ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

DAVID L. MINGER (2002). An Analysis of Grammatical Relations and Case Marking in Icelandic.

URL: http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/research/rrg/vanvalin_papers/Mingerthesis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1401&langcode=isl (2019-05-19).

 

Example #1:

    (1)    a. Nú snjóar. (MI)
    now snows
    `Now it's snowing.'
Example #2:

    (3)     a. Mér er illt í höf i. (MI)
    me(D) is painful in head
    `I have a headache.'
Example #3:

    b. Mig yrstir.
    me(A) is thirsty/thirsts
    `I am thirsty.'
Example #4:

    d. Mér er kalt.
    Me(D) is cold
    `I am (getting) cold.'
Example #5:

    e. Mér sjárna i a .
    me(D) grieved it
    `It grieved me/It gave me pain/It hurt me.'
Example #6:

    f. *Ég/mig langar í sígarettur.
    *I(N)/me(A) wants for cigarettes
    `I want cigarettes.'
Example #7:

    (4)    a. Mig vantar peninga.
    me(A) lacks money(A)
    `I lack money.'
Example #8:

    b. Hana vir ist vanta peninga.
    she(A) seems to-lack money(A)
    `She seems to lack money.'
Example #9:

    c. Hann telur mig vanta peninga.
    he(N) believes me(A) lack money(A)
    `He believes I lack money.'
Example #10:

    d. Mig er tali vanta peninga.
    me(A) is believed to-lack money(A)
    `I am believed to lack money.'
Example #11:

    (5)    a. Barninu batna i veikin.
    child-the(D) recovered-from disease-the(N)
    `The child recovered from the disease.'
Example #12:

    b. Barninu vir ist hafa batna veikin.
    child-the(D) seems to-have recovered-from disease-the(N)
    `The child seems to have recovered from the disease.'
Example #13:

    c. Hann telur barninu hafa batna veikin.
    he(N)
    `He believes the child to have recovered from the disease.'
Example #14:

    d. Barninu er tali hafa batna veikin.
    child-the(D) is believed to-have recovered-from disease-the(N)
    `The child is believed to have recovered from the disease.'
Example #15:

    (6)    a. Verkjanna gćtir ekki.
    pains-the(G) is-noticeable not
    `The pains are not noticeable.'
Example #16:

    b. Verkjanna vir ist ekki gćta.
    pains-the(G) seems not to-be-noticeable
    `The pains seem not to be noticeable.'
Example #17:

    c. Hann telur verkjanna ekki gćta.
    he(N) believes pains-the(G) not to-be-noticeable
    `He believes the pains to be not noticeable.'
Example #18:

    d. Verkjanna er tali ekki gćta.
    pains-the(G) is believed not to-be-noticeable
    `The pains are believed to be not noticeable.'
Example #19:

    (7)    Jón sakna i Gu rúnar.
    Jón(N) missed Gu rúnar(G)
    `John missed Gudrun.'
Example #20:

    (8)    Ég hjálpa honum.
    I(N) helped him(D)
    `I helped him.'
Example #21:

    (9)    Henni hefur alltaf ótt Sigga lei inlegur.
    she(D) has always thought Sigga(N) boring
    `She has always thought Sigga boring.'
Example #22:

    (10)   a. Hennar var sakna .
    she(G) was missed
    `She was missed.'
Example #23:

    b. Honum var hjálpa .
    he(D) was helped
    `He was helped.'
Example #24:

    (13)      a. Hann skjóta i fugl.
    he(N) shot bird(A)
    `He shot a bird.'
Example #25:

    b. Hann skjóta i honum fyrir gluggana.
    he(N) shot him(D) before window-the
    `He shot him before the window.'
Example #26:

    c. Honum var skjóta fyrir gluggana.12
    he(D) was shot before window-the
    `He was shot before the window.'
Example #27:

    (14)    a. Lögreglan tók Siggu fasta.
    police-the(N) took Sigga(A) fast
    `The police arrested Sigga.'
Example #28:

    b. Sigga var tekin föst af lögreglunni.
    Sigga(N) was taken fast by police-the(D)
    `Sigga was arrested by the police.'
Example #29:

    (15)    a.    a var dansa í gćr.
    it was danced on yesterday
    `There was dancing yesterday.'
Example #30:

    b. I gćr var dansa .
    on yesterday was danced
    `Yesterday there was dancing.'
Example #31:

    (16)      a. Ég tel henni hafa alltaf ótt O´lafur lei inlegur.
    I(N) believe her(D) to-have always thought Olaf(N) boring
    `I believe her to have always thought Olaf boring.'
Example #32:

    b. Gu rún saknar Haraldar.
    Gudrun(N) misses Harold(G)
    `Gudrun misses Harold.'
Example #33:

    c. Haraldar saknar Gu rún.
    Harold(G) misses Gudrun(N)
    `Harold misses Gudrun.'
Example #34:

    d. *Ég taldi Haraldar/Harald saknar Gu rún/Gu rúnu.
    I believed Harold(G)/Harold(A) to-miss Gudrun(N)/Gudrun(A)
    *`I believed Harold to miss Gudrun.'
Example #35:

    e. Ég taldi Gu rúnu í barnaskap mínum sakna Haraldar.
    I(N) believed Gudrun(A) in foolishness my to-miss Harold
    `I belived Gudrun, in my foolishmness, to miss Harold.'
Example #36:

    f. Ég tel eim hafa veri hjálpa í prófinu.
    I(N) believe them(D) to-have been helped in exam-the(D)
    `I believe them to have been helped in the exam.'
Example #37:

    (17)   a. Sigga bar i mig me dúkkuni sinni/*hennar.
    Sigga(N) hit me(A) with doll-the(D) her(*[-REFL])
    `Sigga hit me with her doll.'
Example #38:

    b. Ég bar i Siggu me dúkkuni hennar/*sinni.
    I(N) hit Sigga(A) with doll-the(D) her (*[+REFL])
    `I hit Sigga with her doll.'
Example #39:

    c. Hennii ykir bró ir sinni(+REFL)/*hennari(D,-REFL) lei inlegur.
    she(D) thinks brother(N) her(+REFL)/*her(-REFL) to be boring
    `She finds her brother boring.'
Example #40:

    d. Honum var oft hjálpa af foreldrum sínum/*hans.
    him(D) was often helped by parents his (*[-REFL])
    `He was often helped by his parents.'
Example #41:

    (18)   a.    a hefur jófur stoli hjólinu mínu.
    there has thief-a(N) stolen bicycle(D) mine(D)
    `A thief has stolen my bicycle.'
Example #42:

    b. Hjóli hefur jófurinn stoli .
    bicycle-a has thief-the(N) stolen
    `A bicycle has the thief stolen.'
Example #43:

    c. * a hefur hjóli jófurinn stoli .
    there has bicycle-a thief-the(N) stolen
    `There has a bicycle the thief stolen.'
Example #44:

    d.    a hefur mörgum stúdentum veri hjálpa í prófinu.
    there have many(D) students(D) been helped on exam-the(D)
    `There have been many students helped on the exam.'
Example #45:

    (19)   a. Hann segist vera duglegur, en finsst verkefni of ungt.
    he(N) says-self to-be diligent, but _____(D) finds work-the too hard
    `He says he is diligent, but finds the homework too hard.'
Example #46:

    b. *Hann segist vera duglegur, en mér finnst _____(N) latur.
    he(N) says-self to-be diligent, but me(D) finds _____(N) lazy
    `He says he is diligent, but I find [him] lazy.'
Example #47:

    c. Hann segist vera saklaus en _____ hefur víst veri hjálpa í prófinu.
    helped on exam-the(D)
    `He says he is innocent, but has apparently been helped on the exam.'
Example #48:

    (20)    a. Mig vantar peninga.
    me(A) lacks money(A)
    `I lack money.'
Example #49:

    b. Ég vonast til a vanta ekki peninga.
    I(N) hope for _____(A) to lack not money
    `I hope not to lack money.'
Example #50:

    c. Ég vonast til a ver a hjálpa .
    I(N) hope for to be helped
    `I hope to be helped.'
Example #51:

    (23)    Strákurinn bei allan daginn.
    boy-the(N) waited all(A) day-the(A)
    `The boy waited all day.'
Example #52:

    (27)     ess var óska (*henni).
    this(G) was wished (*her(D))
    `This was wished.'
Example #53:

    (29)     eir ykja latir.
    they(N) seem(3rd. Pers. Pl.) lazy
    `They are considered lazy.'
Example #54:

    (30)   Mér ótti i fljótir
    me(D) thought you(A) quick
    `I thought you were quick.'
Example #55:

    Ég      sakna i     hans.
    I(N)    missed      him(G)
    `I missed him.'
Example #56:

    Barninu         batna i         veikin.
    child-the(D) recovered-from disease-the(N)
    `The child recovered from the disease.'
Example #57:

    Jón gaf       barninu         bókina
    John(N) gave child-the(D) book-the(A)
    `John gave the child the book.'
Example #58:

    Barninu         var gefin       bókin           (af Jóni)
    child-the(D) was given          book-the(N)     (by John(D))
    `The child was given the book (by John).
Example #59:

    (39)    Mig vantar peninga.
    I(A) need money(A)
    `I need money.'
Example #60:

    (40)    Mig i rar ess.
    I(A) repents this(G)
    `I repent of this.'
Example #61:

    (52)    a. Skipstjórinn sökkti skipinu.
    captain-the(N) sank ship-the(D)
    `The captain sank the ship.'
Example #62:

    b. ég hur a i honum
    I(N) spun him(D) around
    `I spun him around.'
Example #63:

    a. Ég dringla i boltunum/boltinn.                    10/10          1/1
    I pushed-around-in-a-circle the ball (D/A)
    'I pushed the ball around in a circle.'
Example #64:

    b. Ég kusla i stolunum/stol.                         7/5            10/10
    I rocked-back-andforth -the chair (D/A)
    'I rocked the chair back and forth.'
Example #65:

    c. Ég virpa i saltinum/salti .                       10/10          1/1
    I threw-over-my-left-shoulder salt
    'I threw salt over my left shoulder.'
Example #66:

    d. Ég trepla i vatninu/vatni .                       1/1            10/10
    I swished-around water (D/A)
    'I swished water around.'
Example #67:

    e. Ég elka i hundinum/hundinn.                      1/1             10/10
    I drove-across-country the dog (D/A)
    'I drove the dog across country.'
Example #68:

    f. Ég blúa i húsinur/húsi .                    1/5                  10/10
    I exploded-into-blue-flames the house (D/A)
    'I exploded the house into blue flames.'
Example #69:

    g. Ég skrimsla i hundinum/hundinn.                1/1             10/10
    I ran-over-and-smashed-as-flat-as-paper-with-a-tractor the dog (D/A)
    'I ran over the dog with a tractor smashing it flat as paper.'
Example #70:

    h. Ég trukla i hárinu/hári .                        1/1             10/10
    I tore-out-by-the-roots the hair (D/A)
    'I tore the hair out by the roots.'
Example #71:

    i. Ég bitla i grjótinu/grjóti .                     1/1             10/10
    I crushed-to-bits the rock (D/A)
    'I crushed the rock to bits.'
Example #72:

    j.   Ég snúta i bla inu/bla i .                     1.1             10/10
    I cut-into-thin-strips the paper (D/A)
    'I cut the paper into thin strips.'
Example #73:

    ég hur a i honum
    I(N) spun-like-a-wheel him(D)57
    `I spun him like a wheel.'
Example #74:

    hann blúa i hann
    he(N) blew-up-into-bits-too-small-to-see him(A)
    `He blew him up into bits too small to see.'
Example #75:

    hann spí a bílnum
    he(N) made-go-100-miles-per-hour the car(D)
    `He made the car go 100 miles per hour.'
Example #76:

    hann skaga i pappirinn
    he(N) cut-into-thin-strips-of-equal-size the paper(A)
    `He cut the paper into thin strips of equal size.'
Example #77:

    hann blukka i hestinum
    he(N) herded-from-high-pastures-to-the-valley horses(D)
    `He herded the horses from high pastures to the valley.'
Example #78:

    hann butta i rúslinu
    he(N) burned-in-a-super-hot-incinerator the garbage(D)
    `He burned the garbage in a super hot incinerator.'
Example #79:

    hann sugla i bréfinu til America
    he(N) sent-by-sailboat a letter(D) to America
    `He sent a letter to America by sailboat.'
Example #80:

    hann fluka i hundinn
    he(N) poisoned-by-foxglove the dog(A)
    `He poisoned the dog with foxglove.'
Example #81:

    hann sli a i steininum
    he(N) made-slide-down-the-surface-of-the-glacier the rock(D)
    `He made the rock slide down the surface of the glacier.'
Example #82:

    hann mara i skipinu
    he(N) sent-flying-from-Earth-to-Mars the ship(D)
    `He sent the ship flying from Earth to Mars.'
Example #83:

    b. Ég er syfja ur. (MI)
    I (N) am sleepy
    `I am sleepy.'
Example #84:

    (91)     eim var fátt at or um
    they(D) were few to words
    `Few words came to them/they had little to say.'
Example #85:

    (93)   Jón sakna i Gu rúnar. (MI)
    Jón(N) missed Gu rúnar(G)
    `John missed Gudrun.'
Example #86:

    (58.73)       skjóta fugla
    shoot birds(A)
    `shoot birds'
Example #87:

    (58.74)       skjóta kúlu úr byssu
    shoot a bullet(D) from a gun
    `shoot a bullet from a gun'
Example #88:

    Hann skaut hana/hann/?honum
    He(N) shot her(A)/him(A)/?him(D)
    `I shot her/him/him' (per GA)