The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Green, Melanie & Chris H. Reintges (2004). Coptic Second Tenses and Hausa Relative Aspects: a comparative view.

URL: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/melanieg/ZAS.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1280&langcode=hau (2021-10-23).


Example #1:

    b. me• ya]ra      sukaś       ce•
    what children 3pl.REL-PERF say
    `What did the children say?' H
Example #2:

    b. su-wa• ne (ne•) sukaś         taśfi Amžģkaś
    3pl-who FM.pl 3pl.REL.PERF go America
    `Who went to America?'H
Example #3:

    (14) Q: wa• kukaś         ganÍ aś ka•suwa
    who 2pl.REL.PERF see at market
    `WHO did you see at the market?'
Example #4:

    A: ya
ośnkaś (ne) mukaś         ganÍ
    boy.of.2m (FM.m) 1pl.REL.PERF see
    `It was YOUR BOY we saw' (Jaggar 2001:494)    H
Example #5:

    (16) Q: kun          saśyi baįaģ       mo	a•
    2pl.PERF buy black.of car
    `Did you buy a black car?'
Example #6:

    A> a|& a• faraģ       mota• (ce)     mukaś  saśya ba• baįa ba
    no white.of car (FM.f) 1pl.REL.PERF buy NEG black NEG
    `No, it was a WHITE CAR we bought not a black one' (Jaggar 2001:495)     H
Example #7:

    b. kin        ga daś wa• daś wa• a ś makaranta•
    2sf.PERF see who.pl            at school
    `Whom did you see at school?' (Jaggar 2001:522)H
Example #8:

    b. suna•      žna   yaśnzu
    3pl.IMPERF where now
    `Where are they now?' (Jaggar 2001:522)H
Example #9:

    (21) a. ?Yusuśf ś ya       ce] [CP Auduś daś Musa sun   saśyi me• aś ka•suwa ļ
    Yusuf 3ms.PERF say          Audu and Musa 3pl.PERF buy what at market
    `Yusuf said what Audu and Musa bought at market'
Example #10:

    saśyi me• aś ka•suwa ļ
    buy what at market
    ?`Yusuf said that it was AUDU AND MUSA who bought WHAT at market?!'
Example #11:

    (23) Q: waśneś kaya kikaś          ma]nta
    which things 2fs.REL.PERF forget
    `Which things did you forget?'
Example #12:

    (24) Q: su-wa• sukaś            taśfi Amžģkaś
    3pl-who 3pl.REL.PERF go America
    `Who went to America?'
Example #13:

    A: *su Audu ś daś Musa sun         taśfi
    3pl Audu and Musa 3pl.PERF go
    `AUDU AND MUSA went'
Example #14:

    (26) Q: ka        aika• daś takaśģda]ģ
    2m.PERF send with paper.DD
    `Did you send the paper?'
Example #15:

    A: a|& a• na      aika• daś littafžn ne   ba• takaśģda]ģ ba
    no 1s.PERF send with book.DD FM.m NEG paper.DD NEG
    `No, I sent THE BOOK, not the paper' (Green and Jaggar in press:197)   H
Example #16:

    b. aśrawośn wa• ya                kashe• shi
    thief.DD.m who 3sm.REL-PERF kill       3sm
    `As for the thief, who killed him?' (Newman 2000:621)H