ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Crysmann, Berthold (2004). An inflectional approach to Hausa Final Vowel Shortening.

URL: http://www.coli.uni-sb.de/~crysmann/papers/hausa-fvs.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-06-03).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1283&langcode=hau (2021-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (2)   a.     Na:              ka:m     ki:fi: (H:93)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.C fish
    `I caught fish.'
Example #2:

    b.     Na:              ka:m:    (H:93)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.A
    `I caught (it).'
Example #3:

    c.     Na:            ka:m:      shi.(H:93)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.B him
    `I caught it.'
Example #4:

    d.     Na:               ka:m:       w Mu:sa: ki:fi: (H:93)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.D(=A) for Musa fish
    `I caught fish for Musa.'
Example #5:

    e.     ki:fn    d     na        ka:m:
    fish.DEF COMP 1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.A
    `The fish I caught'
Example #6:

    (3)   a. Na:            karnta:.
    1.S.CMPL.ABS read.V.Gr1.A
    `I read.'
Example #7:

    b. Na:            karnta:     shi.
    1.S.CMPL.ABS read.V.Gr1.B it
    `I read it.'
Example #8:

    c. Na:          karnt      litta:fi.
    1.S.CMPL.ABS read.V.Gr1.C book
    `I read the book.'
Example #9:

    (4)   a. Na:          sya:.      (H:94)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.A
    `I bought.'
Example #10:

    b. Na:          sye:       sh.
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.B him
    `I bought it.'
Example #11:

    c. Na:          syi        binci. (H:94)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.C food
    `I bought food.'
Example #12:

    (8)   a. ya:             sa:to:        jiy.     (N:662)
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS steal.V.Gr6.A yesterday
    `He stole (it) yesterday.'
Example #13:

    b. ya:             sa:to:        sh (N:662)
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS steal.V.Gr6.B him
    `He stole it.'
Example #14:

    c. ya:             sa:to:        mo:t: (N:662)
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS steal.V.Gr6.C car
    `He stole the car.'
Example #15:

    (9)     a. ya:             karanto      l:ba:r: (N:662)
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS read.V.Gr6.C news
    `He read the news.'
Example #16:

    b. sun           harbo        za:k: (N:662)
    3.P.CMPL.ABS shot.V.Gr6.C lion
    `They shot a lion.'
Example #17:

    c. mun           baro:         y:ra:  gida: (N:662)
    1.P.CMPL.ABS leave.V.Gr6.C children at house
    `We left the children at home.'
Example #18:

    (10)   ya:            kira:        mtm
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS call.V.Irr.C man
    `He called the man.'
Example #19:

    (11)     a. Na:           sya:.      (H:94)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.A
    `I bought (it).'
Example #20:

    b. Na:           sye:       sh.
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.B him
    `I bought it.'
Example #21:

    c. Na:           syi        binci. (H:94)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS buy.V.Gr2.C food
    `I bought food.'
Example #22:

    d. syi!
    buy.V.IMP.Gr2.A (N:264)
    `Buy (it)!'
Example #23:

    e. sy: shi!          (N:264)
    buy.V.IMP.Gr2.B
    `Buy it!'
Example #24:

    f. syi             binci.
    buy.V.IMP.Gr2.C food
    `Buy food!'
Example #25:

    (12)   a. ya:             i:b:
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS dip.out.V.Gr2.A
    `He dipped (it) out.'
Example #26:

    b. :bi!                   (N:264)
    dip.out.V.IMP.Gr2.A
    `Dip out!'
Example #27:

    (15)   a. yan:               karnt:wa:
    3.S.M.CONT.ABS reading.VN.Gr1.A
    `he is reading it'
Example #28:

    b. litta:fn      d yak:         karnt:wa:
    book.DEF.M that 3.S.M.CONT.REL reading.VN.Gr1.A
    `the book he is reading'
Example #29:

    (16)   a. ta:               kri         kui:
    3.F.S.CMPL.ABS receive.V.Gr2.C money
    `She received money.'
Example #30:

    b. ta:                 kre:      sh
    3.F.S.CMPL.ABS receive.V.Gr2.B him
    `She received it.'
Example #31:

    c. abn d ta                 kra:
    thing that 3.F.S.CMPL.REL receive.V.Gr2.A
    `the thing she received'
Example #32:

    d. ta:                   kra:
    3.F.S.CMPL.ABS receive.V.Gr2.A
    `She received (it).'
Example #33:

    (17)   a. tan:               kran     kui:
    3.F.S.CONT.ABS receive.VN.M.C money
    `She is receiving money.'
Example #34:

    b. tan:                krans
    3.F.S.CONT.ABS receive.VN.M.B.POSS.M
    `She is receiving it.'
Example #35:

    c. abn          d tak:           kra:
    thing.DEF.M that 3.F.S.CONT.REL receive.VN.M.A
    `The thing she is receiving'
Example #36:

    d. tan:           kra:
    3.F.S.CONT.ABS receive.VN.M.A
    `She is receiving it.'
Example #37:

    (18)   a. ta:             karnt litta:fn Aud
    3.S.F.CMPL.ABS read book.M Audu
    `She read Audu's book.'
Example #38:

    b. ta:             karnt litta:fns
    3.S.F.CMPL.ABS read book.N.M.B.POSS.M
    `She read his book.'
Example #39:

    c. Aud ne: ta               karnt litta:fns
    Audu      3.S.F.CMPL.REL read book.N.M.B.POSS.M
    `It's Audu she read a book of '
Example #40:

    d. ta:             karnt litta:f:
    3.S.F.CMPL.ABS read book.N.M.A
    `She read a book.'
Example #41:

    (19)        Na:          ka:m:            w Mu:sa: ki:fi: (H:93)
    1.S.CMPL.ABS catch.V.Gr1.D(=A) for Musa fish
    `I caught fish for Musa.'
Example #42:

    (20)   a. ya:             fa:            w mutnn lba:r: (N:468)
    3.S.M.CMPL.ABS tell.V.Gr2.D(=A)    men.DEF news
    `He told the men the news.'
Example #43:

    suk:        goyon ba:yans (N:468)
    3.P.CONT.REL supporting him
    `He told then the news to the men who were supporting him.'
Example #44:

    a. shi: n: mtumn d ya                   gay:            w
    he COP man          that 3.S.M.CMPL.REL tell.V.Gr1.D(=A) IOM
    `He is the man I told it to.'
Example #45:

    b. w: ka              ji:          w ciwo: (N:277)
    who 2.S.M.CMPL.REL feel.V.Irr.D IOM injury
    `Whom did you injure?'
Example #46:

    c. ya              ji:          w ya:r: ciwo: (N:277)
    3.S.M.CMPL.REL feel.V.Irr.D IOM boy injury
    `He injured the boy.'
Example #47:

    a. shi: n: mtumn d ya                    gay:            w:
    he COP man           that 3.S.M.CMPL.REL tell.V.Irr.D(=A) IOM
    `He is the man I told it to.'
Example #48:

    b. w: ka              ji:          w: ciwo: (N:277)
    who 2.S.M.CMPL.REL feel.V.Irr.D IOM injury
    `Whom did you injure?'
Example #49:

    c. ya              ji:          w ya:r: ciwo: (N:277)
    3.S.M.CMPL.REL feel.V.Irr.D IOM boy injury
    `He injured the boy.'
Example #50:

    (23)   a.       Ya:         shuuk          kuma audga:.
    he.CMPL.ABS planted.V.Gr1.C also wheat
    `He also planted wheat.'
Example #51:

    b.    * Ya:          shuuk:         kuma audga:.
    he.CMPL.ABS planted.V.Gr1.A also wheat
    `He also planted wheat.'
Example #52:

    k:      ciki (N:331)
    CONT.REL inside
    `he saw also the kind of goods that were inside'
Example #53:

    b. ta:              tmbyi     kwa     m:tr (N:331)
    3.S.F.CMLP.ABS ask.V.Gr2.C moreover woman
    `She asked, moreover, the woman.'
Example #54:

    a. bi              hrbi         gi:wa: ba (N:639)
    3.S.M.CMPL.NEG shoot.V.Gr2.C elephant NEG
    `He didn't shoot an elephant.'
Example #55:

    b. bi               hrbe:        t ba (N:639)
    3.S.M.CMPL.NEG shoot.V.Gr2.B her NEG
    `He didn't shoot it.'
Example #56:

    a. bi               hrbi         ba gi:wa: (N:639)
    3.S.M.CMPL.NEG shoot.V.Gr2.C NEG elephant
    `He didn't shoot an elephant.'
Example #57:

    b.     * bi            hrbe:        ba t (N:639)
    3.S.M.CMPL.NEG shoot.V.Gr2.B NEG her
    `He didn't shoot it.'
Example #58:

    (27)   a.       Bint ta:             ar                    Knde tsawo:
    Binta 3.S.F.ABS.COMPL slightly exceed.V.Gr1.C Kande height
    `Binta is a little taller than Kande.'
Example #59:

    b.       an            sa:k na              wa:n     sarki (N:686)
    4.S.ABS.COMPL repeat appoint.VN.Gr1.C so-and-so emir
    `They again appointed so-and-so emir.'
Example #60:

    c.       sun:        biyn      Mu:sa: kui:
    3.P.CONT.ABS pay.VN.M.C Musa money
    `They paid Musa money.'
Example #61:

    (28)   a.       kad k        r:i       Bla: go:r! (N:685)
    2.S.M.NEG.SUBJ beg.V.Gr2.C Bala cola nut
    `Don't ask Bala for cola nuts!'
Example #62:

    tsawo: (N:686)
    height
    `It's Kande that Binta is little taller than.'
Example #63:

    (30)   a.    wnd     ak           sa:k na:wa:          sarki
    who.M.REL 4.S.REL.COMPL repeat appoint.VN.Gr1.A emir
    `whom they again appointed emir'
Example #64:

    (31)   a.    su w: kuk:       biy:      kun?      (N:686)
    who.p 2.P.CONT.REL pay.VN.M.A money.DEF.M
    `Who are you paying the money?'
Example #65:

    a. mut:ne: sun             zo: jiy:
    people     3.P.CMPL.ABS come yesterday
    `The people came yesterday.'
Example #66:

    b. mut:ne: sun:           zuw:
    people     3.P.CONT.ABS coming
    `The people are coming.'
Example #67:

    a. mut:nn   d suk          / *sun        zo: jiy:
    men.DEF.P that 3.P.CMPL.REL 3.P.CMPL.ABS come yesterday
    `the people who came yesterday'
Example #68:

    b. mut:nn   d suk:         / *sun:      zuw:
    men.DEF.P that 3.P.CONT.REL 3.P.CONT.ABS coming
    `the people who are coming'
Example #69:

    a. m: ya              / *ya:          gani:
    what 3.S.M.CMPL.REL 3.S.M.CMPL.ABS see
    `What did he see?'
Example #70:

    a. Knde c: ta             / *ta:          zo:
    Kande COP 3.S.F.CMPL.REL 3.S.F.CMPL.ABS come
    `It's Kande who came?'
Example #71:

    b. cikin mo:t: ne: muk         / *mun        zo:
    in   car     COP 1.P.CMPL.REL 1.P.CMPL.ABS come
    `By car we came.'
Example #72:

    (40)     m: suk:         fatan sun          / *suk       gam:
    what 3.P.CONT.REL hoping 3.P.CMPL.ABS 3.P.CMPL.REL finish
    `What did they hope they have finished?'