ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bill Haddican (2001). Basque Functional Heads.

URL: http://web.gc.cuny.edu/Linguistics/liba/papers/basque.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1329&langcode=eus (2018-01-20).

 

Example #1:

    a. Miren berandu etor-tzen           da beti.
    Miren-A late     come-[-pf.]Asp Aux always
    `Miren always comes late.'
Example #2:

    b. Miren berandu etor(r)-i        da gaur.
    Miren-A late    come-[+pf.]Asp Aux today
    `Today Miren came late.'
Example #3:

    (6) Ez al           zio-n         galde-tu-ko?
    Neg. speech act Aux-T(past) ask-Asp(perfect)-T(future)
    `Wasn't she going to ask him (that)?'
Example #4:

    (8) Ez ote          da [kontura-tu-ko].
    Neg Mod(eval) Aux realize-Asp(perfect)-T(future)
    `Won't he realize?'
Example #5:

    (9) Ez zu-en         [har-tu-ko].
    Neg Aux-T(past) take-Asp(perfect)-T(future)
    `She wasn't going to take it.'
Example #6:

    (10) Ez zu-en         [har-tu             behar].
    Neg Aux-T(past) take-Asp(perfect) Mod(necessity)
    `She didn't have to take it'/`She shouldn't have taken it'
Example #7:

    (11) Ez zu-en         [har-tu          nahi].
    Neg Aux-T(past) take-Asp(perfect) Mod(obligation)
    `She didn't want to take it.'
Example #8:

    (12) Normalean, ez nu-en         [gosal-du               ohi].
    Normally Neg Aux-T(past) breakfast-Asp(perfect) Mod(habitual)
    `Normally, I wouldn't eat breakfast.' (NB: only for Western varieties)
Example #9:

    (13)    Lagun-tzen              omen      zintu-en.
    Help-Asp(imperfect) Mod(evid) Aux-T(past)
    `It is said that he helped (imperfect) you.'
Example #10:

    (14)    Bazkal-du-ko                   bide        zue-n.
    Lunch-Asp(perfect)-T(future) Mod(evid) Aux-T(past)
    `It appears that he was going to have lunch.'
Example #11:

    a. ez da etxea        erori.
    no has house-the fallen
    `The house hasn't fall down.'
Example #12:

    b. etxea       erori da.
    house-the fallen has
    `The house has fallen down.'
Example #13:

    a. [Zorrak ordain-du              ahal]    omen         dituzte.
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) be-able Mod(evid) Aux
    `(It is said that) they can pay off their debts.' (Ortiz de Urbina 1989, 129)
Example #14:

    b. [Zorrak ordain-du              nahi] omen         dituzte.
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) want Mod(evid) aux.
    `(It is said that) they want to pay off their debts.'
Example #15:

    c. [Zorrak ordaindu                behar] ote         dituzte?
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) have-to Mod(eval) aux.
    `(Is it possible that) they have to pay off their debts?'
Example #16:

    a. Nork du Jon ikus-i?
    who Aux John see-Asp(perfect)
    Who has seen John? (Ortiz de Urbina, 1995)
Example #17:

    b. MIRENEK du Jon ikus-i.
    Mary         Aux John see-Asp(perfect)
    MARY has seen John. (Ortiz de Urbina, 1995)
Example #18:

    c. Ez du Jon ikus-i.
    Neg Aux John see-Asp(perfect)
    `She didn't see John.'
Example #19:

    d. Mirenek Jon ikus-i               du.
    Mary John see-Asp(perfect) Aux.
    `Mary has seen John.' (neutral order)
Example #20:

    Zorrak ordain-du             ahal     omen        dituzte.
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) be-able Mod(evid) Aux
    `(It is said that) they can pay off their debts.'
Example #21:

    a. Jonek Miren-i egia esan- dio.
    J.      M-Dat truth say-Asp(perfect) Aux
    `John has told Mary the truth.'
Example #22:

    b. Jonek ez dio Miren-i egia esan-.
    Neg.
    `John hasn't told Mary the truth.'
Example #23:

    (28)Jonek ez dio esan-                 nahi       Miren-i egia.
    J.    Neg Aux say-Asp(perfect) Mod(volitional) Mary-dat truth.
    `John doesn't want to tell Mary the truth.'
Example #24:

    (29)*Jonek ez dio esan-                Miren-i egia nahi.
    J.    Neg Aux say-Asp(perfect) Mary-dat truth Mod(volitional).
    `John doesn't want to tell Mary the truth.'
Example #25:

    a. Jonek Miren-i egia esan- dio.             Neutral
    K.      M-Dat truth say-Asp(perfect) Aux
    `John has told Mary the truth.'
Example #26:

    b. Jonek ez dio Miren-i egia esan-.          Non-neutral
    Neg.
    `John hasn't told Mary the truth.'
Example #27:

    (30) *Jonek esan-             Miren-i egia dio.
    J.    say-Asp(perfect) M-dat truth Aux
    `John hasn't told Mary the truth.'
Example #28:

    (28) Jonek ez dio esan-                 nahi       Miren-i egia.
    J.    Neg Aux say-Asp(perfect) Mod(volitional) Mary-dat truth.
    `John doesn't want to tell Mary the truth.'
Example #29:

    (35) [nire etxe-a      ikus-i    nahi] du
    my house-abs see-Asp(perf) want Aux.
    `She wants to see my house.'
Example #30:

    (36) Ez zen          Euskara ikas-ten            ari
    Neg Aux T(past) Basque study-Asp(imperfect) Asp(progressive)
    `She wasn't studying Basque.'
Example #31:

    (28) Jonek ez dio esan-                 nahi       Miren-i egia.
    J.    Neg Aux say-Asp(perfect) Mod(volitional) Mary-dat truth.
    `John doesn't want to tell Mary the truth.'
Example #32:

    (29)*Jonek ez dio esan-                Miren-ii egiaj nahi. ti tj
    J.    Neg Aux say-Asp(perfect) Mary-dat truth Mod(volitional).
    `John doesn't want to tell Mary the truth.'
Example #33:

    a. [Zorrak ordain-du              ahal]    omen         dituzte.
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) be-able Mod(evid) Aux
    `(It is said that) they can pay off their debts.' (Ortiz de Urbina 1989, 129)
Example #34:

    b. [Zorrak ordain-du              nahi] omen         dituzte.
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) want Mod(evid) aux.
    `(It is said that) they want to pay off their debts.'
Example #35:

    c. [Zorrak ordaindu                behar] ote         dituzte?
    debts pay-Asp(perfect) have-to Mod(eval) aux.
    `(Is it possible that) they have to pay off their debts?'
Example #36:

    a. Jonek Miren-i egia esan- dio.             Neutral
    L.      M-Dat truth say-Asp(perfect) Aux
    `John has told Mary the truth.'
Example #37:

    b. Jonek ez dio Miren-i egia esan-.          Non-neutral
    Neg.
    `John hasn't told Mary the truth.'
Example #38:

    (30) *Jonek esan-             Miren-i egia dio.
    J.    say-Asp(perfect) M-dat truth Aux
    `John hasn't told Mary the truth.'
Example #39:

    Ez ohi                zuen        bazkal-tzen .
    Neg Mod(habitual) Aux-T(past) eat-Asp(imperfect)
    `She didn't usually come.'
Example #40:

    Ez zuen            bazkal-du       ohi.
    Neg Aux-T(past) come-Asp(perfect) Mod(habitual)
    `She didn't usually eat.'
Example #41:

    (39) Normalean, ez dira botik-etan erabil-tzen.
    normal-in, Neg Aux medicine-in use-Asp(imperfect)
    `Usually, they aren't used in medicines.'
Example #42:

    (40) *Ohi,          ez zuen         bazkal-tzen .
    Mod(habitual) Neg Aux-T(past) eat-Asp(imperfect)
    `She didn't usually come.'
Example #43:

    (9) Ez omen         zue-n       ur-ik      topa-tu
    Neg Mod(evid) Aux-past water-part find- Asp(perfect)
    `Supposedly, she didn't find any water.'
Example #44:

    ez ohi                zuen        bazkal-tzen
    Neg Mod(habitual) Aux-T(past) eat-Asp(imperfect)
    `She didn't usually come.'
Example #45:

    ez zuen            bazkal-du       ohi
    Neg Aux-T(past) come-Asp(perfect) Mod(habitual)
    `She didn't usually eat.'
Example #46:

    a.     Ez omen        zinen        etorri-ko,       baina etorri zara azken-ean.
    Neg Mod(evid) Aux-T(past) come-T(future) but come Aux end-in.
    `Supposedly, you weren't going to come, but in the end you've come.'
Example #47:

    b.     # Ez omen zinen etorriko, baina ez zara etorri azkenean.
    Neg.
    `Supposedly, you weren't going to come but in the end you haven't come.'
Example #48:

    Badakit [ez didazu-la egia esan]
    I know Neg Aux-Comp truth say
    I know you didn't tell me the truth
Example #49:

    Badakit [egia esan didazu-la]
    I know truth say Aux-Comp
    I know you told me the truth
Example #50:

    Badakit [ez didazu-la egia esan]
    I know Neg Aux-Comp truth say
    `I know you didn't tell me the truth.'
Example #51:

    Badakit [egia esan didazu-la].
    I know truth say Aux-Comp
    `I know you told me the truth.'
Example #52:

    a. [eror-i            ez de-n] etxea.
    fall-Asp(perfect) Neg Aux-comp house-the.
    `The house that hasn't fallen.'
Example #53:

    [Aunitz bazkal-tzen        ez ohi          ba-duzu], zer-gatik zara hain pottoloa?
    Much lunch-Asp(imperf) Neg Asp(habit) if-Aux, what-for Aux so chubby
    If you don't eat a lot for lunch, why are you so chubby?
Example #54:

    Goxoki bat eman-en19 diot, [ongi porta-tu               omen        bait-z-en]
    candy one give-T(future), well behave-Asp(perfect) mood(evid) because-AuxT(past)
    `I'm going to give him a candy, because he evidently behaved well.'
Example #55:

    c. ez da etxea        erori.
    no has house-the fallen
    `The house hasn't fall down.'
Example #56:

    d. etxea       erori da.
    house-the fallen has
    `The house has fallen down.'
Example #57:

    a. ez omen         da etxea      erori.
    no Mod(evid) has house-the fallen
    `Supposedly, the house hasn't fall down.'
Example #58:

    b. etxea       erori omen      da.
    house-the fallen Mod(evid) has
    `Supposedly, the house has fallen down.'
Example #59:

    (45a) Badakit [ez didazu-la egia esan]
    I know Neg Aux-Comp truth say
    I know you didn't tell me the truth
Example #60:

    a. Nork du Jon ikusi?
    who has John seen
    Who has seen John?
Example #61:

    b. MIRENEK du Jon ikusi.
    Mary        has John seen.
    Mary has seen John.
Example #62:

    a. Nork      eman     dio berria PERURI? (Ortiz de Urbina 1989:247)
    Who(E) given     has news-the Peter-to
    Who has given   the news to PETER.
Example #63:

    a. Patxi orain dator autobusean (progressive-synthetic)
    Patxi now come bus-in
    `Patxi is coming on the bus now.'
Example #64:

    b. Patxi orain etor-tzen                 da autobusean (iterative-analytic)
    Patxi now come-Asp(imperfect) Aux bus-in
    `Patxi usually comes on the bus now.'
Example #65:

    JONEK esan-                 dio Miren-i egia.
    J.       say-Asp(perfect) Aux M-Dat truth
    `JOHN has told Mary the truth.'
Example #66:

    a. egin nahi ez ba-du,...
    make want Neg if-Aux.
    `If she doesn't want to do (it),...'
Example #67:

    (ii) ez ba-didazu egia esa-ten, ...
    Neg if-Aux       truth say-Asp(imperfect)
    `If she doesn't tell me the truth...'