ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

RUIXI RESSY AI (2003). JAPANESE PASSIVES (KUBO 1992).

URL: http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-953Argument-Structure-and-SyntaxSpring2003/44932089-4217-411E-9FBF-7803F9DBD766/0/kubo1992presentationrevi.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1717&langcode=jpn (2018-04-27).

 

Example #1:

    Taro-no yuuki-ga ookuno hito-ni tatae-rare-ta. (cf. Ookuno hito-ga Taro-no yuuki-o tatae-ta.)
    Taro-gen courage-nom many people-by praise-pass-past
    `Taro's courage was praised by many people.'
Example #2:

    Watashi-ga kinou Jiro-ni nak-are-ta.   (2)
    Me-nom yesterday Jiro-dat cry-pass-past
    `I had Jiro cry on me yesterday.'
Example #3:

    b.  Taroi-ga Hanako-ni ti oikake-rare-ta. (86)
    Taro-nom Hanako-by chase-pass-past
    `Taro was chased by Hanako.'
Example #4:

    c. *Kono bijutsukan-ga yuumeina kenchikuka-ni kono toshokan-o tate-rare-ta. (27.b)
    this museum famous architect-by this library-acc build-pass-past
    `(*) This museum had a famous architect build this library on it.'
Example #5:

    b.  Taroi-ga Hanako-ni ti nayamigoto-o soudans-are-ta.        (87)
    Taro-nom Hanako-by problem-acc consult-pass-past
    `(*) Taro was consulted her problem by Hanako.'
Example #6:

    c. *New York-ga Furansu-kara Tokyo-ni jiyuu-no megami-o okur-are-ta. (30)
    New York-nom France-from Tokyo-dat the Statue of Liberty-acc give-pass-past
    `(*) New York was given the Statue of Liberty to Tokyo from France.'
Example #7:

    b.  Taroi-ga Hanako-ni [NP ti nikki]-o yom-are-ta.  (88)
    Taro-nom Hanako-by diary-acc read-pass-past
    `Taro had Hanako read his diary on him.'
Example #8:

    Cf: Hanako-ga (keiji-kara/niyotte) koudoo-o ayashim-are-ta. (45.a)
    Hanako-ga (police-from/by) behavior-acc suspect-pass-past
    `Hanako had the police have a suspicion of her behavior on her.'
Example #9:

    b.  Taroi-ga dokuiri-juusu-o [NP ti koibito]-ni okur-are-ta. (89)
    Taro-nom poisoned juice-acc sweetheart-dat send-pass-past
    `(*) Taro was sent a poisoned juice to his sweetheart.'
Example #10:

    Cf: Taro-ga (ryokoogaisha-kara) Hawaii-iki-o kazoku-ni susume-rare-ta. (46=16)
    Taro-nom (travel agency-from) Hawaii-going-acc recommend-pass-past
    `Taro had a travel agency recommend Hawaii-going to his family on him.'
Example #11:

    (7) Hanako-ga Taro-ni iedes-are-ta.  (Intransitive)     (17.b)
    Hanako-nom Taro-dat run-away-pass-past
    `Hanako had Taro run away from home on her.'
Example #12:

    (8) Taro-ga Hanako-ni shinkou-shuukyoo-o hajime-rare-ta. (Transitive)     (18.a)
    Taro-nom Hanako-dat new religion-acc start-pass-past
    `Taro had Hanako start believing in a new religion.'
Example #13:

    Hanakoi-ga Taroj-ni zibuni/*j-no heya-ni tozikone-rare-ta.      (56.a)
    Hanako-nom Taro-by self-gen room-to shut-up-pass-past
    `Hanako was shut up by Taro in her room.'       (Kuno, 1973:213 (71))
Example #14:

    Hanakoi-ga shatyooj-ni zibuni/*j-no ofisu-de sono-niyuusu-o tsutae-rare-ta. (56.b)
    Hanako-nom president-by self-gen office-at that-news-acc announce-pass-past
    `Hanako was announced that news by the president at her office.'
Example #15:

    Hanakoi-ga Taroj-ni zibuni/*j-no heya-de [ei shashin]-o tor-are-ta.   (56.c)
    Hanako-nom Taro-by self-gen-room-at picture-acc take-pass-past
    `Hanako had her picture taken by Taro in her room.'
Example #16:

    Hanakoi-ga shicyooj-ni zibuni/*j-no ofisu-de hiyoushojyo-o [ei buka]-ni okur-are-ta.
    Hanako-nom Mayor-by self-gen office-at prize-acc subordinate-to send-pass-past
    `Hanako had the Mayor give a prize to her subordinate on her.'     (56.d)
Example #17:

    Taroi-ga Hanakoj-ni zibuni/j-no heya-de nak-are-ta.            (57.a)
    Taro-nom Hanako-dat self-gen room-at cry-pass-past
    `Taro had Hanako cry in self 's room on him.'
Example #18:

    Taroi-ga Hanakoj-ni zibuni/j-no heya-de uta-o utaw-are-ta.              (57.b)
    Taro-nom Hanako-dat self-gen room-at song-acc sing-pass-past
    `Taro had Hanako sing a song in self 's room on him.'
Example #19:

    a.  Taro-ga sushi-o tabe-ta.        (58.a)
    Taro-nom sushi-acc eat-past
    `Taro ate sushi.'
Example #20:

    b. Taro-ga sushi-o tabe-sae/mo/saemo/wa shi-ta.           (58.b)
    Taro-nom sushi-acc eat-even/at least do-past
    `Taro did even/at least eat sushi.'
Example #21:

    c.  Sushi-o tabe-sae/mo/saemo/wa Taro-ga shi-ta.       (scrambling) (58.c)
    Sushi-acc eat-even/at least Taro-nom do-past
    `Even/at least eat sushi, Taro-did.'
Example #22:

    i). Hanako-ni oikake-rare-sae Taro-ga shi-ta.  (59.a)
    Hanako-by chase-pass-even Taro-nom do-past
    `Get chased by Hanako, Taro did.'
Example #23:

    ii). *Hanako-ni oikake-sae Taro-ga s-are-ta.   (59.b)
    Hanako-by chase-even Taro-ga do-pass-past
    `Chased by Hanako, Taro did get.'
Example #24:

    i). Hanako-ni suiei-o susume-rare-sae Taro-ga shi-ta. (60.a)
    Hanako-by swimming-acc recommend-pass even Taro-nom do-past
    `Get recommended swimming by Hanako, Taro did.'
Example #25:

    ii). *Hanako-ni suiei-o susume-sae Taro-ga s-are-ta. (60.b)
    Hanako-by swimming-acc recommend-even Taro-nom do-pass-past
    `Hanako recommend him swimming, Taro did have.'
Example #26:

    i). Hanako-ni nikki-o yom-are-sae Taro-ga shi-ta.   (61.a)
    Hanako-by dairy-acc read-pass-even Taro-nom do-past
    `Get read his diary by Hanako, Taro did.'
Example #27:

    ii). *Hanako-ni nikki-o yomi-sae Taro-ga s-are-ta.    (61.b)
    Hanako-by dairy-acc read-even Taro-nom do-pass-past
    `Read his dairy by Hanako, Taro did get.'
Example #28:

    i). Hanako-ni manga-o seito-ni kubar-are-sae, Yamada-sensei-ga shi-ta.     (62.a)
    Hanako-by magazine-acc student-to deliver-pass-even Y.-Prof.-nom do-past
    `Get delivered magazines by Hanako to his students, Prof. Yamada did.'
Example #29:

    ii). *Hanako-ni manga-o seito-ni kubari-sae, Yamada-sensei-ga s-are-ta. (62.b)
    Hanako-by magazine-acc student-to deliver-even Y.-Prof.-nom do-pass-past
    `Delivered magazines by Hanako to his students, Prof. Yamada did get.'
Example #30:

    i). Hanako-ni naki-sae Taro-ga s-are-ta.      (64.b)
    Hanako-dat cry-even Taro-nom do-pass-past
    `Hanako cry, Taro did have.'
Example #31:

    ii). Hanako-ni nak-are-sae Taro-ga shi-ta.  (64.a)
    Hanako-dat cry-pass-even Taro-nom do-past
    `Have Hanako cry, Taro did.'
Example #32:

    i). Hanako-ni koukoo-o yame-sae Taro-ga s-are-ta.      (63.b)
    Hanako-dat high school-acc drop out-even Taro-nom do-pass-past
    `Hanako drop out the high school, Taro did have.'
Example #33:

    ii). Hanako-ni koukoo-o yame-rare-sae Taro-ga shi-ta.      (63.a)
    Hanako-dat high school-acc drop out-even Taro-nom do-past
    `Have Hanako drop out the high school, Taro did.'
Example #34:

    i). S-Structure: Taroi-ga hitobito-ni [NP [SPEC ti ] yuuki-o][V tatae-rare]-ta. (125)
    Taro-nom people-by courage-acc praise-pass-past
    `Taro was praised his courage by people.'
Example #35:

    i). S-Structure: Taro-ga [VP Hanako-ni shinkou-shuukyoo-o hajime]-[V rare] -ta. (18.a)
    Taro-nom Hanako-dat new religion-acc start-pass-past
    `Taro had Hanako start believing in a new religion.'