ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Wu, Jiun-Shiu3g (2004). MODELING TEMPORAL PROGRESSION IN MANDARIN: ASPECT MARKERS AND TEMPORAL RELATIONS.

URL: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2003/wuj032/wuj032.pdf

(Last accessed 2006-01-02).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1591&langcode=cmn (2018-07-18).

 

Example #1:

    5. a. zhangsan zai che huo              zhong shou        le   zhong shang
    Zhangsan at car accident            in   receive PFV serious injury
    `Zhangsan was injured seriously in a car accident.'
Example #2:

    b. bei      song dao         yiyuan     jijiu
    PASS take to           hospital     emergency-rescue
    `He was taken to the ER of the hospital.'
Example #3:

    6. a. zhangsan      bei song dao         yiyuan       jijiu
    Zhangsan PASS take to              hospital    emergency-rescue
    `Zhangsan was taken to the ER of the hospital.'
Example #4:

    b. yinwei       ta zai che     huo      zhong shou          le zhong shang
    because      he at    car accident in         receive PFV serious injury
    `because he was injured seriously in a car accident.'
Example #5:

    7. a. zhangsan zai         nulide zuo gongke
    Zhangsan PRG diligently do homework
    `Zhangsan was doing homework diligently.'
Example #6:

    b. ta de          didi               que zai           kan     dianshi
    he DE      younger brother        but    PRG      watch       TV
    `But, his brother was watching TV.'
Example #7:

    8. a. zhe ge shehui          shang ren           ren   dou    zisi
    this CL society on          person person all       selfish
    `In this society, everyone is selfish.'
Example #8:

    9. a. mei      ge     ren     shengchulai dou        chabuduo
    every CL person            born          all    not much difference
    `When everyone is born, they are not that different.'
Example #9:

    b. dan zhangda yihou meiyou          ren    shi wanchuan       xiangtongde
    but grow up      after    no      person be completely same
    `After they grow up, nobody is completel y identical to others,'
Example #10:

    jiazhiguan       zuo      xuanze
    value sense      make     choice
    is valuable and what is not.'
Example #11:

    b. wo zai      kan     dianshi
    I PRG watch TV
    `I was watching TV.'
Example #12:

    b. chen sha fei qi liang        zhang        lai    gao
    dust sand fly up two three meters some high
    `dust and sand fly up for around six meters high,'
Example #13:

    c. liang ren   qi   ma      yi qian     yi   hou   ji   chi   er lai
    two person ride horse one front one after fast          run and come
    the back. They came close, riding fast.'
Example #14:

    chen sha fei qi liang zhang         lai   gao
    dust sand fly up two three meters some high
    sand fly up for around six meters hight.'
Example #15:

    b. liang ren         qi ma
    two    person ride horse
    `Two persons rode horses.'
Example #16:

    c. yi    qian
    one front
    `One was in the front,'
Example #17:

    d. yi    hou
    one after
    `and the other was in the back.'
Example #18:

    e. ji chi       er   lai
    fast ride and come
    `They approached, riding fast.'
Example #19:

    22. a. ta xie zhe wu                feng xin         xie   le    san     ge xiaoshi
    he write this        five        CL letter write PFV five CL hour
    `He wrote these five letters for five hours.'
Example #20:

    b. ta yi ge xiaoshi      nei        jiu   xie    le zhe wu feng xin
    he one CL hour within JIU write               PFV this five CL letter
    `He finished these five letters in (as little as) one hour.'
Example #21:

    23. a. *ta zai    dida taibei
    he PRG arrive Taipei
    `*He is arriving at Taipei.'            (the on-going reading)
Example #22:

    b. *ta dida taibei       dida le wu          fen    zhong
    he arrive Taipei arrive PFV five CL minute
    `*He has been arriving Taipei for five minutes.'
Example #23:

    24. a. ta youyong      you   le    yi      ge   xiaoshi
    he swim        swim PFV one CL hour
    `He swam for one hour.'
Example #24:

    b. *ta yi    ge    xiaoshi     nei      you        le   yong
    he one CL hour            within    swim PFV swim
    `*He swam in one hour.'
Example #25:

    25. a. *hua    zai    hong
    flower PRG      red
    `*The flower is being red.'
Example #26:

    b. hua     hong    le    san   ge    yue      le
    flower    red   PFV three CL month          Prc
    `The flower has been red for three months.'
Example #27:

    26. a. hua   kaishi hong    le
    flower begin red      Prc
    `Flowers started to turn red.'
Example #28:

    b. ta kaishi     shou   le
    he begin       thin   Prc
    `He started to become thin.'
Example #29:

    c. ta kaishi   xie na feng     xin    le
    he start     write that CL letter Prc
    `He started writing that letter.'
Example #30:

    d. hua       hong le hen         jiu
    flower     red   PFV very long
    `Flowers are/were red for a long time.'
Example #31:

    27. a. zhe dong     fangzi   gai      le    hen    jiu
    this CL     house     build   PFV very long
    `This house has been under construction for a long time.'
Example #32:

    29. a. hua     hong    le       san      ge    yue
    flower    red   PFV three CL month
    `The flower has been red for three months.'
Example #33:

    b. zhe dong fangzi gai          le san    ge     yue   haimei   gaihao
    this CL house build PFV three CL month not yet build-finish
    is not finished yet.'
Example #34:

    33. a. zhangsan       diedao        le
    Zhangsan       fall         PFV
    `Zhangsan fell down.'
Example #35:

    b. !lisi   tui le        ta    yi     ba
    Lisi push PFV he one             CL
    `Lisi pushed him.'
Example #36:

    b'. yinwei       lisi        tui     le   ta   yi   ba
    because       Lisi push          PFV he one CL
    `Because Lisi pushed him.'
Example #37:

    34. a. ta cong zhuo           shang ba shu           na le qilai
    he from desk on                DISP book pick PFV up
    `He picked up the book from the desk.'
Example #38:

    b. zhuan shen
    turn    body
    `(and) he turned around.'
Example #39:

    c. zou     le chuqu
    walk PFV out
    `(and) he went out.'
Example #40:

    35. a. dang        ta zai          kan        sh u    de     shihou
    when       he   PRG read              book DE        time
    `When he was reading,'
Example #41:

    b. wo zai         kan        dianshi
    I PRG watch                TV
    `I was watching TV.'
Example #42:

    36. a. yaoshi ni mingtian               bu      lai
    if        you tomorrow           no    come
    `If you don't come tomorrow,'
Example #43:

    b. wo jiu     dao       ni     jia        qu    zhao    ni
    I then       go to you        home       go   find    you
    `I will go to your home to look for you.'
Example #44:

    37. a. gu shihou de         ren    ruhe shenghuo bingbu zhongyao
    old time DE person how               live     not       important
    `It is not important how ancient people lived.'
Example #45:

    b. zhongyao de shi
    important DE be
    `The important thing is:'
Example #46:

    c. shidai zai bian
    time PRG change
    `Time is changing.'
Example #47:

    d. huanjing         zai    bian
    environment PRG change
    `The environment is changing.'
Example #48:

    shi    yi yang de
    be same        Prc
    `But, human nature and its basic requirements are all the same.'
Example #49:

    38. a. wo yang      le   yi    zhi   gou
    I    feed   PFV one CL dog
    `I have a dog.'
Example #50:

    b. na shi yi zhi     bai    se de xiaogou
    that be one CL white color DE puppy
    `That is a white puppy.'
Example #51:

    39. a. tamen     nuli    lianxi
    they diligently practice
    `They practiced diligently.'
Example #52:

    b. suoyi yingde         le          shengli
    so     win         PFV victory
    `So, they won the victory.'
Example #53:

    40. a. zhangsan      diedao            le
    Zhangsan       fall         PFV
    `Zhangsan fell down.'
Example #54:

    b. yinwei     lisi      tui         le   ta   yi ba
    because Lisi       push           PFV he one CL
    `Because Lisi pushed him.'
Example #55:

    41. a. zhangsan diedao            le
    Zhangsan fall          PFV
    `Zhangsan fell down.'
Example #56:

    b. lisi   ba ta fu    le qilai
    Lisi DISP he help PFV up
    `Lisi helped him up.'
Example #57:

    42. a. ta ershi sui            le hai zai (*nar)          zhang
    he twenty year-old Prc still PRG (*there) grow
    `He is already twenty years old, but he is still growing up20.'
Example #58:

    b. women         xi         hai zai    (*nar)        zhao     ren
    our       department still PRG (*there) look for person
    `Our department is still hiring21.'
Example #59:

    43. a. wo zai     nian    dewen
    I PRG study German
    `I am studying German.'
Example #60:

    b. wo zai   nar   nian dewen
    I PRG there study German
    `I am studying German over there.'
Example #61:

    44. a. beijing zai zhongguo
    Beijing at Zhongguo
    `Beijing is in China.'
Example #62:

    b. meiguo        duli      shi zai 1776 nian
    USA       independence be at 1776 year
    `The US independence was in 1776.'
Example #63:

    c. wo zai   nian dewen
    I PRG study German
    `I am studying German.'
Example #64:

    45. a. ta zai chuang shang zuo zhe
    he at bed       top     sit DUR
    `He is sitting on the bed.'
Example #65:

    b. *ta gao zhe
    he tall DUR
    `He is being tall.'
Example #66:

    46. a. zhangsan zai          da lisi
    Zhangsan PRG          hit Lisi
    `Zhangsan is hitting Lisi.'
Example #67:

    b. zhangsan zai paobu
    Zhagnsan PRG run
    `Zhangsan is running.'
Example #68:

    47. a. ta zai chuan dayi
    he PRG wear coat
    `He is putting on his coat.'
Example #69:

    b. ta chuan zhe dayi
    he wear DUR coat
    `He is wearing a coat.'
Example #70:

    48. a. ta zai    da qiu                         activity
    he PRG play ball
    `He is playing ball.'
Example #71:

    b. ta zai xie        yi feng xin            accomplishment
    he PRG write one CL letter
    `He is writing a letter.'
Example #72:

    49. a. *ta zai   ying saipao                    achievement
    he PRG win       run
    `He is winning the race.'
Example #73:

    b. *ta zai   si                             achievement
    he PRG die
    `He is dying.'
Example #74:

    c. zhangsan   zai paobu ta xiang pao      shi fenzhong
    Zhangsan PRG run     he want run       ten   minute
    (= Zhangsan was running for ten minutes.)
Example #75:

    51. a. ta zheng ge wanshang dou zai              kanshu
    he whole CL night           all PRG study
    `He was studying the whole night.'
Example #76:

    kan     dianshi
    watch TV
    `When his father returned home yesterday, he was watching TV.'
Example #77:

    zhaogu        ta
    take care of he
    him.'
Example #78:

    56. a. shan      chuan        zhaoze shi       wujiwu
    mountain river swamp               be not organic
    `Mountains, rivers and swamps are not organic.'
Example #79:

    b. cao     mu niao        shou    chong yu    shi    youjiwu
    grass tree bird        animal bug fish        be organic
    `Grass, trees, birds, animals, bugs, fish are organic.'
Example #80:

    c. danshi bulun           you mei you shengming
    but     regardless have no have physical life
    `But, no matter whether they have physical life or not,'
Example #81:

    d. tamen dou      you       yi ge gongtong de texing
    they all      have one CL common DE feature
    `they all have a feature in common, '
Example #82:

    e. najiushi dou       zai        butingde    bianhua    he     yundong
    that is all       PRG         continuously change    and    move
    `that is, they are all continuously changing and moving.'
Example #83:

    f. bifangshuo        ri    yu     xingchen zai      kong zhong    yunxing
    for example sun moon             star PRG space inside         moving
    `For example, the sun, the moon and stars are moving in space,'
Example #84:

    g. shan       nenggou xingcheng               yunwu
    mountain can           form             cloud and fog
    `mountains can form clouds and fogs,'
Example #85:

    h. hechuang butingde                liudong
    river       continuously flow
    `rivers continuously flow,'
Example #86:

    i. cao     mu niao   sh o u        chong     yu   buduande fanzhi
    grass tree bird     animal         bug fish continuously propagate
    continuously.'
Example #87:

    j. meiyou     yi yang dongci shi yungyuan bu bian             de
    no       one CL thing be                forever no change Prc
    `Nothing remains unchanged forever.'
Example #88:

    xialai hai zai        mai bing
    down still PRG sell ice
    is still selling ice.'
Example #89:

    de fanwei li
    DE domain        inside
    `Her life seems to freeze in that small domain,'
Example #90:

    c. buduan          zai    zuo tongyang de shi
    without stop PRG          do   same        DE thing
    `(and she) is doing the same thing without stop.'
Example #91:

    59. a. na ren          dangran daxiruokuang
    that person certainly very happy
    `The person was certainly very happy,'
Example #92:

    b. yiwei                zhaodao        le daolu
    mistakenly think        find         PFV road
    `(and he) mistakenly thought he found a road,'
Example #93:

    c. gen      zhe zuji                er xing
    follow DUR foot trace and walk
    `and followed the trace.'
Example #94:

    e. dan zou        dao houlai
    but walk until later
    `But, when he walked a long enough period of time,'
Example #95:

    f. zhe     zuji        yuanlai shi ziji liuxia de
    this foot trace originally be self leave Prc
    `it turned out that the trace was left by him,'
Example #96:

    g. ta zoulaizouqu
    he walk
    `and he walked and walked,'
Example #97:

    h. zhishi zai raoquanzi
    only PRG go circle
    `he was only going in circle.'
Example #98:

    touhao         gongchen
    number one helper
    were their No. 1 helpers.'
Example #99:

    tamen tuoli        kuhai
    they leave       miserable situation
    them from their miserable situation.'
Example #100:

    nongming yingxong lizicheng
    farmer         here       Li Zicheng
    the farmer hero from the north of Shan:'
Example #101:

    d. ying        chuang wang pan chuang wang,
    Welcome Chuang king            expect Chuang king
    `Let's welcome King Chuang36, and Let's expect King Chuang.'
Example #102:

    e. chuang wang lai         le     bu naliang
    Chuang king come PFV no pay tax
    `When King Chuang comes, we won't have to pay tax (to him)!'
Example #103:

    daliangang
    steel-tempering
    tempering things into steel.'
Example #104:

    dabenying
    base
    base for economists,'
Example #105:

    c. shi yunchou juece      de    difang
    be make policy DE place
    `(and it) was supposed to be a place where policy was made.'
Example #106:

    d. keshi nali     yie you               lianganglu
    but there also have converter for steel-tempering
    `But, there was also a converter.'
Example #107:

    62. a. liwenxiu    weiwei lengxiao dao
    Li Wenxiu slightly sneer        sa y
    `Li Wenxiu slightly sneered and said,'
Example #108:

    b. ni   bu     rende wo        wo que     rende   ni
    you not recognize I         I but recognize you
    `You don't recognize me, but I recognize you.'
Example #109:

    jiu     shi ni zhe pi hanren             qiangdao
    JIU be you this group            Han      robber
    tribes, and kill the Kazakhstan people.'
Example #110:

    d. shuo dao zheli
    speak to here
    `(When) she spoke to this point,'
Example #111:

    e. shengyin bian         de    shenwei kuse
    voice become DE              pretty      dry
    `Her voice became pretty dry.'
Example #112:

    f. xin    zhong zai      xiang
    mind inside PRG think
    `She was thinking in her mind,"
Example #113:

    huai    sh i
    bad    thing
    `If you robbers had not done so many bad things,'
Example #114:

    h. suluke yie bu          hui zheyang zenghen women hanren
    Suluke also no will             so        hate        we      Han people
    `Suluke would not have hated us Han people so much.'
Example #115:

    63. a. suluke nanade            dao han ren       zhong ye   you   hao ren
    Suluke murmuring say Han people inside also have good person
    `Suluke murmured, "are there good persons among the Han
Example #116:

    b. huanhuan yao        le         yao   tou
    slowly      shake PFV shake head
    `He shook his head slowly.'
Example #117:

    han   ren     jiu   de
    Han person save      Prc
    `But, his life and his son's life were both saved by this Han.'
Example #118:

    d. que buyoude ta bu          xin
    but not allow he not believe
    `He was not allowed not to believe that fact.'
Example #119:

    e. ta yi sheng zenghen han      ren
    he one life    hate    Han    people
    `He hated the Han people for his whole life.'
Example #120:

    f. xianzai zhe ge xinnian zai dongyao le
    now     this CL belief PRG shake Prc
    `Now this belief was shaking.'
Example #121:

    65. a. laozhang    zai   gai fangzi
    Laozhang PRG build          house
    `Laozhang was building a house.'
Example #122:

    b. !keshi houlai ta haishi zai limian zhu
    but     later he still        PRG inside live
    `But later he was still living inside (it).'
Example #123:

    66. a. zilu     bijiao       mei you yinyue xibao
    Zilu comparatively no have music cell
    `Zilu had less talent for music.'
Example #124:

    b. t a   ye   zai   xue tan              se
    he also PRG learn play ancient Chinese musical instrument
    `He was also learning how to play Se.'
Example #125:

    c. kongzi       ting le      shoubuliao       jiu      shuo
    Confucius hear PFV cannot bear then                     sa y
    `Confucius heard him play, couldn't stand it, and then said.'
Example #126:

    d. zilu tan se tan        de zheme cha
    Zilu play Se play DE so        bad
    `Zilu plays Se so badly,'
Example #127:

    e. zai wo menxia you sheme yongchu ne
    at my school have what         use          Prc
    `What good does his staying as my student do (to himself)?'
Example #128:

    67. a. xiaoli zai   youyong
    Xiaoli PRG swim
    `Xiaoli was swimming.'
Example #129:

    b. laozhang kandao         le renbuzhu              jiao     le ta   ji   zhao
    Laozhang see           PFV cannot help       teach PFV he several move
    him a few moves.'
Example #130:

    shi
    time
    primary school,'
Example #131:

    b. youyitian dui wo shuo
    one day to     I sa y
    `one day she said to me,'
Example #132:

    c. ta xianzai xihuan yi    shou gequ shi madana    de   wuzhi nuhai
    she now like one            CL song be Madonna DE material girl
    `now she liked one song, that is, Madonna's Material Girl.'
Example #133:

    69. a. gu shihou de     ren    ruhe shenghuo bingbu zhongyao
    old time DE person how          live    not      important
    `It is not important how ancient people lived.'
Example #134:

    b. zhongyao de shi
    important DE be
    `The important thing is:'
Example #135:

    c. shidai zai bian
    time PRG change
    `Time is changing.'
Example #136:

    d. huanjing        zai   bian
    environment PRG change
    `The environment is changing.'
Example #137:

    yiyang de
    same      Prc
    `But, human nature and its basic requirements are all the same.'
Example #138:

    chengzhang yu        si
    grow up         at   here
    `We, Tsinghua students, live here and grow up here.'
Example #139:

    qinghua xiaoyuan
    Tsinghua        campus
    are both the Tsinghua campus.'
Example #140:

    c. fangzi shi women zai             zhu
    house be we               PRG     live
    `We live in the houses.'
Example #141:

    d. l u   shi women zai         zou
    road be us          PRG walk
    `We walk on the roads.'
Example #142:

    canyu           xi xia wan        yi xia ne
    participate one CL play one CL Prc
    some fun (with the campus plan)?'
Example #143:

    wuwei bubing xuexiao shicha faxian
    Wuwei infantry school inspect find
    to inspect the infantry school at Wuwei, Gansu, and found:'
Example #144:

    b. quan     xiao   guan    bing     yiqi     zai    lian     gang
    whole school officer soldier together PRG temper steel
    steel-tempering,'
Example #145:

    c. wu yi    ren     zai   gao junshi    xunlian
    no one person PRG do military training
    `(but) nobody was doing military training.'
Example #146:

    72. a. kongzi      shuo ta tong yanhui shuo le         yi tian    de daoli
    Confucius say he to Yanhui say PFV one day DE reason
    be a good and kind person and how to treat people.'
Example #147:

    b. yanhui bu wen     wenti       erqie yie     bu      fanbuo
    Yanhui not ask question         and also     not    argue
    `Yanhui did not ask any question nor did he argue.'
Example #148:

    c. haoxiang hen     be n   de      yangzi
    seem       very stupid DE appearance
    `He seemed to appear stupid.'
Example #149:

    kongzi      shu guo     de     hua
    Confucius say EXP REL words
    had said.'
Example #150:

    e. yinci yanhui yidianyiebu ben          ne
    so     Yanhui not at all      stupid Prc
    `So, Yanhui was not stupid at all.'
Example #151:

    suo   qianglie biaoxian de renlei zhuguan          yizhi
    hence strongly express DE human subjective consciousness
    colors and lines in the western traditional paintings.'
Example #152:

    yiji renwei zaoxin de xiaojie
    and artificial form DE decompose
    forms.'
Example #153:

    74. a. ren   de xinling xuyao         jingguo    shidu de     tiaozheng
    person DE mind        need     experience proper DE adjustment
    `Human minds need appropriate adjustment.'
Example #154:

    b. yao    zijuede           faxian ziji xianzai shi gaochao huo dichao
    need self-consciously find          self now be up        or    down
    down now.'
Example #155:

    c. xianzai zai zuo de      shi   li     mubiao   you    duoyuan
    now PRG do REL thing from destination have how far
    is currently doing.'
Example #156:

    fangshi
    way
    `So, everyone needs to find out his own way of living,'
Example #157:

    e. ran    ziji zai ge fangmian you tiaoshi huanchong de jihui
    allow self at    all aspect    have adjust buffer     DE chance
    break.'
Example #158:

    75. a. ru              heluoweizi yanzou     shi
    for example Horwitz           perform time
    `For example, when Horwitz is performing,'
Example #159:

    b. hen youqu              haoxiang zai             youxi
    very interesting seem             PRG      play a game
    `it is very interesting and he seems to be playing a game.'
Example #160:

    c. yinwei      ta tanqi       qin     lai    bu    zaihu yuanlai de   xuanlü
    because he play-start piano start not            care original DE melody
    the original melody.'
Example #161:

    d. fanzhi              xuanlu shi wei ta de         ganqing er cunzai de
    on the contrary melody be for he DE                feelings and exist Prc
    `On the contrary, melody exists for his feelings.'
Example #162:

    76. a. zhongguo dadi shang chuxian le                   shiwuqianli de jingxiang
    China        land on        appear PFV unprecedented DE            image
    `In China, an unprecedented image appeared:'
Example #163:

    b. zhiyao       shi you      ren    de difang
    as long as be have person DE place
    `As long as it is a place with persons,'
Example #164:

    c. jiu   you     ren       zai daliang gangtie
    then have person PRG             temper    steel
    `then, there are persons who are tempering things into steel.'
Example #165:

    77. a. ta zhan-qilai le
    he stand up Prc
    `He stood up.'
Example #166:

    b. ta zai chuan dayi
    he PRG wear coat
    `He is/was putting on the coat.'
Example #167:

    78. a. ta zai menkou zhan zhe
    he at gate       stand DUR
    `He is/was standing at the door.'
Example #168:

    b. ta chuan zhe dayi
    he wear DUR coat
    `He is/was wearing the coat.'
Example #169:

    79. a. Ita qi    zhe jiaotache4   0
    he ride DUR bike
    `Riding a bike, he.....'
Example #170:

    b. ta qi   zhe jiaotache      shangxue
    he ride DUR bike          go to school
    `He went to school by (riding a) bike.'
Example #171:

    80. a. ta jiantian   ke   gaoxing zhe
    he today very happy          DUR
    `He is (being) very happy today.'
Example #172:

    hua dou         hong zhe
    flower all       red      DUR
    red.'
Example #173:

    81. a. hua         hen piaoliang
    flower very beautiful
    `Flowers are very beautiful.'
Example #174:

    b. ta gaoxingde qi   zhe     jiaotache
    he happily ride DUR        bike
    `He is riding a bike happily.'
Example #175:

    82. a. *dang ta qi zhe       jiaotache ta shangxue
    when he ride DUR bike            he   go to school
    `When he was riding a bike, he went to school.'
Example #176:

    b. *zai ta chang zhe       ge zhihou      women jiu zou    le
    at he sing DUR song after             we      then walk Prc
    `After he was singing, we left.'
Example #177:

    le
    Prc
    `Before he was singing, we had already had very bad luck.'
Example #178:

    83. a. zai ta chang le   ge zhihou       women jiu zou     le
    at he sing Pfv song after we            then walk Prc
    `After he sang, we left.'
Example #179:

    b. zai ta chang ge zhiqian women yingjin hen               daomei   le
    at   he sing song before we           already very bad luck Prc
    `Before he sang, we had had very bad luck.'
Example #180:

    84. a. menkou zhan       zhe    yi   ge ren
    doorway stand DUR one CL person
    `At the doorway is standing a man.'
Example #181:

    b. zhuo shang bei          ta fang   le    hen   duo    sh u
    desk on       PASS he put          PFV very many book
    `He put a lot of books on the desk.'
Example #182:

    c. qiang shang gua          zhe    yi   fu    hua
    wall on          hang DUR one CL picture
    `A picture is hung on the wall.'
Example #183:

    d. chuang shang tang zhe             yi zhi    mao
    bed        on      lie DUR one CL cat
    `A cat lies on the bed.'
Example #184:

    e. heiban            shang         xie zhe     yi xie        zi
    black board         on         write DUR one       PL word
    `A few words are written on the board.'
Example #185:

    85. a. zhuo shang ta fan     le/*zhe    hen   duo shu
    desk on      he put PFV/DUR very many book
    `On the table, John put a book.'
Example #186:

    b. heibang     shang ta xie      le/*zhe     yi xie   zi
    black board    on    he write PFV/DUR one PL word
    `On the blackboard, he wrote a few words.'
Example #187:

    86. a. xin    xie le
    letter write PFV
    `The letter was written.'
Example #188:

    b. ta xin xie le
    he letter write PFV
    `He wrote that letter.'
Example #189:

    88. a. na ben     shu zai zhuo shang fan zhe
    that CL book at desk       on    put DUR
    `That book was placed on the table.'
Example #190:

    b. *na ben      shu zai zhuo shang fan le
    that CL book at desk       on    put PFV
    `That book was placed on the table.'
Example #191:

    90. a. *ta daoda         zhe     shanding
    he arrive DUR           mountain top
    `He is reaching/has reached the top of the mountain43.'
Example #192:

    b. *ta da-po           zhe       beizi
    he hit-broken DUR glass
    `He has broken a glass.'
Example #193:

    c. *ta      sh u i    zhe    shi       fenzhong
    he sleep        DUR         ten     minute
    `He is sleeping/has slept ten minutes.'
Example #194:

    d. *ta    lai zhe          liang         ci
    he come DUR two                   times
    `He is coming/has come twice.'
Example #195:

    e. *ta xie zhe liang pian                      wenzhang
    he write DUR          two         CL      article
    `He is writing/has written two articles.'
Example #196:

    wushude buxing
    countless disaster
    process of life.'
Example #197:

    b. t a      suishi      baochi   zhe   jingjuexing
    he any time           keep    DUR    alertness
    `He keeps alert all the time.'
Example #198:

    c. ta qi          zhe   jiaotache daochu      xianguan
    he ride DUR bike                everywhere loiter
    `He is loitering everywhere, riding a bike.'
Example #199:

    92. a. zhangsan chuan zhe            yi jian waitao
    Zhangsan wear DUR one CL coat
    `Zhangsan is wearing a coat.'
Example #200:

    b. *zhangsan gai          zhe         yi dong fanzi
    Zhangsan build DUR one CL house
    `*Zhangsan is building/has built one house.'
Example #201:

    93. a. ta he zhe cha
    he drink DUR tea
    `He is drinking tea.'
Example #202:

    b. *ta   he zhe      yi bei cha
    he drink DUR one CL tea
    `He is drinking a cup of tea.'
Example #203:

    94. a. ta zai hua        zhe    yi    ge   yuan
    he PRG draw DUR one             CL circle
    `He is drawing a circle.'
Example #204:

    b. *ta xie     zhe na feng xin
    he write DUR that CL letter
    `He is writing that letter.'
Example #205:

    96. a. *ta fang zhe       yi ben shu zai chung shang
    he put DUR one CL book on bed                top
    `He has put a book on the bed.'
Example #206:

    b. chuang shang fang zhe               yi   ben shu
    bed       top       put     DUR one CL book
    `The bed has a book put on it.'
Example #207:

    98. a. *ta pao zhe              bu     liaotian
    he run DUR race         chat
    `He is jogging and chatting.'
Example #208:

    99. a. *ta chi      zhe shuiguo zuo gongke
    he eat DUR fruit               do     homework
    `He is eating fruit and doing homework.'
Example #209:

    100. a. *ta chou         zhe      yan        jiang dianhua
    he smoke DUR cigarette talk phone
    `He is smoking and talking over the phone.'
Example #210:

    101. a. ta qi       zhe jiaotache shangxue
    he ride DUR            bike        go to school
    `He went/goes to school by riding a bike.'
Example #211:

    102. a. ni     zheng ge wanshang dou zai kan      zhe ben shu (bu lei    a)
    you whole C L night        all PRG read this CL book no tired Prc
    `You are reading this book the whole night. (Aren't you tired?)'
Example #212:

    b. ???ni zheng ge wanshang zai        kan zhe ben shu (bu lei a)
    you whole CL night     PRG read this CL book no tired Prc
    `You are reading this book the whole night.(Aren't you tired?)'
Example #213:

    c. ni    zheng ge wanshang kan     zhe   zhe ben shu    (bu lei a)
    you whole C L night        read DUR this CL book no tired Prc
    `You are reading this book the whole night. (Aren't you tired?)'
Example #214:

    d. ta    ba zheng ge fangjian nong de luanqibazao
    he DISP whole CL room make DE messy
    `He made the whole room messy.'
Example #215:

    i. ni zheng ge wanshang dou kan zhe zhe ben shu (bu lei a)
    you whole CL night            all look at DUR this CL book (no tired Prc)
    `You are looking at this book the whole night. (Aren't you tired?)'
Example #216:

    buzhiganji)
    ungrateful
    child the whole time. (And you are so ungrateful!)'
Example #217:

    (ni     jingran         buzhiganji)
    you surprisingly ungrateful
    your child the whole time. (And you are so ungrateful!)'
Example #218:

    buzhiganji)
    ungrateful
    your child the whole time. (And you are so ungrateful!).'
Example #219:

    (ni jingran     buzhiganji)
    you surprisingly ungrateful
    your child the whole time. (And you are so ungrateful!)'
Example #220:

    kan    dianshi
    watch TV
    watching TV.'
Example #221:

    kan    zhe dianshi
    watch DUR TV
    watching TV.'
Example #222:

    zai   kan    dianshi
    PRG watch TV
    watching TV.'
Example #223:

    ge xiaoshi ta shiyou     dou zai     kan     dianshi
    CL hour     he roommate all PRG watch TV
    hours).'
Example #224:

    ge xiaoshi *ta shiyou     zai    kan      dianshi
    CL hour      he roommate PRG watch TV
    hours).'
Example #225:

    ge xiaoshi, ta shiyou           kan   zhe dianshi (dou mei ting)
    CL hour      he roommate watch DUR TV                  (all no    stop)
    two whole hours).'
Example #226:

    ???na liang ge xiaoshi ta shiyou                zai   ka n   diangshi
    that two CL hour            he roommate PRG watch TV
    homework, his roommate was watching TV.'
Example #227:

    na liang ge xiaoshi ta shiyou               dou zai   kan    dianshi
    that two   CL hour he roommate all PRG watch                     TV
    homework, his roommate was watching TV (all the time).'
Example #228:

    na liang ge xiaoshi, ta shiyou      dou zai   kan      dianshi
    that two   CL hour he roommate all PRG watch TV
    homework, his roommate was watching TV (all the time).'
Example #229:

    109. a. dang ta juede lei de shihou ta jiu      chuqu zouyizou
    when he feel      tired DE time he then go out    walk
    `Whenever he feels tired, he goes out to take a walk.'
Example #230:

    xin sixiang muolian         xin linian de guanjian jiaose
    new idea     polish     new idea DE key            role
    key role of choosing new ideas and polishing new ideas.'
Example #231:

    b. da       yu    xia zhe
    big rain        fall DUR
    `It is/was raining heavily.'
Example #232:

    113. a. Ita qi zhe jiaotache
    he ride DUR bike
    `He is riding a bike, .....'
Example #233:

    b. Ita   kan zhe shu
    he read DUR book
    `He is reading a book.......'
Example #234:

    114. a. ta zheng tian qi    zhe jiaotache
    he whole day ride DUR bike
    `He is/was riding a bike the whole day.'
Example #235:

    b. ta gaoxingde qi        zhe jiaotache
    he happily     ride DUR       bike
    `He is/was riding a bike happily.'
Example #236:

    115. a. ta zheng wan       kan zhe shu
    he whole night read DUR book
    `He is/was reading the whole night.'
Example #237:

    b. ta zhuanxinde              kan zhe shu
    he with full attention     read DUR book
    (He is/was concentrating on reading.)
Example #238:

    116. a. ta qi   zhe jiaotache shangxue
    he ride DUR     bike       go to school
    `He goes/went to school, riding a bike.'
Example #239:

    ta jiejie dou         zai       nianshu
    he sister     all PRG           study
    tudying.'
Example #240:

    117. a. ta ku      zhe pao       chuqu
    he cry DUR         run     ou t
    `He ran out, crying.'
Example #241:

    b. ta zhou      zhe    meitou        zhang qilai
    he frown DUR eyebrows stand               up
    `He stood up, with his eyebrows frowned.'
Example #242:

    b. ta ding zhe     sh u         fadai
    he stare DUR book appear absent-minded
    `He was absent-minded, staring at the book.'
Example #243:

    b. ta daochu       xunzhao     zhen    ai/yaoshi
    he everywhere look for       real   love/key
    `He looked everywhere for real love/keys.'
Example #244:

    121. da lang        (chixude)        chongji     youyong de         ren
    big wave (continuously) impact              swim DE person
    `Big (tidal) waves (continuously) impacted swimmers.'
Example #245:

    125. ta gaoxingde gai        le   zhe dong fangzi zhihou jiu hen nanguo
    he happily build PFV this CL               house after then very sad
    `He built this house happily, but he was very sad afterwards.'
Example #246:

    128. a. Ita qi     zhe jiaotache
    he ride DUR       bike
    `He was riding a bike, ......'
Example #247:

    b. ta qi     zhe jiaotache shangxue
    he ride DUR          bike    go to school
    `He went/goes to school, riding a bike.'
Example #248:

    ta   jiejie    dou    zai    nianshu
    he sister       all PRG      study
    studying.'
Example #249:

    132. a. na hanzi quanqu       zhe      wo   zai     di       shang
    that man     curl    DUR        lie at      ground    on
    `That man lied on the ground, with his body curled.'
Example #250:

    b. yi dong yie bu dong
    one move also no move
    `He didn't move at all.'
Example #251:

    c. sihu   yijing si    le
    seem already die    Prc
    `He seemed to be already dead.'
Example #252:

    133. a. ta      liuluo             dao jiangxi yi    chu shangou     li
    he be forced to wander to      Jiangxi one CL coomb          inside
    `He was forced to wander into a coomb in Jianxi.'
Example #253:

    b. gei    ren   da duan      gong    mousheng
    for person do temporary work make a living
    `He made a living by doing temporary work for people there.'
Example #254:

    c. ji      nian hou    dai   zhe laopo      haizi     huilai
    several year later bring DUR     wife children      come back
    `Several years later, he came back with his wife and children.'
Example #255:

    d. faxian liang wei xongdi zao      yi       esi        le
    find   two    CL brother early already hungry-die Prc
    time ago.'
Example #256:

    134. a. dingtong      yi xie yan
    Ding Tong one tilt eye
    `Ding Tong looked aside.'
Example #257:

    ma
    horse
    house.'
Example #258:

    c. jian    tui chang zong
    strong leg long mane
    `It had strong legs and long mane.'
Example #259:

    d. zheng shi bai       ma      li san de zuoqi
    exactly be white horse Li San DE horse
    `It was exactly Li San the White Horse's            horse.'
Example #260:

    135. a. ta dakai damen
    she open     door
    `She opened the door.'
Example #261:

    b. xiang gan   le    yangqun     chuqu   fangmu
    want drive PFV sheep herd       out shepherd
    `She wanted to drive out the sheep herd to shepherd them.'
Example #262:

    c. zhi jian men wai     fang zhe    yi zhang da lang pi
    only see door outside put DUR one CL big wolf skin
    `She saw that there was a big wolf skin put outside the door.'
Example #263:

    d. zuocheng le dianzi       de     moyang
    make-as     PFV mat      DE appearance
    `The big wolf skin was made into a mat.'
Example #264:

    136. a. shen shang liu            zhe   yi   mei gui    zhen
    body on        be left DUR one CL ghost needle
    `A damned needle was left inside my body.'
Example #265:

    liang san ci
    two three times
    pain twice or three times.'
Example #266:

    c. zao   zhi   ruci
    early know so
    `If I had known it would be like this,'
Example #267:

    d. haishi          bu   fu    jieyao      de     hao
    would rather not take antagonistic DE good
    `I would rather not have taken the antagonistic.'
Example #268:

    137. a. liang ren       gong       ju   le shi nian
    two    person together live PFV ten year
    `These two persons lived together for ten years.'
Example #269:

    sunniu            yiban       huxiang          titie      guanhuai
    granddaughter like           mutually considerate         care for
    cared for each other.'
Example #270:

    c. keshi duifang xindi shenchu                daodi xiang zhe xie sheme
    but each other mind            depth       actuall y think DUR PL what
    `But, what they were actually thinking in their minds,'
Example #271:

    d. que shei yie bu         da    mingbai
    but who also no      really understand
    `neither of them really knew.'
Example #272:

    138. a. limian you zheme        yi ge        jingtou
    inside have so         one CL scene
    `There is a scene like this.'
Example #273:

    daozi
    paddy
    paddy.'
Example #274:

    kaishui       de       da     mu   tong
    boiled water DE big wooden cask
    the rice ears on the right side
Example #275:

    d. tong shang xie        zhe     liang ge da zi qing cha
    cask on     write DUR two          CL big word please tea
    `Two big words were written on the cask: Tea Here.'
Example #276:

    139. a. ta jintian    shangxue      chidao le
    he today go to school        late Prc
    `He was late for school today,'
Example #277:

    b. yinwei jintian zaoshang ta menkou tang zhe yi        zhi da gou
    because today morning he doorway lie DUR one CL big dog
    `because this morning a big dog was lying on his doorway,'
Example #278:

    c. ta bu   gan    chu   me n
    he not dare go out door
    `He dared not go out.'
Example #279:

    140. a. dao    le      huang nian bu   bi   tai chou
    arrive PFV famine yea      no need too worry
    `One did not have to worry too much when famine came.'
Example #280:

    b. fanzheng mei chi     de    guojia bu hui    ka n   zhe   esi
    after all no     eat REL country no will watch DUR hungry-die
    starve to death.'
Example #281:

    le
    PFV
    `In this way, the sense of ownership of farmers was worn out.'
Example #282:

    le   duo    da liang      chibao fan   de zhiwang
    PFV more buy food         eat-full rice DE   hope
    food and to eat enough.'
Example #283:

    e. shengchan jijixing        bian yiluoqianzhang
    produce enthusiasm then fall to the bottom
    bottom.'
Example #284:

    141. a. na tian wanshang liwenxio       fa     zhe     gaoshao
    that day night         Li Wenxio have DUR high fever
    `That night, Li Wenxio had high fever.'
Example #285:

    b. xiao liandanr shao         de           tong           hong
    small face     burn     to a degree that completely red
    `Her small face was so hot that it turned red.'
Example #286:

    c. shuo le xuduo huhua
    say PFV many flapdoodle
    `She murmured a lot of flapdoodle.'
Example #287:

    pengyou de xintai
    friend     DE belief
    business with a person, he makes a new friend.'
Example #288:

    de suoyou         zixun
    REL all          information
    he knows about.'
Example #289:

    xiang pengyou yi yang
    like   friend      the same
    customers should be like one between friends.'
Example #290:

    d. xian jianli     kehu    de    xinrendu
    first build customer DE trust
    `A company should first establish trust with customers.'
Example #291:

    jiqi
    machine
    customers come in.'
Example #292:

    shenzhong de        yingxiang
    deep-serious DE     influence
    politics.'
Example #293:

    b. zhe ba      nian   lai    zhengzhi bu     tai anding
    this   eight year come politics not too stable
    `In these eight years, politics has not been very stable.'
Example #294:

    c. suoyi gao          de             renxinhuanghuang
    so     made to a degree that people panic
    `So, people have been made panic.'
Example #295:

    d. tan   jingji   fuxu        geng shi     kong tan
    talk economy recover        also   be empty talk
    `Talking about recovering economy is also useless.'
Example #296:

    dingyi       yizhi     cunzai zhe     fenqi
    definition     always exist DUR disagreement
    has always been a disagreement on the definition of recent.'
Example #297:

    zhuowei canzhao
    as       reference
    reference points.'
Example #298:

    wei     jie
    as border
    political events as reference time points.
Example #299:

    145. a. ta    yimian            shuo
    he simultaneously say
    `He was saying,'
Example #300:

    b. you shou manmande tiqi
    right hand slowly       raise
    `and raising his right hand slowly.'
Example #301:

    du          zhen
    poisonous needle
    and index finger.'
Example #302:

    146. a. chen shang feiqi    liang       zhang                 gao
    dust sand   fly up two      distance unit (= 3 meters) tall
    `Dust and sand flow up six meters high.'
Example #303:

    b. liang ge        ren        qi    ma
    two     CL person ride horse
    `Two persons rode horses.'
Example #304:

    c. yi qian
    one front
    `One was in the front.'
Example #305:

    d. yi hou
    one behind
    `One was in the back.'
Example #306:

    d. ji chi er lai
    fast run and come
    `The horses ran very fast and approached.'
Example #307:

    e. qianmian        shi   pi        gao   tui chang shen de      bai   ma
    front           be CL tall leg long body DE white horse
    `In the front was a white horse with long legs and body.
Example #308:

    f. ma       shang qi     zhe        ge      shaofu
    horse on         ride DUR CL young married woman
    `There was a young married woman riding on the horse.
Example #309:

    g. huai zhong lou        zhe        yi ge    qi      b a su i   de xiaogunian
    arms in         hug DUR one CL seven eight age DE little girl
    `There was a little girl held in her arms.'
Example #310:

    147. a. ta cong wahu      li     dao le        yi wan   re   nailau
    he from kettle inside pour PFV one bowel hot thick milk
    `He poured a bowel of hot thick milk from the kettle.'
Example #311:

    b. qiao     zhe ta hexia             le
    watch DUR she drink-down PFV
    `(he) watched her drink the thick milk'
Example #312:

    c. you ti   ta longhao beiwo
    also for she tuck        comforter
    `(and he) tucked her in.'
Example #313:

    b. qiao   zhe ta he              nailau
    wathc DUR she drink thick milk
    `(he) watched her drinking the thick milk'
Example #314:

    c. you ti ta     longhao beiwo
    also for she tuck             comforter
    `(and) tucked her in.'
Example #315:

    147'. a. ta cong wahu       li        dao le      yi   wan   re nailau
    he from kettle inside pour PFV one bowel hot thick milk
    `He poured a bowel of hot thick milk from the kettle.'
Example #316:

    b. !zai   qiao       ta hexia             le
    PRG watch she drink-down PFV
    `(he) watched her drink the thick milk'
Example #317:

    c. you ti ta     longhao        beiwo
    also for she tuck             comforter
    `(and he) tucked her in.'
Example #318:

    148. a. ta jingjingde zuo zai nar
    he quietly      sit at    there
    `He sat there quietly.'
Example #319:

    b. (*zai) ting     zhe    yianzouhui jieshu
    PRG hear     DUR concert                 end
    `(and) heard the concert end,'
Example #320:

    c. ranhou        like     zhan          le   qilai
    then     immediatel y stand          PFV up
    `(and then) he immediately stood up.'
Example #321:

    d. ta yao   zai qita      re n      likai qian likai
    he want at    other person leave before leave
    `He wanted to leave before the others left'
Example #322:

    chongman le     guji        de      gangjue de    yinyueting
    full      PFV solitude DE            feeling DE concert hall
    gave him the feeling of solitude.'
Example #323:

    149. a. ji laoren    mai le     ding tong de      shiti
    Ji old man bury PFV Ding Tong DE           body
    `Old man Ji buried Ding Tong's body.'
Example #324:

    b. you jiang ta chengzuo de zuoqi ye zai le
    also DISP he ride           REL horse also kill PFV
    `(and he) also killed the horse he had ridden.'
Example #325:

    c. ranhou zuo zai menkou
    then      sit at doorway
    `(and) then he sat at the doorway,'
Example #326:

    muodaoshi shang muo            zhe
    hone          on     sharpen DUR
    hone.'
Example #327:

    147. a. ta cong wahu      li     dao le        yi wan   re   nailau
    he from kettle inside pour PFV one bowel hot thick milk
    `He poured a bowel of hot thick milk from the kettle.'
Example #328:

    b. qiao     zhe ta hexia            le
    watch DUR she drink-down PFV
    `(he) watched her drink the thick milk'
Example #329:

    c. you ti   ta longhao beiwo
    also for she tuck        comforter
    `(and he) tucked her in.'
Example #330:

    150. a. women cong xiao         gen       zhe laoshi xuexi
    we         from young wioth DUR teacher learn
    `Since youth, we have learned with teachers.'
Example #331:

    women xunze       shang de         qu    zuo
    us         choose good DE          go    do
    choose the good things to do.'
Example #332:

    151. a. fengshu       zhen                zai    zhuan hong
    maple in the middle of PRG                turn     red
    `The maples are turning red.'
Example #333:

    zhe shangpuo yi ceng         yi ceng de wang xia kaiqu
    DUR hill        one layer one layer DE toward down bloom
    blooming downward, layer by layer.'
Example #334:

    152. a. wanglu de shiyongzhe yanran         chengwei yi ge shehui
    internet DE user          obviously become one CL society
    `The internet users obviously became a society,'
Example #335:

    b. fazhangchu yi tau zichuang de             jiufen    chuli muoshi
    dveleop     one CL self-invent DE disagreement handle pattern
    themselves.'
Example #336:

    yi        keburonghuan
    already     imminent
    govern the internet users.'
Example #337:

    153. a. zhengfu       you    zeren         gen   juming tanpan
    government have responsibility with resident       negotiate
    `The government has duties to negotiate with the residents.'
Example #338:

    b. buguan    ruhe baucun
    no matter how preserve
    `No matter how to perserve (old buildings),'
Example #339:

    baucun    suo     chi     de butong kanfa        ji     lichang
    preserve REL have REL different viewpoint and position
    and positions held by the residents.'
Example #340:

    zhongyu keyi qichuang le
    finally can     get up    PFV
    get up now.'
Example #341:

    b. ta ganggang jiu       zai yiyuan de tushuguan       li kan    sh u
    he just now exactly at hospital DE       library inside read book
    `He was in the hospital's library just now, reading a book.'
Example #342:

    laoshi    yizhi guanxin zhe tamen aihu zhe tamen
    teacher always care       DUR they love DUR they
    thme.'
Example #343:

    yong zai ziji de xuesheng shen shang
    use at self      DE    student body on
    `Now, they want to give love and care to their own students.'
Example #344:

    156. a. ta xin      li     xiang
    she mind inside think
    `She thought in her mind,"
Example #345:

    b. ziji shi yi      ge tangtang de daxue        biyiesheng
    self     be one CL glorious DE university graduate
    `I am a university graduate.'
Example #346:

    c. que laoshi zuo zhe disanxiasi           de    pao   cha   gongzuo
    but always do DUR lower class            DE    make tea     job
    `But, I am always doing the lower-class job of making tea.'
Example #347:

    d. yinci     xi n    li      hen bu   kaixin
    so        mind     inside very not happy
    `So, in her mind, she felt unhappy.'
Example #348:

    157. a. lianhua      yun   shi fojiao      de xiangzheng
    lotus originall be Buddhism DE symbol
    `Lotus is originally the symbol of Buddhism.'
Example #349:

    b. xiangzhen     zhe xinlin       de chunjing    yu   juexing
    symbolise DUR spirit DE            purity     and   awareness
    `It symbolizes the spiritual purity and awareness.'
Example #350:

    c. xiangpian          ze              shi cha ming
    jasmine tea on the other hand        be tea name
    `On the other hand, jasmine tea is the name of one kind of tea.'
Example #351:

    d. yuyi   zhe shenghuo de tianmei        yu     fenfang
    imply DUR life            DE sweetness and fragrance
    `It implies the sweetness and fragrance of life.'
Example #352:

    i. ta jueding bu lai
    he decide no come
    `He decided not to come.'
Example #353:

    158. a. ta changchang he cha le
    he often          drink tea Prc
    `He often drinks tea now.'
Example #354:

    159. a. ta he        le   san     bei cha
    he drink PFV three cup      tea
    `He drank three cups of tea.'
Example #355:

    160. ta zuotian      xie le     yi feng xin       keshi mei      xiewan
    he yesterday write PFV one CL        letter but     no     write-finish
    `He wrote a letter yesterday, but he did not finish it.'
Example #356:

    161. a. zhe ge dianying wo kan    le juede      hen     hao
    this CL movie   I see PFV feel          very good
    `I saw this movie and thought it was good.'
Example #357:

    b. jiamu     ting le bian bu yanyu
    my mother hear PFV then no speak
    `My mother heard about this, and didn't say anything.'
Example #358:

    162. a. ne   ge daguan          de haizi      jiao    ren      dasi   le
    that CL high official DE child       PASS person hit-die PFV
    `That high official's child was killed.'
Example #359:

    b. wang ma        de    zhangfu        jiao       diren    shasi le
    Wang mother DE         husband PASSIVE enemy kill-die PFV
    `Nanny Wang's husband was killed by the enemy.'
Example #360:

    c. zhe feng xin     zhi    xie    le   yi       ban    hai mei wancheng
    this CL letter only write PFV one half still not finish
    `This letter is half done, not finished yet.'
Example #361:

    163. a. ta ba     wo   de che mai le
    he DISP I DE car sell PFV
    `He sold my car.'
Example #362:

    b. ta    ba wo    de     xin       shao         le
    he DISP I DE          letter        burn   PFV
    `He burned my letter.'
Example #363:

    164. a. ba      qiche xi       le
    DISP car      wash     PFV
    `Wash the car!'
Example #364:

    b. kan      zhe xingli     bie jiao       ren        tou   le
    watch DUR luggage no            let    person steal PFV
    `Keep an eye on the luggage. Don't let others steal it!'
Example #365:

    165. a. ta xianzai paobu le
    he now       jog Prc
    `Now, he jogs.'
Example #366:

    b. laoli   da   gaoerfuqiu        le
    Laoli play     golf         Prc
    `Laoli plays golf now.'
Example #367:

    166. a. wo    yao     shui     le
    I    want     sleep    Prc
    `I am going to sleep now. (change from not want to want)'
Example #368:

    b. ta bu qu le
    he no go Prc
    `He does not go now. (change from go to not go.)'
Example #369:

    167. a. xianzai mei you        ren       le
    now      no have person Prc
    `Now, there is nobody around.'
Example #370:

    b. wo    liaojie         le
    I understand          Prc
    `I understand now.'
Example #371:

    168. a. haizi dao     le jiu    chufa
    child arrive Prc then        head off
    `If the child arrives, then we can go.'
Example #372:

    b. ni zai      wang        qian     zou    wo jiu   kaiqiang le
    you again toward forward walk           I then fire       Prc
    `If you keep walking forward, I'll fire.'
Example #373:

    169. jinr libaitian le
    today Suday Prc
    `It's Sunday today.'
Example #374:

    170. a. Lisi da le zhangsan
    Lisi hit PFV Zhangsan
    `Lisi hit Zhangsan.'                         (perfective)
Example #375:

    b. Lisi mei da   (*le) zhangsan
    Lisi no   hit (PFV) Zhangsan
    `Lisi didn't hit Zhangsan.'                  (perfective)
Example #376:

    c. ta chi niurou le
    he eat beef Prc
    `He eats beef now.'                          (change of state)
Example #377:

    d. ta bu chi niurou le
    he no eat beef      Prc
    `He doesn't eat beef anymore.'               (change of state)
Example #378:

    171. a. ta haishi bu chi niurou
    he still no eat beef
    `He still doesn't eat beef.'
Example #379:

    b. ta haishi chi niurou
    he still eat beef
    `He still eats beef.'
Example #380:

    172. a. ta qu       niuyue      le
    he go    New York       Prc
    `He went to New York.'
Example #381:

    b. ta bu qu     niuyue    le
    he no go New York Prc
    `He won't go to New York any more.'
Example #382:

    c. ta mei qu niuyue
    he no go New York
    `He didn't go to New York.'
Example #383:

    d. ta qu   le niuyue
    he go PFV New York
    `He went to New York.'
Example #384:

    e. ta mei/*bu qu niuyue
    he no        go New York
    `He didn't go to New York.'
Example #385:

    173. a. wo tingshuo      le    zhe   jiang shi
    I hear          PFV this      CL thing
    `I heard about this.'
Example #386:

    b. wo mei tingshuo (*le)       zhe   jiang shi
    I no     hear         (*PFV) this CL thing
    `I didn't hear about this.'
Example #387:

    174. a. chi fan   le   yihou   zai chuqu            wan
    eat rice Prc   after then     go out play
    `After you eat, then you can go out to play.'
Example #388:

    175. a. tamen     ba wo     jiao     le qilai
    they DISP I         call    PFV up
    `They woke me up.'
Example #389:

    b. tamen    ba wo     jiao    qilai    le
    they DISP I         call     up     Prc
    `They woke me up.'
Example #390:

    177. a. ta kan      le        zhe ben shu
    he read PFV this CL book
    `He read this book.'
Example #391:

    b. ta    you        le     yi da bi    qian
    he have PFV one big sum money
    `He has a big sum of money now.'
Example #392:

    178. a. ta chi   rou le
    he eat meat Prc
    `He eats meat now.'
Example #393:

    b. ta qu    niuyue le
    he go New York Prc
    `He went to New York.' or `Now, he goes to New York.'
Example #394:

    180. a. ta chi     le rou     cai hui zou
    he eat PFV meat CAI        will   go
    `He won't leave until he eats meat.'
Example #395:

    b. ta chi   rou   le
    he eat meat Prc
    `He eats meat now!'
Example #396:

    181. a. ta xie le liang xiaoshi                 de   xi n
    he write PFV two              hour DE letter
    `He wrote a letter for two hours.'
Example #397:

    b. ta liang xiaoshi xie         le   yi feng xin
    he two      hour   write PFV one CL letter
    `He wrote one letter in two hours.'
Example #398:

    182. a. didi               zai     he      li   youyong     le
    younger brother at        rive inside swim          PFV
    `My younger brother swam in the river.'
Example #399:

    b. wo zaoshang san         bu le
    I   morning take step PFV
    `I took a walk in the morning.'
Example #400:

    183. a. Ita chi le       fan
    he eat   PFV rice
    `He ate rice, .....'
Example #401:

    b. ta chi   le fan        jiu        zou    le
    he eat PFV rice        JIU     leave PFV
    `He ate and immediately left.'
Example #402:

    c. Ita zaoshang san       le    bu
    he morning take PFV walk
    `He took a walk in the morning, ....'
Example #403:

    d. ta zaoshang san        le bu       cai    qu shangban
    he morning take PFV walk CAI go work
    `He took a walk in the morning, and then went to work.'
Example #404:

    184. a. wo mai    le   yi ben shu
    I buy PFV one CL book
    `I bought a book.'
Example #405:

    b. wo mai    le   yi ben shu *keshi mei maidao
    I buy PFV one CL book but          no   buy-get
    `I bought three books, *but I didn't succeed in buying them.'
Example #406:

    185. a. na   ge dianying wo kan     le liang bian
    that CL movie        I see PFV three time
    `I watched that movie three times.'
Example #407:

    b. na   ge dianying wo kan     le liang bian *keshi mei kanwan
    that CL movie        I see PFV two time but       no see-finish
    `I watched that movie twice, *but I didn't finish it.'
Example #408:

    mei kanwan
    no   see-finish
    `I watched that movie twice. But I didn't finish it either time.'
Example #409:

    kanwan      le    ling    yi bian mei kanwan
    see-finish PFV another one time no      see-finish
    other time.'
Example #410:

    187. a. shu      chuban      *(le)
    book publish         PFV
    `The book was published.'
Example #411:

    b. fanzi      gaihao      *(le)
    house build-finish          PFV
    `The house was built.'
Example #412:

    188. a. ?wo kan    le na ben shu        keshi mei kanwan
    I read PFV that CL book but           no read-finish
    `I read that book, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #413:

    b. na ben     shu wo kan     le    keshi mei kanwan
    that CL book I read PFV but no                 read-finish
    `I read that book, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #414:

    189. a. wo yi     ge zhongtou kanwan        l e na        ben xiaoshuo
    I one CL hour        read-finish PFV that CL novel
    `I finished reading that novel in one hour.'
Example #415:

    b. wo kan    le   yi ge xingqi     kanwan      le    na ben xiaoshuo
    I read PFV one CL week read-finish PFV that CL novel
    `I read that novel for a week and finished reading that novel.'
Example #416:

    190. a. hua      hong l e
    flower red      PFV
    `The flower became red.'
Example #417:

    b. hua     hong le         san tian
    flower red      PFV three day
    `The flower was red for three days.'
Example #418:

    191. a. ta jiao       le shi nian de shu
    he teach PFV ten year DE book
    `He has taught/been teaching for ten years.'
Example #419:

    b. ta zai zher     zhu     le wu niang
    he at here live PFV five year
    `He has lived here for five years.'
Example #420:

    a. zhangsan da       le lisi
    Zhangsan hit PFV Lisi
    `Zhangsan hit lisi.'
Example #421:

    b. zhangsan xie      le    yi     feng xin
    Zhangsan write PFV one CL letter
    `Zhangsan wrote a letter.'
Example #422:

    a. zhangsan yang le         yi tiao yu
    Zhangsan feed PFV one CL fish
    `Zhangsan breeds a fish.'
Example #423:

    b. menkou zuo le      yi        ge ren
    doorway sit PFV one CL person
    `A man is sitting at the doorway.'
Example #424:

    a. *zhangsan mingtian (zhege shihou) likai          le nanjing
    Zhangsan tomorrow (this time)            leave PFV Nanjing
    `Zhangsan leaves Nanking (at this moment) tomorrow.'
Example #425:

    nanjing
    Nanjing
    tomorrow.'
Example #426:

    nanjing
    Nanking
    tomorrow.'
Example #427:

    nanjing
    Nanking
    tomorrow.'
Example #428:

    201. zhangsan yinggai mingtian likai nanjing
    Zhangsan should tomorrow leave Nanking
    `Zhangsan should leave Nanking tomorrow.'
Example #429:

    193. a. zhangsan yang le         yi tiao yu
    Zhangsan feed PFV one CL fish
    `Zhangsan breeds a fish.'
Example #430:

    b. menkou zuo le       yi    ge ren
    doorway sit PFV one CL person
    `A man is sitting at the doorway.'
Example #431:

    207. ta zuotian     xie     le   yi   feng xin     keshi mei xiewan
    he yesterday write PFV one       CL letter but not finish
    `He tried to write a letter yesterday, but he didn't finish it.'
Example #432:

    208. a. ta changchang he le              niunai jiu   tu
    he often         drink PFV milk then vomit
    `He often drinks milk, and then vomits.'
Example #433:

    b. ni   zou   le    ta      jiu    ku
    you leave PFV he       then cry
    `You leave and then he cries. (It's like this every time.)'
Example #434:

    209. a. ta yinggai mingtian likai
    he should tomorrow leave
    `He should leave tomorrow.'
Example #435:

    b. ta mingtian yinggai likai
    he tomorrow should leave
    `He should leave tomorrow.'
Example #436:

    210. ta xihuan geju    xihuan      le   yizhenzi
    he like    opera like        PFV a while
    `He liked opera for a while.'
Example #437:

    211. a. ta chi       le   yi        wan fan
    he eat     PFV one CL rice
    `He ate a bowl of rice.'
Example #438:

    212. a. ta wu      fenzhong chi           yi     wan   fan
    he five     minute eat             one CL rice
    `He can eat a rice of bowl in five minutes.
Example #439:

    213. a. zhangsan     da    le lisi
    Zhangsan     hit PFV Lisi
    `Zhangsan hit Lisi.'
Example #440:

    b. zhangsan     xie    le    yi feng xin
    Zhangsan write PFV one CL letter
    `Zhangsan wrote a letter.'
Example #441:

    c. Izhangsan pao      le     bu, ...
    Zhangsan jog PFV step
    `Zhangsan jogged, and ......'
Example #442:

    d. hua   hong         le
    flower redden PFV
    `The flower becomes red.'
Example #443:

    214. a. ta zuotian       xie    le   yi feng xin   keshi mei xiewang
    he yesterday write PFV one CL letter but        no write-finish
    `He wrote a letter yesterday, but didn't finish it.'
Example #444:

    b. ta xie   yi feng      xin xie    le liang ge xiaoshi
    he write one CL letter write PFV two          CL hour
    `He wrote a letter for two hours.'
Example #445:

    keshi mei xiewan
    but no       write-finish
    `He wrote a letter for two hours, but he didn't finish it.'
Example #446:

    215. a. ta   yi   ge   xiaoshi jiu     xie le      yi feng xin
    he one CL hour JIU write PFV one CL letter
    `He wrote a letter in only one hour!'
Example #447:

    216. a. hua       hong l e
    flower     red PFV
    `Flowers become red.'
Example #448:

    b. hua       hong l e        hen jiu
    flower     red     PFV very long
    `Flowers were red for a long time.'
Example #449:

    c. Ita xihuan    le    geju
    he like     PFV opera
    `He liked operas, and....'
Example #450:

    d. ta xihuan geju      xihuan     le hen   jiu
    he like      opera like      PFV very long
    `He liked operas for a long time.'
Example #451:

    217. a. ta xinli zai xiang zhe bushi wo               de   cuo
    he mind PRG think            this not   I POSS fault
    `In his mind, he is thinking that this is not his fault.'
Example #452:

    b. laoli   zai   xihuan xiaomei
    Laoli PRG like Xiaomei
    `Laoli is liking Xiaome64.'
Example #453:

    c. *hua      zai hong
    flower PRG red
    `*Flowers are being red.'
Example #454:

    a. zhangsan da      le lisi
    Zhangsan hit PFV Lisi
    `Zhangsan hit lisi.'
Example #455:

    b. zhangsan xie      le     yi    feng xin
    Zhangsan write PFV one CL letter
    `Zhangsan wrote a letter.'
Example #456:

    a. zhangsan yang le         yi tiao yu
    Zhangsan feed PFV one CL fish
    `Zhangsan is breeding/has been breeding a fish.'
Example #457:

    b. menkou zuo le       yi       ge ren
    doorway sit PFV one CL person
    `A man is sitting at the doorway.'
Example #458:

    a. *zhangsan mingtian (zhege shihou) likai          le nanjing
    Zhangsan tomorrow (this time)            leave PFV Nanjing
    `Zhangsan leaves Nanking (at this moment) tomorrow.'
Example #459:

    nanjing
    Nanjing
    tomorrow.'
Example #460:

    218. a. ta zai      chuan   maoyi
    he PRG put on        sweater
    `He is putting on a sweater.'
Example #461:

    b. ta chuan    zhe    maoyi
    he wear DUR sweater
    `He is wearing a sweater.'
Example #462:

    219. a. ta zuo      xia le
    he sit    down Prc
    `He sat down.'
Example #463:

    b. ta zuo     zhe
    he sit    DUR
    `He is sitting.'
Example #464:

    220. a. ta zai      yang ta         de      yu
    he PRG feed          he POSS fish
    `He is feeding his fish.'
Example #465:

    b. ta yang     zhe      yi    tiao yu
    he feed     DUR one CL fish
    `He keeps a fish as his pet66.'
Example #466:

    221. a. zhangsan         zai    da        lisi
    Zhangsan PRG hit                Lisi
    `Zhangsan is hitting Lisi.'
Example #467:

    i. a. ta zai chuan ta de yifu
    he PRG put on he POSS clothes
    `He is putting on his clothes.'
Example #468:

    b. *ta zai chuan yi jian yifu
    he PRG put on one CL clothes
    `*He is putting on a piece of clothing.'
Example #469:

    c. ta chuan zhe ta de       /yi jian yifu
    he wear DUR he POSS/one CL clothes
    `He is wearing his/a piece of clothing.'
Example #470:

    b. zhangsan *(yunglide) da       zhe lisi
    Zhangsan     forcibly hit     DUR Lisi
    `Zhangsan is hitting Lisi forcibly.'
Example #471:

    225. a. ta zuotian     xiawu         yijing likai *(le)   nanjing
    he yesterday afternoon already leave        PFV Nanjing
    `He had already left Nanjing by yesterday afternoon.'
Example #472:

    b. ta yijing *(zai)   zuotian       xiawu   likai *(le)   nanjing
    he already *(at) yesterday afternoon leave PFV Nanjing
    `He already left Nanjing yesterday afternoon.'
Example #473:

    c. ta zuotian     likai     le nanjin
    he yesterday leave PFV Nanjing
    `He left Nanjing yesterday.'
Example #474:

    227. a. zhangsan mingtian     yijing likai le    nanjing
    Zhangsan tomorrow already leave PFV Nanjing
    `Zhangsan will have left Nanjing by tomorrow.'
Example #475:

    228. a. ta yijing zai       zuotian    xiawu      likai    le nanjing
    he already at       yesterday afternoon leave PFV Nanjing
    `He already left Nanjing yesterday afternoon.'
Example #476:

    b. *ta    yijing zai     mingtian xiawu         likai    le nanjing
    he already at        tomorrow afternoon leave        PFV Nanjing
    `*He already left Nanjing by tomorrow afternoon.'
Example #477:

    c. * ta   yijing zai     xianzai likai       le nanjing
    he already at         now    leave PFV Nanjing
    `*He already left Nanjing by now.'
Example #478:

    229. A: zuotian     wo dadianhua gei     laoli     keshi     ta bu   zai
    yesterday I telephone to         Laoli     but      he no      at
    `Yesterday I called him, but he wasn't home.'
Example #479:

    B: ta *xianzai/*mingtian/(zuotian)      yijing zou      le
    he now / tomorrow/yesterday already leave PFV
    `He had already left (by yesterday).'
Example #480:

    230. a. ta changchang he le             niunai jiu   tu
    he often         drink PFV milk then vomit
    `He often drinks milk, and then vomits.'
Example #481:

    b. ni    zo    le    ta      jiu    ku
    you leave PFV he        then cry
    `You leave and then he cries. (It's like this every time)'
Example #482:

    231. a. ta xihuan geju     xihuan        le   yizhenzi
    he like     opera like          PFV a while
    `He liked opera for a while.'
Example #483:

    b. Ita xihuan    le   geju
    he like      PFV opera
    `He liked operas, and....'
Example #484:

    232. a. zhangsan     xie le       yi     feng xin
    Zhangsan write PFV one CL letter
    `Zhangsan wrote a letter.'
Example #485:

    b. keshi mei xiewan
    but no       write-finish
    `But, he did not finish it.'
Example #486:

    234. a. ta bu     neng zai      ting         supu    zheban kujiao
    she not    can    again hear     Supu        so       cry
    `She couldn't stand hearing Supu            crying like this any more.'
Example #487:

    b. yushi huidao    le ji laoren         jia zhong
    so     return    PFV Ji old man home inside
    `So, she returned to Old man Ji's place.'
Example #488:

    c. cong beiru        dixia nachu              na     zhang    langpi lai
    from bed sheet     under    take out        that    CL wolf skin come
    `She took out the wolf skin from under her bed sheet.'
Example #489:

    d. kan   le hen     jiu hen      jiu
    look PFV very long very long
    `(and) she looked at it for a long time.'
Example #490:

    235. a. mao ting le li      de huibao
    Mao hear PFV Li DE        report
    `Chair Mao heard Li's report.'
Example #491:

    b. renwei nongcun         ganbu hunao
    think rural village official do nonsense
    nonsense.'
Example #492:

    c. wei ci hai      gei hebei diyi shuji    xie le      xin
    for this even   to Hebei first secretary write PFV letter
    of Hebei Province.'
Example #493:

    236. a. ta jiechu   le makesizhuyi
    he touch PFV Marxism
    `He learned Marxism.'
Example #494:

    b. juede ziji        zuo   le   tuotaihuangu de gaizao
    feel     self make PFV make over         DE reformation
    `(and he) felt that he had a makeover-like reformation.'
Example #495:

    c. cheng        le    chedi       de weiwuzhuyizhe
    become PFV thorough DE materialist
    `(and he) became an absolute materialist.'
Example #496:

    yongqi zo           dao    ji laoren       jia   zhong
    courage walk to            Ji     old man home inside
    encouraged up to walk to Old man Ji's place.'
Example #497:

    b. liwenxio        chulai      kai    men
    Li Wenxio come out open door
    `Li Wenxio came and opened the door.'
Example #498:

    c. yi    jian shi ta    shudao
    one see be       h e sa y
    `As soon as she saw that it was him, she said,'
Example #499:

    d. wo cong ci          bu      yao     jian    ni
    I      since now no        want     see    you
    `I don't want to see you any more!'
Example #500:

    f. supu      dai        le banshang
    Su Pu blankl y PFV awhile
    `Supu stood there blankly for a while.'
Example #501:

    g. muomingqimaode huidao jia        li
    puzzled            return home inside
    `He returned home, puzzled.'
Example #502:

    238. a. wangjiwanglu zhe xiang gaibian      renlei   zixun    chaoliu de
    internet        this CL change human information trend         DE
    jiagou     yijing zai     taiwan xianqi yi   gu xuanfeng
Example #503:

    xin de      zixun       liudong fangshi yiji xin de jiaoyi xingtai
    new DE information flow method and new DE trade style
    way of information flow and a new trade style.'
Example #504:

    yanjiu   jihua zhongxin         de zanzhu
    research project      center DE       support
    Advanced Research Project of the Dept. of Defense.'
Example #505:

    wanglu ARPAnet
    network ARPAnet
    `Therefore, they could build the first inetnet: ARPAnet.'
Example #506:

    jiada shengtabababla fenxiao          youta daxue deng xiaoyuan
    UC       St. Barbara         campus    Utah Univ. etc.    campus
    Stanford University, UCLA, UCSB, Univ. of Utah, etc.'
Example #507:

    baogao
    report
    artels.'
Example #508:

    b. zhonggong             zhongyang hai wei ci xia          le wen
    Chinese Communist authorities even for this issue PFV order
    this matter.'
Example #509:

    fasheng le jilie     de    zhenglun
    happen PFV serious DE argument
    and Deng Zihui.'
Example #510:

    d. yijiuwuliu nian yingdang fazhan         duoshao     hezuoshe
    1956         year should     develop how many artels
    `How many more artels should be created in 1956?'
Example #511:

    e. deng zhuzhang fan          banfan
    Deng propose     create half
    the artels should be created.'
Example #512:

    f. mao zhuzhang fan     yifan
    Mao propose create one
    currentl y existed should be created.'
Example #513:

    bushao ling ren        shen   si   de hua
    a lot   make person deep think DE words
    things that made people think profoundly.'
Example #514:

    zhong shenghuo fangshi
    CL      life      st yle
    and democracy was a lifestyle.'
Example #515:

    242. a. zuijing dui sushe qingjie        you    le   xin    de   guiding
    recently to dorm cleaning have PFV new               DE   rule
    `Recently, these are new rules about dorm cleaning.'
Example #516:

    men      wai de zhifang dingdian
    door outside DE put            designated spot
    PM.'
Example #517:

    d. lese bian bu neng xichu          qinshi
    trast then no can    carry-out    room
    `trash cannot be carried out of the rooms.'
Example #518:

    243. a. mei nian     dao    le jinma      guoji       yingzhang reji
    every year arrive PFV Jinma international movie show season
    Exhibition comes ,'
Example #519:

    gongzuo danwei dagong
    work       unit     work part-time
    organization responsible for the International Movies Show.'
Example #520:

    dianying
    movie
    free movies.'
Example #521:

    244. a. ta    yixiang zhuiqiu     wanmei
    she always pursue         perfect
    `She always pursues perfection,'
Example #522:

    b. bu   pa    hua qian
    not afraid spend money
    `(and she) is not afraid of spending money.'
Example #523:

    dian biaoquang jiu    hua le     wu    qian     duo   kuai
    story frame       then cost PFV five thousand more dollar
    work alone cost five thousand something dollars.'
Example #524:

    lunfaqi          de changduan
    cutting season DE length
    to be cut and to be used.'
Example #525:

    b. zhe yang zuo
    this way do
    `by doing so,'
Example #526:

    c. hulue le senlin ziyuan       de qita haochu
    ignore PFV forest resource DE other advantage
    `the other advantages of the forest resources are ignored.'
Example #527:

    246. a. wei le jiang canquebuqi de taiwan dianying shi           buqi
    for PFV DISP incomplete DE Taiwan movie history complete
    movie history complete,'
Example #528:

    ji        xiang taiwan dianying shi           de    yanjiu
    several CL        Taiwan movie history DE research
    research on the Taiwan movie history.'
Example #529:

    247. a. xiaogui         gei    xingzheng danwei hen             da de cailiangquan
    school rule give administrative unit            very big DE judgment
    judgments.'
Example #530:

    bufen
    part
    expelled is the part that the administration can freely decide.'
Example #531:

    248. a. weile           yingde *le ci ci              bisai      de      guanjun
    in order to win         PFV this CL competition DE championship
    `In order to win the championship of this competition68'
Example #532:

    b. chuan ban       tongxue       dou hen renzhende lainxi
    whole class classmates all           very diligently practice
    `the whole class practiced diligently.'
Example #533:

    249. a. chuan ban        tongxue       dou hen renzhende lainxi
    whole class classmates all           very diligently practice
    `the whole class practiced diligently.'
Example #534:

    b. ! weile        yingde *le       ci   ci       bisai      de     guanjun
    in order to win        PFV this CL competition DE championship
    `In order to win the championship of this competition.'
Example #535:

    yingde *le     ci ci    bisai     de   guanjun
    win      PFV this CL competition DE championship
    championship of this competition.'
Example #536:

    251. a. quan    ban     tongxue dou hen      renzhende lainxi
    whole class classmates all    very diligently practice
    `The whole class practiced diligently.'
Example #537:

    b. * (suoyi) yingde le ci    ci   bisai     de     guanjun
    so      win    PFV this CL competition DE championship
    `So, they won the championship of this competition.'
Example #538:

    252. a. zhihua jintian bu neng lai   shangke
    Zhihua today not can come class
    `Zhihua cannot come to class today.'
Example #539:

    b. *(yiwei) ta zuotian        chu    le   yianzhong de chehuo
    because    he yesterday occur PFV serious        DE car accident
    `Because he had a serious car accident yesterday.'
Example #540:

    de ku lian         jihu         yi cheng le ta de zhucehangbiao
    DE cool face almost already become PFV he DE trademark
    his trademark.'
Example #541:

    chengken er        yijiejin
    sincere      and easy-going
    sincere and easy-going.'
Example #542:

    254. a. tamen yinyin        xu       guo       (le)    wenhan
    they sincerel y discuss PC (PFV) warm-cold
    `They sincerely greeted each other.'
Example #543:

    b. zhe jian   dayi ta yi ci         ye    mei chuan guo      (*le)
    this CL coat he one time even no               wear   PC    (PFV)
    `He didn't wear this coat even once.'
Example #544:

    255. a. ta ceng pandeng guo         wu     yue
    he ever climb      EXP five mountain
    `He has climbed the Five Mountains before.'
Example #545:

    256. a. wo gangcai chi guo            fan        le
    I    just now eat guo       rice Prc
    `I just had my meal.'
Example #546:

    b. ta gangcai   shuo      guo       ta        yao   lai
    he just now say         guop he want come
    `He just said that he would come.'
Example #547:

    257. a. ta lai le
    he come Prc
    `He has come.'
Example #548:

    b. ta   lai   guo
    he come guo   p
    `He came and left.'
Example #549:

    258. a. ta chi guo   fan   mashang      jiu    zo    le
    he eat guop meal immediately JIU       go       Prc
    `After he had his meal, he left immediately.'
Example #550:

    b. ni chi guo      fan     jiu         qu   zuo   gongke
    you eat guop meal JIU             go    do   homework
    `After you eat your meal, go to do your homework.'
Example #551:

    260. a. ta ying le zhe        ge jiangjin
    he win PFV this CL prize
    `He won a prize.'
Example #552:

    b. ta ying guo zhe      ge    jiangjin
    he win EXP this CL prize
    `He has the experience of winning this prize.'
Example #553:

    261. a. ta xie      guo   xiaoshu
    he write EXP novel
    `He wrote novesl (before).'
Example #554:

    262. zhe ge       guojia fasheng guo   neizhan
    this CL country happen       EXP civil war
    `Civil wars have happened in this country before.'
Example #555:

    263. a. *ta si guo
    he die EXP
    `He died (before).'
Example #556:

    264. a. wo nianqing guo
    I     young      EXP
    `I was young once.'
Example #557:

    b. *ta ai       guo
    he short EXP
    `He was short once.'
Example #558:

    c. *zhen jian maoyi da guo
    this CL sweater big EXP
    `This sweater was once big.'
Example #559:

    265. a. ta daduan      guo      yi zhi gou     de    tui
    he hit-broken EXP one CL dog DE leg
    `He broke one dog's leg.' (may or may not heal)
Example #560:

    b. ta shuaiduan    guo tui
    he fall-broken EXP leg
    `He broke his leg once.' (it has healed since.)
Example #561:

    shuang wazi      jiu         qu   shuijiao
    pair    socks then           go    sleep
    to bed.'
Example #562:

    guo         yeda
    EXP night university
    and attended night university.'
Example #563:

    kan guo na chu dianying
    see EXP that CL movie
    `He watched that movie last year/last month/?last week/*yesterday.'
Example #564:

    268. a. *ta changchang he         guo pijiu
    he often        drink EXP beer
    `*He often drank beer before.'
Example #565:

    ga    aru
    SUBJ exist
    `John smoked often before.'
Example #566:

    274. a. ta qu    nar diao   guo yu
    he go there angle EXP fish
    `He went there to fish (before), '
Example #567:

    b. zongshi diao    dao banye      cai hui jia
    always angle to      midnight then go home
    `and he always fished until midnight and then went home.'
Example #568:

    275. a. *ta changchang     he      guo   pijiu
    he often         drink   EXP beer
    `*He often drank beer before.'
Example #569:

    ga     aru
    SUBJ exist
    `John smoked often before.'
Example #570:

    276. a. zai       taida           de   si    nian    li
    at    Taiwan University DE     four year    inside
    `During the four years I studied at NTU,'
Example #571:

    tongxuemen zuo      de youguan      fenxi   huaxue de        yanshuo
    classmates make DE about            analytic chemistry DE speech
    President Qian delivered to the chemistry majors.'
Example #572:

    c. ta yuzhongxinchangde mianli          tongxue    yi fan   hua
    he sincerely               encourage classmates one CL words
    `He sincerely encouraged the students he addressed to.'
Example #573:

    d. zhi jin   hai   jiyiyouxin
    to now still memory-fresh
    `The memory is still fresh so far.'
Example #574:

    277. a. baozhi      baodao zhe ze xinwen              shi
    newspaper report       this CL news time
    `When the newspaper reported this news,'
Example #575:

    meitan     chanliang           le
    coal      product quantity Prc
    coal dug out nationwide at that time.'
Example #576:

    buchengyangzi
    unbelievabl y exaggerating
    and exaggeratingly.'
Example #577:

    278. a. wo kan   guo zhe chu dianying     yi   ci
    I see     EXP this CL movie one time
    `I have seen this movie once.'
Example #578:

    b. wo congwei kan     guo   ta
    I never      see   EXP he
    `I have never seen him.'
Example #579:

    279. a.*ta    gai    guo   zhe     san   dong fangzi
    he build   EXP this      three CL       house
    `*He has the experience of building these three houses.'
Example #580:

    b. *ta zuo        guo    na    wu shou quzi
    he compose EXP that five CL song
    `*He has the experience of composing those five songs.'
Example #581:

    280. a. ta   gai   guo      san    dong fanzi
    he build   EXP three        CL house
    `He has the experience of building three houses.'
Example #582:

    b. ta   zuo      guo    wu     shou   quzi
    he compose EXP five CL song
    `He has the experience of composing five songs.'
Example #583:

    281. a. ta die-duan   guo   tui
    he fall-break EXP leg
    `He fell and had a broken leg (before).' (healed)
Example #584:

    b. ta da-duan    guo   yi zhi gou de tui
    he hit-break EXP one CL dog DE leg
    `He broke a dog's leg (before).'        (healed or not healed)
Example #585:

    282. a. ta dang   guo zhe zhi shoubiao
    he pawn EXP this CL watch
    `He pawned this watch (before).'        (redeemed)
Example #586:

    b. ta dang   guo (yi zhi) shoubiao
    he pawn EXP (one CL) watch
    `He pawned a watch (before).'           (redeemed or not)
Example #587:

    286. a. *ta gai     guo    zhe san       dong fanzi
    he build EXP this three CL            house
    `*He has the experience of building these three houses.'
Example #588:

    287. a. ta die-duan   guo    tui
    he fall-break EXP leg
    `He fell and had a broken leg (before).'
Example #589:

    288. a. ta   gai   guo   sa n   dong fanzi
    he build EXP three          CL house
    `He has the experience of building three houses.'
Example #590:

    289. a. *ta changchang        he         guo    pijiu
    he often           drink        EXP beer
    `*He often drank beer before.'
Example #591:

    shuang wazi         jiu         qu   shuijiao
    pair     socks then             go     sleep
    to bed.'
Example #592:

    guo    yeda
    EXP night university
    and attended night university.'
Example #593:

    290. a. ta qu   nian qu guo        na    ge dongwuyuan
    he last year go EXP that         CL zoo
    `He has the experience of going to the zoo last year.'
Example #594:

    291. a. ta qu   nar diao   guo yu
    he go there angle EXP fish
    `He went there to fish (before), '
Example #595:

    b. *(zongshi) diao    dao banye         cai hui jia
    always angle to midnight then go home
    `and he always fished until midnight and then went home.'
Example #596:

    292. a. ta qu   nar diao    guo      yi ci      yu
    he go there   angle EXP one time fish
    `He went there to fish once.'
Example #597:

    b. !zongshi diao      dao    banye      cai hui jia
    always    angle to       midnight then go home
    `He always fished until midnight and then went home.'
Example #598:

    293. a. ta cai qu       nar    diao     guo      yi     ci     yu
    he only go      there angle EXP one time fish
    `He went there fishing only once.'
Example #599:

    b. jiu   diao dao       banye       cai     hui        jia
    JIU angle to      midnight CAI return home
    `(Lit. a and b) Even though he went there fishing just once, he
Example #600:

    c. chang qu hai deliao
    often go still big deal
    `What would happen if he went often?'
Example #601:

    dangshi yijing shi bashier sui       de lao ren
    then       already be 82     year-old DE ole man
    time.'
Example #602:

    b. liang nian qian hui         guo hunan    laojia
    two    year ago return EXP Hunan hometown
    `(He) returned to his hometown in Hunan two years ago.'
Example #603:

    c. yijiuwuba nian     di    zaidu     fan      xiang shi
    1958       year     end again      return   home time
    `(When he) returned home again at the end of 1958,'
Example #604:

    d. faxian xiri conglong de qiuling huang ni                luolo
    find    past     green        DE hill    yellow mud     appear
    trees were now covered with yellow mud and dust only.
Example #605:

    e. linzi quan hui     le
    forest all destroy PFV
    `all of the forests were destroyed.'
Example #606:

    weijiao           zu
    health-ed         branch
    Education Branch,'
Example #607:

    b. you shida         weijiao        xi      de xuesheng zhixing
    by NTNU health-ed department DE student                   run
    NTNU.'
Example #608:

    huodong
    activity
    `In 1989, they held a similar weight-control activity.'
Example #609:

    d. bashier nian       cai zhengshi chengli tizhong kongzhi zu
    82          year CAI officially establish weight control        branch
    `Not until 1993 was the weight control branch established.'
Example #610:

    297. a. ta zi     lai   huijiang zhihou
    she from come Huijiang        after
    `Since she came to Huijiang,'
Example #611:

    b. congwei jian guo duiliang
    never      see EXP couplets
    `(she) had never seen couplets,'
Example #612:

    c. ye     conglai mei    you     ren    jiao    guo          ta    dushu
    also     ever no      have person teach EXP she                  read
    `and nobody had ever taught her how to read.'
Example #613:

    d. haozai       zhe     shisi    ge     zi          jun    bu     jianshen
    fortunately this 14          CL character all           no     difficult
    `Fortunately, none of these 14 characters was difficult.'
Example #614:

    e. xiaoshiho     ta     muqi dou        cengjing jiao             guo   de
    young        sh e    mother    all        ever         teach EXP Prc
    `Her mother taught her these 14 characters when she was little.'
Example #615:

    f. wenyi que quanran             bu     dong
    meaning but completely not understand
    `But, the meaning of the couplets she did not understand at all.'
Example #616:

    298. a. ta yijing bing     le hen        duo   tian     le
    he already sick PFV very many day               Prc
    `He has been sick for many days.'
Example #617:

    b. suoyi yizhi     bu neng   lai    shangke
    so    always not can       come go to a class
    `So, he can't come to school.'
Example #618:

    299. a. wo liang    yiqi      jingli    guo      wushu   weinan
    I two together experience EXP numerous difficulty-danger
    together.'
Example #619:

    b. zhe ci     huoxu    ye neng taotuo
    this time perhaps also can      escape
    `This time, maybe we can also escape (from the danger).'
Example #620:

    300. a. ta ceng qi    muotuoche shuaiduan           guo   tui
    he ever ride motorbike          fall-break EXP leg
    his leg.'
Example #621:

    b. congci         ta jiu      bu    gan   qi   moutuoche le
    ever since he      JIU no        dare ride motorbike    Prc
    `Ever since, he dare not ride a motorbike anymore.'
Example #622:

    301. a. ta    zai    huijiang shier nian
    she at       Huijiang 12        year
    `She had stayed at Huijiang for 12 years.'
Example #623:

    302. a. xuesheng de yanguang yao fang             yuan   yidian
    student       DE vision       need put    far   a bit
    `Students' vision should be extended to future.'
Example #624:

    b. huoxu xianzai xuedao de dongxi yihou hui yongdedao
    maybe now          learn    DE thing later will useful
    `Maybe the things learned now will be useful in the future.'
Example #625:

    c. keshi xuesheng dou bu hui kaolüdao zhe dian
    bu       student all no will consider this point
    `But, students never think about this point.'
Example #626:

    d. bu yao zhishi wei fandui er fandui
    no will only for oppose and oppose
    `Don't oppose only for the sake of opposition.'
Example #627:

    shang junxunke
    take military training class
    class.'
Example #628:

    congye        renyuan
    professional person
    worked for the movie industry were interviewed.'
Example #629:

    neizhan
    civil war
    `Some of them experienced the Civil War.'
Example #630:

    yu    xinju        yundong
    to new-theater movement
    since as early as the Japanese-Occupation Period.'
Example #631:

    qu guo     you   zhizhangsheng fuwu de canting                ne
    go EXP have      retarded person serve DE restaurant           Q
    serve?'
Example #632:

    zhizhangsheng de jiuye nengli
    retarded person DE working abilit y
    enhance mentally-challenged persons' working ability,'
Example #633:

    tuixing zhe liang xiang      youyiyi de huodong
    promote this two      CL meaningful DE activity
    Gongguan Taipei promoted these two meaningful activities.'
Example #634:

    305. a. zai taida                de    si nian    li
    at Taiwan University DE four year inside
    `During the four years I studied at NTU,'
Example #635:

    tongxuemen zuo        de youguan     fenxi     huaxue de         yanshuo
    classmates make DE about             analytic chemistry DE speech
    Qian delivered to the chemistry majors.'
Example #636:

    c. ta yuzhongxinchangde mianli              tongxue   yi fan    hua
    he sincerely                encourage classmates one CL words
    `He sincerely encouraged the students that he addressed to.'
Example #637:

    d. zhi jin     hai   jiyiyouxin
    to now still memory-fresh
    `The memory is still fresh so far.'
Example #638:

    guo      ailingji            deng wuma
    EXP Ailing Festival          etc.    dance
    aboriginal dancers the dances for Ailing and other festivals.'
Example #639:

    b. dan ruguo ziji yanchu
    but if        self perform
    `But, if the members perform those dances,'
Example #640:

    b. bujin     shueifuli    cha ye       bu gou   zhuanye
    no only convincing bad also no enough professional
    `it is not only unconvincing but also unprofessional.'
Example #641:

    307. a. daxuesheng            de     jianchai   gongzuo linlangmanmu
    university student DE        part-time job      various
    students.'
Example #642:

    cheng le     daxuesheng             dagong        de   xin chulu
    become PFV university students part-time work DE new way
    artists has become a new kind of part-time job.'
Example #643:

    zhuren          de     ouyongsheng
    directo        REL Ou Yongsheng
    workshop of the Banqiao Elementary School,'
Example #644:

    tuijian
    recommendation
    people working on campus and people from off-campus.'
Example #645:

    c. qie       yi         fabiao      guo       banxue   linian
    and already make public EXP run school              idea
    school.'
Example #646:

    309. a. gongsi     xingzheng           dalo    jiran      bei    baocun
    company administrative building now that PASS preserve
    `Now that the company's administrative building is preserved,'
Example #647:

    b. chongxinzhengxu shi yi          da jianju      gongcheng
    re-model                be one big difficult    project
    `To remodel it is a huge difficult project.'
Example #648:

    dalou      zhi juli
    building DE distance
    belt and the administrative building.'
Example #649:

    jianzhuwu zhi jiegou            qingxing
    building      DE structure status
    existing building.'
Example #650:

    xieshang
    negoate
    government.'
Example #651:

    310. a. suiran      tichu   zhe ge      xiangfa hen      you    xinyi
    though propose this CL idea                very have innovation
    `Though proposing this idea is very innovating,'
Example #652:

    b. danshi yinwei       mei        you   ren    yanjiu   guo
    but        because no      have person research EXP
    `yet, because nobody has done any research on this,'
Example #653:

    c. yinci cai     yanjiu     guocheng hui pongdao yixie zuli
    so       at research      process will meet          some obstacle
    `so, during the research process, (we) will meet some obstacle.'
Example #654:

    311. a. ta yizhi     hen    bu    xihuan nianshu
    he always very not             like study
    `He always disliked studying.'
Example #655:

    b. jieguo       ta kao guo    san      ci      daxue     liangkao
    as a result he take EXP three time university entrance exam
    `as a result, he took the University Entrance Exam three times.'
Example #656:

    c. dou mei kaoshang
    all   no    pass
    `He didn't get any admission all three times.'
Example #657:

    312. a. ruguo ta kan guo     zhe ben shu
    if       he read EXP this CL book
    `If he has read this book,'
Example #658:

    b. zenme yi     ge    wenti      dou        dabuchulai
    why one CL question              all cannot answer
    `How come he can't even answer one question?'
Example #659:

    lü      de yanyuan jiangguosheng        aohuide biaoshi
    tour DE actor         Jiang Guosheng regretted say
    participate in the tour about aboriginals, said with regret,'
Example #660:

    de yingxiang
    DE influence
    performance.'
Example #661:

    314. a. yanyuan         zhiyao     zhidao   hao de dexing
    Yan Yuan       as long as know      good DE virtues
    `As long as Yan Yuan learned of good virtues,'
Example #662:

    b. jiu    nuli      qu shentilixing
    then diligently go practice
    `then he would practice it diligently.'
Example #663:

    c. congwei kan ta tingzhi guo
    never     see he stop      EXP
    `People never saw him ever stop.'
Example #664:

    cai    qu shuijiao
    CAI     go sleep
    to sleep.'
Example #665:

    guo jingcha zhongshi yishiwucheng
    EXP police finally         total failure
    as a cop, but finally turned out to be a total failure.'
Example #666:

    bushao ling ren        shen    si   de hua
    a lot   make person deep think DE words
    things that made people think profoundly.'
Example #667:

    zhong shenghuo fangshi
    CL      life      style
    and democracy was a lifestyle.'
Example #668:

    dangshi yijing shi bashier sui              de lao ren
    then      already be 82          year-old DE ole man
    time.'
Example #669:

    b. liang nian qian hui          guo hunan     laojia
    two     year ago return EXP Hunan hometown
    `(He) returned to his hometown in Hunan two years ago.'
Example #670:

    c. yijiu wuba nian       di zaidu       fan     xiang shi
    1958         year       end again    return       home time
    `(When he) returned home again at the end of 1958,'
Example #671:

    d. fanxian xiri    conglong de qiuling huang ni             luolou
    find      past   green          DE hill   yellow mud          appear
    trees were now covered with yellow mud and dust only.
Example #672:

    e. linzi quan hui    le
    forest all destroy PFV
    `all of the forests were destroyed.'
Example #673:

    318. a. weile           winde (*le) shengli           tamen        nuli         lianxi
    in order to     win        PFV victory they diligently practice
    `In order to win the victory, they practiced diligently76.'
Example #674:

    b. tamen        nuli         lianxi suyi         yingde le          shengli
    they diligently practice so                    win       PFV victory
    `They practiced diligently. So they won the victory.'
Example #675:

    319. a. xiaoli   zai   youyung
    Xiaoli PRG swim
    `Xiaoli was swimming.'
Example #676:

    b. laozhang kandao         le renbuzhu     jiao   le ta ji   zhao
    Laozhang see          PFV cannot help teach PFV he several move
    a few moves.'
Example #677:

    320. a. ta jingjing zhu            zai nar
    he quietly sit            at     there
    `He sat there quietly.'
Example #678:

    b. ting zhe        yinyuehui       jieshu
    listen DUR concert             end
    `(he) listened to the concert until it ended.'
Example #679:

    c. ranhou       like          zhuan      shen     likai
    then      immediatel y turn          body leave
    `Then, (he) immediately turned and left.'
Example #680:

    321. a. ta qunian      qu    guo    yi    ci        xianggang
    he last year    go    EXP one time Hong Kong
    `He went to Hong Kong once last year.'
Example #681:

    b. xia    ge    yue      you   yao        qu    le
    next   CL month again       will go          Prc
    `Next month, (he) will go again.'
Example #682:

    xialai hai zai        mai bing
    down still PRG sell ice
    is still selling ice.'
Example #683:

    de fanwei      li
    DE domain     inside
    `Her life seems to freeze in that small domain,'
Example #684:

    c. buduan        zai   zuo tongyang de shi
    without stop PRG do          same   DE thing
    `(and she) is doing the same thing without stop.'
Example #685:

    323. a. zai taida              de     si nian   li
    at Taiwan University DE four year inside
    `During the four years I studied at NTU,'
Example #686:

    tongxuemen zuo       de youguan        fenxi    huaxue de          yanshuo
    classmates make DE about           analytic chemistry DE speech
    Qian delivered to the chemistry majors.'
Example #687:

    c. ta yuzhongxinchangde mianli             tongxue      yi fan    hua
    he sincerely               encourage classmates one CL words
    `He sincerely encouraged the students that he addressed to.'
Example #688:

    d. zhi jin   hai   jiyiyouxin
    to now still memory-fresh
    `The memory is still fresh so far.'
Example #689:

    de yinyuehui
    DE concert
    `Yesterday, I went to the concert of the Municipal Orchestra.'
Example #690:

    zhongxiayiezhimong
    mid-summer dream
    `They performed my favorite piece: the Mid-Summer Dream.'
Example #691:

    c. ran    wo hen     gaoxing
    make I very happy
    `(that) made me very happy.'
Example #692:

    325. a. ta    yimian             shuo
    he simultaneously say
    `He was saying,'
Example #693:

    b. you shou manmande tiqi
    right hand slowly        raise
    `and raising his right hand slowly.'
Example #694:

    c. muzhi    shizhi      zhijian wo     zhe    ji    mei du   zhen
    thumb index finger between hold DUR several CL poison needle
    index finger.'
Example #695:

    yanjiu    jihua zhongxin        de zanzhu
    research project      center DE       support
    Advanced Research Project of the Dept. of Defense.'
Example #696:

    wanglu ARPAnet
    network ARPAnet
    `Therefore, they could build the first inetnet: ARPAnet.'
Example #697:

    jiada shengtabababla fenxiao     youta daxue deng xiaoyuan
    UC    St. Barbara      campus    Utah Univ. etc.     campus
    Stanford University, UCLA, UCSB, Univ. of Utah, etc.'
Example #698:

    327. a. ji     tian qian axio yijing fangqi    le    xiwang
    several day ago A-Xio already quit PFV hope
    `Several days ago, A-Xio already gave up hope.'
Example #699:

    b. renwei bu   hui    you     ren   lai   jiu    ta      le
    think no    will   have person come save      sh e   Prc
    `(and she) did not think that anyone would come save her.'
Example #700:

    c. danshi xianzai tingdao             le    yuanchu de      ren   sheng
    but          now       hear     PFV distant          DE   person voice
    `But, now, she heard distant persons' voice.'
Example #701:

    d. ta    you    ranqi      le     xiwan
    she again rekindle PFV hope
    `Her hope was rekindled.'
Example #702:

    328. a. da     hui    lang           gei    ta    yi   la   zhixia
    big gray wolf PASS she one pull under the situation of
    `The big gray wolf was pulled by her.'
Example #703:

    b. xianghou      tui      le      yi bu
    backward        back PFV one step
    `(it) took one step backwards.'
Example #704:

    c. dan    ta         e    dehuang le
    but it        hungry very much Prc
    `But, it was very hungry.'
Example #705:

    d. hou zu laolao          judi
    rear leg firmly grasp the ground
    `Its rear legs grasped the ground firmly.'
Example #706:

    e. jiao        liwenxio     zaiye       la ta   bu     dong
    make Li Wenxio            any more pull it cannot   move
    `(that action) made Li Wenxio unable to pull it back any more.'
Example #707:

    f. genzhe youshi yi          kou     yaoluo
    then          again one mouth bite-toward
    `Then, (it) bit toward them again.'
Example #708:

    maidiao       le
    be sold    PFV
    `even though bungalows which are very expensive are all sold,
Example #709:

    xiao      bu        chuqu
    sell    cannot       out
    `Apartments that are cheaper than bungalows cannot be sold.'
Example #710:

    330. a. you     sh i   su i   gen   fumu    xue guo   yixie wuyi
    young time though with parents learn EXP some martial arts
    youth,'
Example #711:

    ganjing
    clean
    completely forgot.'
Example #712:

    331. a. mao         su i    bu   zancheng da ren
    Chair Mao though not      agree      hit person
    citizens up,'
Example #713:

    renming bu       bei da
    citizen   not PASS hit
    being beaten up (by communist officials).'
Example #714:

    332. a. kongzi       tong yanyuan        shuo     le   yi tian de daoli
    Confucius      to    Yan Yuan speak PFV one day DE principle
    principles of how to function as a person.'
Example #715:

    b. yanyuan bu wen       wenti      ye bu fanbuo
    Yan Yuan no ask question also no            refute
    `Yan Yuan neither asked questions nor refuted.'
Example #716:

    c. haoxiang hen       ben     de    yangzi
    seeming very stupid         DE appearance
    `He seemed stupid.'
Example #717:

    kongzi        shuo guo         de hua
    Confucius say EXP REL words
    `But, privately, he was practicing what Confucius taught him.'
Example #718:

    e. yici yanyuan yidangye bu ben
    so      Yan Yuan at all     no stupid
    `So, Yan Yuan was not stupid at all.'
Example #719:

    nadao       wo      yi     ge    ren     hai     neng huo       me
    how can       I one CL person still              can      live Q
    `(But), in her mind, she was saying, "If you die, do you think I
Example #720:

    334. a. ta   kan     zhe     axio        hewan         niunai
    he watch DUR A-xio drink-finish                 milk
    `He watched A-xio drink and finish milk.'
Example #721:

    b. dan   que           meiyou         zoguoqu      jieguo   chawan
    but contrastively not              walk over pick up     bowl
    `But, he did not walk over to pick up the bowl.'
Example #722:

    c. faner zhuan shen              zo   le   chuqu
    instead turn      body walk PFV out
    `Instead, he turned and walked out.'
Example #723:

    335. a. da tian     li     kan    bu        dao fengshou    de zhuangjia
    big farm inside see       cannot see abundant       DE    crop
    `In the big farms, no crops could be seen.'
Example #724:

    b. que cha     zhe    yi    dui       yi dui de hong        qi
    but erect DUR one hump one hum DE                  red   flag
    `But, there were humps of red flags erected in the farms.'
Example #725:

    337. a. da    hui    lang        gei   ta   yi   la   zhixia
    big gray wolf PASS she one pull under the situation of
    `The big gray wolf was pulled by her.'
Example #726:

    b. xianghou     tui    le     yi bu
    backward      back PFV one step
    `(it) took one step backwards.'
Example #727:

    c. dan   ta      e     dehuang le
    but it      hungry very much Prc
    `But, it was very hungry.'
Example #728:

    d. hou zu laolao     judi
    rear leg firmly grasp the ground
    `Its rear legs grasped the ground firmly.'
Example #729:

    e. jiao   liwenxio     zaiye      la ta         bu   dong
    make Li Wenxio       any more pull it cannot      move
    `(that action) made Li Wenxio unable to pull it back any more.'
Example #730:

    f. genzhe youshi yi     kou    yaoluo
    then    again one mouth bite-toward
    `Then, (it) bit toward them again.'
Example #731:

    338. a. ta xie le      yi   feng xin     keshi    mei      xiewan
    he write PFV one CL letter        but      no     write-finish
    `He wrote a letter, but he did not finish it.'
Example #732:

    b. zhangsan      xie le      yi   feng xin     bushi lisi
    Zhangsan     write PFV one CL letter             not   Lisi
    `Zhangsan wrote a letter, not Lisi.'
Example #733:

    344. a. ta wu     nian     qian    qu        le        xianggang   yi   ci
    he five year       ago     go    PFV Hong Kong             one time
    `He went to Hong Kong once five years ago.'
Example #734:

    b. liang nian   hou     you        qu        le     yi ci
    two    year later again         go        PFV one time
    `He went again three years ago.'
Example #735:

    345. a. liwenxiu      weiwei lengxiao dao
    Li Wenxiu slightl y sneer         sa y
    `Li Wenxiu slightl y sneered and said,'
Example #736:

    b. ni bu       rende    wo      wo que       rende      ni
    you not recognize I           I but      recognize you
    `You don't recognize me, but I recognize you.'
Example #737:

    jiu   shi ni zhe pi          hanren      qiangdao
    JIU      be you this group      Han      robber
    tribes, and kill the Kazakhstan people.'
Example #738:

    d. shuo dao zheli
    speak to here
    `(When) she spoke to this point,'
Example #739:

    e. shengyin bian         de shenwei kuse
    voice become DE           pretty   dry
    `Her voice became pretty dry.'
Example #740:

    f. xin    zhong zai      xiang
    mind inside PRG think
    `She was thinking in her mind,"
Example #741:

    huai    shi
    bad    thing
    `If you robbers had not done so many bad things,
Example #742:

    h. suluke yie bu        hui zheyang zenghen women hanren
    Suluke also no will         so    hate   we     Han people
    `Suluke would not have hated us Han people so much.'
Example #743:

    349. a. xiaoli zai    youyong
    Xiaoli PRG swim
    `Xiaoli was swimming.'
Example #744:

    b. laozhang kandao    le renbuzhu        jiao le ta       ji     zhao
    Laozhang see      PFV cannot help teach PFV he several move
    showed him a few moves.'
Example #745:

    351. a. na tian wanshang liwenxio          fa    zhe   gaoshao
    that day night       Li Wenxio have DUR high fever
    `That night, Li Wenxio had high fever.'
Example #746:

    b. xiao liandanr shao         de               tong         hong
    small face    burn    to a degree that    completely red
    `Her small face was so hot that it turned red.'
Example #747:

    c. shuo le xuduo huhua
    say PFV many flapdoodle
    `She murmured a lot of flapdoodle.'
Example #748:

    353. a. Ji cong wahu         li     dao le        yi   wan     re nailau
    Ji from kettle inside pour PFV one bowel hot thick milk
    `Ji poured a bowel of hot thick milk from the kettle.'
Example #749:

    b. qiao     zhe    Li hexia             le
    watch DUR Li drink-down PFV
    `(he) watched Li drink the thick milk'
Example #750:

    c. you ti     ta longhao beiwo
    also for she tuck            comforter
    `(and he) tucked her in.'
Example #751:

    355. a. hushi yuanzhang zai kaimushi de zhici zhong tandao le
    Hushi dean           at    opening DE speech inside talk              PFV
    bushao ling ren           shen   si   de hua
Example #752:

    zhong shenghuo fangshi
    CL      life         st yle
    and democracy was a lifestyle.'
Example #753:

    357. a. mei nian       dao         le jinma      guoji              yingzhang reji
    every year arrive PFV Jinma international movie show season
    Show comes,'
Example #754:

    gongzuo danwei dagong
    work        unit          work part-time
    organization responsible for the International Movies Show.'
Example #755:

    359. a. wo liang       yiqi       jingli     guo     wushu         weinan
    I two together experience EXP numerous difficulty-danger
    together.'
Example #756:

    b. zhe ci      huoxu      ye neng taotuo
    this time perhaps also can         escape
    `This time, maybe we can also escape (from the danger).'
Example #757:

    dangshi yijing shi bashier sui             de lao ren
    then      already be 82         year-old DE ole man
    time.'
Example #758:

    b. liang nian qian hui         guo hunan     laojia
    two    year ago return EXP Hunan hometown
    `(He) returned to his hometown in Hunan two years ago.'
Example #759:

    c. yijiu wuba nian    di zaidu         fan     xiang shi
    1958         year    end again      return       home time
    `(When he) returned home again at the end of 1958,'
Example #760:

    d. fanxian xiri conglong de qiuling huang ni               luolou
    find      past   green         DE hill   yellow mud          appear
    trees were now covered with yellow mud and dust only.
Example #761:

    e. linzi quan hui                 le
    forest all destroy PFV
    `all of the forests were destroyed.'
Example #762:

    363. a. Ita qi       zhe     jiaotache
    he ride DUR          bike
    `He rode a bike, ......'
Example #763:

    b. Ita   chi     le     fan
    he eat       PFV rice
    `He ate (a meal), ....................'
Example #764:

    c. ta qi       zhe jiaotache     daochu      xiaguang
    he ride DUR        bike       everywhere ramble
    `He rambled everywhere, riding a bike'
Example #765:

    d. ta chi      le fan    cai      likai
    he eat PFV rice CAI            leave
    `He ate (a meal) and then left.'