ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Hideki Kishimoto (2001). Binding of Indeterminate Pronouns and Clause Structure in Japanese.

URL: http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-946Linguistic-Theory-and-the-Japanese-LanguageFall2001/E812D501-A426-4954-BB4A-17301DFD94F6/0/9_25_Kishimoto_in_press.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1637&langcode=jpn (2018-01-22).

 

Example #1:

    (1) a. Taroo-wa       nani-mo       kawa-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top       anything-Q    buy-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not buy anything.'
Example #2:

    b. Dare-mo      sono-hon-o             kawa-nakat-ta.
    anyone-Q     that-book-Acc          buy-Neg-Past
    'No one bought that book.'
Example #3:

    (2) a. Taroo-wa       nani-o         kai-mo       si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top       anything-Acc buy-Q          do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not buy anything.'
Example #4:

    b. Hanako-wa [Taroo-ga           nani-o        ka-ta          to-mo ]     omowa-nakat-ta.
    Hanako-Top [Taro-Nom anything-Acc bought                   that-Q]     think-Neg-Past
    'Hanako did not think that Taro bought anything.'
Example #5:

    (3) Taroo-wa        Hanako-o         [hasir-ase-mo      si-nakat-ta]
    Taro-Top        Hanako-Acc [run-cause-Q             do-Neg-Past
    'Taro also made Hanako run.'
Example #6:

    * Dare-ga        warai-mo      sina-kat-ta.
    anyone-Nom laugh-Q          do-Neg-Past
    'Anyone did not laugh.'
Example #7:

    Taroo-wa       nani-o        kai-mo         si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top       anything-Acc buy-Q           do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not buy anything.'
Example #8:

    * Taroo-wa         itu/dooyuu-riyuu-de      hasiri-mo          si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top        anytime/any-reason-for run-Q                do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not run anytime/for any reason.'
Example #9:

    Taroo-wa       doko-kara/doko-de         hasiri-mo              si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top       anywhere-from/anywhere-at run-Q                  do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not run (from) anywhere.'
Example #10:

    Taroo-ni-wa [dare-ga           Masao-o       home-ta to-mo ]omo-e-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Dat-Top [anyone-Nom Masao-Acc           admired C-Q] think-can-Neg-Past
    'Taro could not think that anyhone admired Masao.'
Example #11:

    Taroo-ni-wa [Hanako-ga itu              asonda      to-mo ]       omo-e-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Dat-Top [Hanako-Nom anytime played             C-Q]          think-can-Neg-Past
    'Taro could not think that Hanako played anywhere.'
Example #12:

    * Nani-ga            (Taroo-ni) yom-are-mo         si-nakat-ta.
    anything-Nom (Taro-Dat)      read-pass-Q        do-Neg-Past
    'Anything was not read (by Taro).'
Example #13:

    * Nani-ga         koware-mo si-nakat-ta.
    anything-Nom break-Q
    'Anything did not break down.'
Example #14:

    (10) ?* Dare-oi       Taroo-wa          ti home-mo          si-nakat-ta.
    anyone-Acci Taro-Top            ti praise-Q
    'Anyone, Taro did not admire.
Example #15:

    (11) Taroo-wa          dare-oi         koko-de     ti      home-mo         sina-kat-ta.
    Taro-Top         anyone-Acci here-at         ti      praise-Q
    'Taro did not admire anyone here.'
Example #16:

    (12) * Taroo-ni nani-ga               uta-e-mo          si-na-i.
    Taro-Dat anything-Nom          sing-can-Q        do-Neg-Pres
    'Taro cannot sing anything.'
Example #17:

    (13) a. ? [sono-uta-ga        uta-e-mo ]i    Taroo-ni ti si-ta           (koto)
    [that-song-Nom sing-can-Q]i Taro-Dat ti do-Past
    'Taroo could also sing that song (can sing that song, Taro did)'
Example #18:

    b. * [uta-e-mo ]i Taroo-ni sono-uta-ga             ti   si-ta      (koto)
    [sing-can-Q]i Taro-Dat that-song-Nom          ti   do-Past
    (lit: could sing, Taro that song did)
Example #19:

    Taroo-sae -ga [kono-hon-o           yomi-sae ] si-ta.
    Taro-even-Nom [this-book-Acc        read-even] do-Past
    'Even Taro even read this book.
Example #20:

    * Taroo-ga [kono-hon-(o)-sae             yomi-sae ] si-ta.
    TaroNom [this-book-Acc-even            read-even] do-Past
    'Taro even read even this book.
Example #21:

    (15) Kono-kabin-sae -ga kowas-are-sae         si-ta.
    this-vase-even-Nom break-Pass-even do-Past
    'Even this vase was even broken.'
Example #22:

    (16) ? Kono-kabin-(o)-swae i       Taroo-ga        ti kowasi-sae       si-ta.
    this-vase-Acc-eveni         Taro-Nom        ti break-even       do-Past
    'Even this vase, Taro even broke.'
Example #23:

    (17) * Taroo-ni-wa [sono-oto-sae -ga              kiko-e-sae ]        si-ta.
    Taro-Dat-Top [that-sound-even-Nom hear-can-even]               do-Past
    'Taro could even hear even that sound.'
Example #24:

    ?susume-sae             s-are-ta       /*susume-rare-sae       si-ta.
    recommmend-even do-Pass-Past /* recommend-Pass-even do-Past
    'Taroo was even recommended this book even by Hanako.'
Example #25:

    *susume-mo                 s-are-nakat-ta
    recommend-even            do-Pass-Neg-Past
    'Taro was not recommended anything by Hanako.'
Example #26:

    Taroo-ga roozin-ni/-o            suwar-ase-ta.
    Taro-Nom old.man-Dat/-Acc sit-cause-Past
    'Taro let/made the old man sit down.'
Example #27:

    *suwar-ase-sae si-ta.
    sit-cause-even do-Past
    'Taro did not even let even the old man sit down.'
Example #28:

    *suwar-ase-sae si-ta.
    sit-cause-even do-Past
    'Taro did not even make even the old man sit down.'
Example #29:

    *suwari-mo         s-ase-nakat-ta.
    site-Q            do-cause-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not let/make anyone site down.'
Example #30:

    tabe-sae s-ase-rare-ta
    eat-even do-cause-Pass-Past
    'Taro was even made to eat even rice by Hanako.'
Example #31:

    *tabe-mo s-ase-rare-nakat-tta
    eat-even do-cause-Pass-Neg-Past
    'Taro was not made to anything by Hanako.'
Example #32:

    kaeri-sae    s-ase-ta.
    return-even do-cause-Past
    'Taro even made Hanako return even to her home.'
Example #33:

    *kaeri-mo           s-ase-nakat-ta.
    return-even         do-cause-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not make Hanako return to anywhere.'
Example #34:

    kaeri-sae      s-ase-ta.
    return-even do-cause-Past
    'Taro even made Hanako return even at that time.'
Example #35:

    kaeri-mo       s-ase-nakat-ta.
    return-even do-cause-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not make Hanako return at anytime.'
Example #36:

    (26) * Taroo-wa dare-ni            hon-mo watasa-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top anyone-Dat book-Q hand-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not hand a book to anyone.'
Example #37:

    (27) Taroo-wa dare-ni              soodan-mo si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top anyone-Dat consultation-Q do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not consult anyone.'
Example #38:

    * Dare-ga       Hanako-ni       soodan-mo si-nakat-ta.
    anyone-Nom Hanako-Dat consult-even do-Neg-Past
    'Anyone did not consult Hanako.'
Example #39:

    (29) a. ?*Taroo-ga         suugaku-o     benkyoo-o      si-ta.
    Taro-Nom        math-Acc      study-Acc      do-Past
    'Taro studied mathematics.'
Example #40:

    (30) * Taroo-wa dare-ni           [henna      soodan]-mo         si-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top anyone-Dat [strange consultation]-Q do-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not make a strange consultation with anyone.'
Example #41:

    (31) Taroo-wa         nani-o       gimon-ni-mo               omowa-nakat-ta.
    Taro-Top         anything-Acc questionably-Q            think-Neg-Past
    'Taro did not doubt about anything.'