki-ka nal-a-ka-n-ta
    bird-NOM airplane-NOM fly-CONN-go-PRES-DEC
    "The bird flies and the airplane goes away." (ibid.: 63)
Example #343:

    b. *kay-ka    ai-ka      ttwi-e-o-n-ta
    dog-NOM child-NOM run-CONN-come-DEC
    "*The dog runs and the child comes." (ibid.: 63)
Example #344:

    (4.108) a. Chelswu-ka    achim-lul        mek-ko (cip-ey)       iss-ess-ta
    -NOM breakfast-ACC eat-CONN (home-at) be-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo ate breakfast and then stayed (at home). "
Example #345:

    b. Chelswu-nun hakkyo-ey wa-(s)e          (kyosil-ey)     iss-ess-ta
    -TOP school-at come-CONN (classroom-at) be-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo came at school and stayed (in the classroom)."
Example #346:

    c. cwi-ka   ssal han-mal-lul ta mek-ko (pongtwu-lul) peli-ess-ta
    DEC
    "The mice ate all of one pack of rice and throw the (rice) bag away."
Example #347:

    d. wuli-ka ku swul-lul        masi-ko      ( yengwha-lul ) po-keyss-ta
    we-NOM the liquor-ACC drink-CONN (movie-ACC ) see-MOD-DEC
    "We will drink the liquor and (then) see the movie."
Example #348:

    (4.109) a. Say-ka      nal-a       ( namccok-ulo) ka-n-ta
    bird-NOM fly-CONN (south- to) go-PRES-DEC
    "The bird flies and goes south."
Example #349:

    b. kay-ka    ttwi-e     ( cip-ulo ) o-n-ta
    dog-NOM run-CONN (house-to) come-DEC
    "The dog runs and comes to the house."
Example #350:

    a. Swunhi-eykey/ka     emeni-ka kuliwe-ss-ta
    -DAT/NOM mother-NOM miss-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi missed mother."
Example #351:

    b. Na-eykey/ka kay-ka       mwusep-ta
    I-DAT/NOM dog-NOM be.afraid-DEC
    "I am afraid of the dog."
Example #352:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul mwusewe-e-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC be.afraid-CONN-do-PRES-DEC
    "I fear the dog."
Example #353:

    (4.116) a. Swunhi-ka emeni-lul   (an)-kuliwe-e-(an)-ha-lswu.iss-ess-ta.
    -NOM mother-ACC (NEG)-miss-CONN-(NEG)-do-ABLE-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi could not miss mother"
Example #354:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul (an)-mwusewe-e-(an)-ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC (NEG)-be.afraid-CONN-(NEG)-do-PRES-DEC
    "I do not fear the dog."
Example #355:

    (4.117) a. Swunhi-ka emeni-lul   an- kuliwe-e- an- hay-ss-ta.
    -NOM mother-ACC NEG-miss-CONN-NEG-do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi did miss mother."
Example #356:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul an- mwusewe-e-an- ha-n-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC NEG-fear-CONN-NEG-do-PRES-DEC
    "I do fear the dog."
Example #357:

    (4.118) a. Swunhi-ka emeni-lul kuliwe-(*lswu.iss-ci.ahn)-e-ha-lswu-iss-ci.ahn-ss-ta.
    DEC
    "Soonhi could not miss mother."
Example #358:

    b. Nay-ka kay-lul mwusewe-(*lswu.iss-ci.anh)-e-ha- ci.anh-nun-ta
    I-NOM dog-ACC be.afraid-(*able-NEG)-CONN-do-(NEG)-PRES-DEC
    "I do not fear the dog."
Example #359:

    (4.123) a. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul wul-key      ha-yess-ta
    -NOM        -ACC cry-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi caused (or made) Chulsoo cry."
Example #360:

    b. haksayngtul-i sensayngnim-lul (hakkyo-lul) ttena-key ha-yess-ta
    DEC
    "Students caused (or made) the teacher leave (the school)."
Example #361:

    (4.126) a. Chelswu-ka wul-ess-ta
    -NOM cry-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo cried."
Example #362:

    b. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul wul-key ha-yess-ta (4.123a)
    -NOM       -ACC cry-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi made Chulsoo cry."
Example #363:

    (4.127) a. sensayngnim-i      (hakkyo-lul) ttena-ss-ta
    teacher (HON)-NOM (school-ACC) leave-PST-DEC
    "The teacher(HON) left (HON) (the school)."
Example #364:

    b. haksayngtul-i sensayngnim-lul    (hakkyo-lul) ttena-key ha-yess-ta (4.123b)
    students-NOM teacher (HON)-ACC (school-ACC) leave-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "Students made the teacher(HON) leave (the school)."
Example #365:

    (4.128) a. Swunhi-ka Chelswu-lul wul-key ha-ko.iss-ess-ta
    -NOM       -ACC cry-CAU do-CONT-PST-DEC
    "Soonhi was making Chulsoo cry."
Example #366:

    b. haksayngtul-i sensayngnim-lul       ttena-key ha-ko.iss-ess-ta
    students-NOM teacher (HON)-ACC leave-CAU do-CONT-PST-DEC
    "Students are making the teacher leave (the school)."
Example #367:

    (i)     emeni-ka    atul-eykey cacangka-lul pwule-cwu-ess-ta
    mother-NOM son-DAT lullaby-ACC sing- give-PST-DEC
    "The mother sang a lullaby for the son."
Example #368:

    Kim-sensayngnim-i ku yeca-lul      coh-a-ha-n-ta
    -teacher -NOM the woman-ACC like-COMP-do-PRES-DEC
    "Teacher Kim does like the woman."            (B.S. Park 1974: 52)
Example #369:

    cwi-ka         sal-han-mal-lul ta mek-e- peli-ess-ta
    mouse-NOM rice-one-CL-ACC all eat-COMP-throw-PST-DEC
    "The mice ate all of one bag of rice up."        (ibid.: 61)
Example #370:

    Swunhi-ka    elum-lul nok-key      ha-n-ta
    -NOM ice-ACC melt-COMP do-PRES-DEC
    "Soonhi makes the ice melted."                    (ibid.: 63)
Example #371:

    Kim-sensayngnim-i chayk-lul po-ko-iss-ta
    -teacher-NOM book-ACC read-COMP-be (CONT)-DEC
    "Teacher Kim is reading the book."      (ibid.: 71)
Example #372:

    emeni-ka       ai-eykey/lul  os-ul           ip-hi-ess-ta
    mother-NOM baby-DAT/ACC clothes-ACC wear-CAU-PST-DEC
    "Mother made the baby wear the clothes."
Example #373:

    emeni-ka       ai-lul      hakkyo-ey ponay-ss-ta
    mother-NOM child-ACC school-to send-PST-DEC
    "Mother sent the child to school."
Example #374:

    John-i    Sue-eykey    chayk-lul ilk-key hay-ss-ta.
    -NOM      -DAT     book-ACC read-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "John made Sue read the book."       (ibid.: 171)
Example #375:

    John-i   Sue-lul    chayk-lul ilk-key hay-ss-ta.
    -NOM      -ACC book-ACC read-CAU do-PST-DEC
    "John made Sue read the book."        (ibid.: 171)
Example #376:

    Chelswu-ka [ ei kocangna-n]REL khempwuthei- lul kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM        be.broken-COMP computer -ACC     fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken."
Example #377:

    [totwuk-i      ei hwumchi-n]REL       poseki-i    kacca-ta
    thief-NOM         steal -COMP         jewelry-NOM fake-DEC
    "The jewelry that the thief stole is fake."
Example #378:

    [   ei      ssingssingha-te-n] REL      kokii -ka ssek-ess-ta
    fresh -RETOR-COMP           fish-NOM rotten-PST-DEC
    "The fish that was fresh was rotten."
Example #379:

    (nay cha-nun/??-ka)     kocangna-ss-ta
    my car-TOP/??-NOM break.down-PST-DEC
    "My car/ It broke down."
Example #380:

    nay cha-nun kocangna-ss-ko          (nay) khempwuthe-nun phal-li-ess-ta
    DEC
    "My car broke down and my computer was sold."
Example #381:

    (motorcycle-i anh-i-ko)        nay cha-ka/*-nun kocangna-ss-ta
    -NOM NEG-be-CONN my car-NOM/*-TOP break.down-PST-DEC
    "My CAR broke down."
Example #382:

    nay cha-ka /*-nun     kocangna-ss-ta
    my car-NOM/ *-TOP break.down-PST-DEC
    "My CAR broke down."
Example #383:

    ney cha-ey ettenil-i     ilena-ss ni ?
    your car -to what-NOM happen-PST-Q
    "What happened to your car ?"
Example #384:

    isanhan naymsay-ka na-teni,     (cha-ka/-*nun )    kocangna-ss-ta
    strange smell - NOM happen-after (car-NOM/-*TOP) break.down-PST-DEC
    car broke down."
Example #385:

    Cwunsik-un pokto       hankyen-ey sese tampay-lul        kkenay mwul-ess-ta.
    -TOP hallway corner-at stand cigarette-ACC take.out hold-PST-DEC
    Joonsik took a cigarette and put it in his mouth."
Example #386:

    A: Clinton taytongryeng-i paykakkwan-eyse elini-lul        manna-ss-ta
    president -NOM White House-LOC children-ACC meet-PST-DEC
    "President Clinton met the children at the White House."
Example #387:

    (5.16) Q: ecey    Clinton taytongryeng-i    mwues-lul hay-ss-ni ?
    yesterday       President -NOM what -ACC do -PST-DEC
    "What did President Clinton do yesterday ?"
Example #388:

    A:    e      paykakkwan-eyse elini-lul           manna-ss-ta
    White House-LOC children-ACC meet-PST-DEC
    "(He) met the children at the White House."
Example #389:

    (5.17) Q: Clinton taytongryeng-i paykakkwan-eyse elini-wa mwues-lul hay-ss-ni ?
    Q
    "What did President Clinton do with the children at White House ?
Example #390:

    A:     e               e                      e        manna-ss-ta
    meet-PST-DEC
    "(He ) met (them at the White House)."
Example #391:

    (5.24) a. Chelswu-ka [khempwuthei-ka kocangna-n]REL kesi-ul  kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM computer -NOM be broken-COMP one-ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken."      (5.1b)
Example #392:

    b. [totwuk-i    poseki -ul hwumchi-n ] REL kesi-i          kacca-ta
    thief-NOM jewelry-ACC steal- COMP                one -NOM fake-DEC
    "The jewelry that the thief stole is fake."                 (5.2b)
Example #393:

    c. [Mary-ka toni-ul         pili- n ]REL   kesi-ulo chayk-lul sa--ss-ta
    -NOM money-ACC borrow-COMP thing-with book-ACC buy-PST-DEC
    " (Lit.)With that the money Mary borrowed, she bought a book."
Example #394:

    i-kesi-un    ssa-ko, ce-kesi-un       pissa-ta.
    this-one-TOP cheap-and that-one-TOP expensive-DEC
    This one is cheap and that one is expensive."
Example #395:

    (5.26) a.[nay-ka kokii-lul cap-un]REL kesi/nomi-ulo mawuntang-ul kkuli-ess-ta174
    I-NOM fish-ACC catch-COMP one-INST            hot.soup-ACC cook-PST-DEC
    "I cooked the hot soup with the fish which I caught."
Example #396:

    thwuienawa-ss-te-n]REL            kesi/kosi-ey paym-to iss-ess-ta.
    spring.out-PST-RETRO- COMP one -LOC snake-also be-PST-DEC
    there was a snake, too."
Example #397:

    c. [totwuki-i posek -ul hwumchi-n ]REL kesi/cai -ka nwun-i     ku-ta
    thief-NOM jewelry-ACC steal- COMP           one -NOM eye-NOM big-DEC
    " The thief who steals the jewelry has big eyes."
Example #398:

    a. say kes-un      pissata
    new thing-TOP expensive
    "New thing is expensive."
Example #399:

    (5.27) a. Mary-nun [John-i    ttena-(ss)-(*un/nun/ten/ul)-ki] -lul wenha-ss-ta
    -TOP    -NOM leave -(PST)             -COMP-ACC want-PST-DEC
    "(Lit.) Mary wanted that John left."
Example #400:

    b. [nay-ka    sa-n]REL kes-un         chayk-i-ta
    I-NOM buy-COMP thing-TOP book-be-DEC
    "The thing that I bought is a book."
Example #401:

    a. [Swunhi-ka yeca-i-n]-kes-i                     hwaksilha-ta
    -NOM female-be-PRES-COMP-NOM certain-DEC
    "It is certain that Swunhi is female."
Example #402:

    b. Chelswu-nun [Swunhi-ka hakkyo-eyse kongpwuhal]-kes-ul wenha-n-ta
    DEC
    "Chulsoo wants Soonhi to study at school."
Example #403:

    b. [John-i      keci-i-(ess)-(*un/nun/ ten/ul)-m] - i hwaksilha-ta
    -NOM beggar-is-PST               -COMP-NOM be certain -DEC
    "It is certain that John was a beggar."
Example #404:

    tochakhay-ss-ta
    be.delivered-PST-DEC
    that will be used tomorrow/ is delivered right now."
Example #405:

    (5.30) a. [casini/* ku-i (cikcep)       posek-ul hwunchi-n] REL totwuki         :EHRC
    self / *he-NOM (himself) jewelry-ACC steal -COMP     thief
    "The thief who self stole the jewelry"
Example #406:

    (5.31) a. [sonyen-i kukesi-ul (melli himchakey) tenci-ess-ten]REL toli :EHRC
    boy-NOM it-ACC (far powerfully ) throw-PST-RETRO-COMP stone
    "The stone which a boy threw far away"
Example #407:

    Chelswu-ka [ ei kocangna-n]REL khempwuthei- lul kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM       be broken -COMP computer -ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken."
Example #408:

    [totwuk-i      ei hwumchi-n]REL           poseki-i kacca-ta
    thief-NOM           steal -COMP jewelry-NOM fake-DEC
    "The jewelry that the thief stole is fake."
Example #409:

    Chelswu-ka [ ei kocangna-n]REL khempwuthei- lul kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM        be broken -COMP computer -ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken."
Example #410:

    (5.39) a. kulechi anh-ta. ku-nun khempwuthe-lul kochil-ci-lul        mos-hay.
    that     not-DEC he-TOP computer-ACC fix-NMZ-ACC NEG-do
    "That is not true. (I know that) He cannot fix the computer."
Example #411:

    b. sasil i-ya ? ku-ka      khempwuthe-lul kochi-ess-tako ?
    true be-Q he-NOM computer-ACC fix-PST- Q
    "Is it true that he fixed the computer ? (I cannot believe it)"
Example #412:

    (5.40) a. kulechi anh-ta. khempwuthe-nun kocangna-ci.ahn-ass-e.
    that    not-DEC computer-TOP broken-NEG- PST-DEC
    "That is not true. The computer was not broken."
Example #413:

    b. sasil i-ya ? khempwuthe-ka kocangna-ss-tako ?
    true be-Q computer-NOM broken-PST-Q
    "Is it true that the computer was broken ?"
Example #414:

    ku-nun kukes-lul kochici-to anh-ass-e.
    he-TOP it-ACC fix-too NOT-PST-DEC
    but also he did not fix it.""
Example #415:

    Chelswu-ka       kukes-lul kochi-ess-tako ??
    -NOM it-ACC fix-PST-Q
    "Is it true that the computer is broken and that Chulsoo fixed it ?"
Example #416:

    Chelswu-ka kukes-lul kochi-ess-ta
    -NOM it-ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed it"
Example #417:

    [(khempwuthe-ka) kkayci ]REL       -n ] kes -ul kochi-ess-ta
    shattered     -COMP one-ACC fix-PST-DEC
    "Chulsoo fixed the computer that was broken and that was shattered."