ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

MIN-JOO KIM (2004). EVENT-STRUCTURE AND THE INTERNALLY-HEADED RELATIVE CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION IN KOREAN AND JAPANESE.

URL: http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/TVmZTYyZ/MinJoo%20Kim%20Thesis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 1775&langcode=kor (2019-04-22).

 

Example #1:

    Jinho-nun         [[totwuk-i        tomangka-n]-un             kes]-ul           capassta.
    J.-top            [[thief-nom       run.away-imprf]-rel        kes]-acc          caught.
    `A/the thief was running away and Jinho caught him.'
Example #2:

    kes]-ul         capessta.
    kes]-acc        caught.
    the mouse.'
Example #3:

    kes]-ul           mek-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc          eat-pst-decl.
    `A child was boiling noodles and Jinho ate them (= the noodles).'
Example #4:

    kes]-ul           kanchilephi-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc          tickle-pst-decl.
    `A child was boiling noodles and Jinho tickled him/her (= the child).'
Example #5:

    kes]-ul        po-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc       see-pst-decl.
    or it (= the event of the child boiling noodles).'
Example #6:

    kesi]-ul        capassta.
    kes]-acc        caught.
    `(Only) three thieves were running away and Jinho caught all of them.'
Example #7:

    yatanchi-ess-ta.
    scold-pst-decl.
    homework/because she wasn't doing her homework.'
Example #8:

    toy]-l                   kes-wa         kil-ese          macwuchiessta.
    become]-rel.future       kes-comt       street-loc       encountered.
    the street.'
Example #9:

    kes-kwa        macwuchiessta.
    kes-comt       ran.across.
    `Today Mila was coming out of a store and John ran across her.'
Example #10:

    Jinho-nun      [[ai-ka         wul-n]-un     kes]-ul        tallay-ess-ta.
    J.-top         [[child-nom     cry-imprf]-rel kes]-acc      comfort-pst-decl.
    `Jinho comforted a/the child while she (= the child) was crying.'
Example #11:

    ponay-]-n         kes]-ul          onul(-ey-ya)              pat-ess-ta.
    send-prf]-rel kes]-acc             today(-loc-foc)           receive-pst-decl.
    `Although Mila sent a book two months ago, Jinho received it (only) today.'
Example #12:

    (30)   Jinho-nun      [[totwuk-i        tomangka-n]-un             kes]-ul    capassta.
    J.-top         [[thief-nom       run.away-imprf]-rel        kes]-acc   caught.
    `A/the thief was running away and Jinho caught him.'
Example #13:

    capessta.
    caught.
    `(Only) three thieves were running away and John caught all of them.'
Example #14:

    (16)a. John-un        [[Sue-ka       wu-n]-un       kes]-ul        tallayessta.
    J.-top         [[S.-nom       cry-imprf]-rel kes]-acc       comforted.
    `John comforted Sue when she was crying.'
Example #15:

    b. John-un         [[kunye-ka     wu-n]-un       kes]-ul        tallayessta.
    J.-top         [[she-nom      cry-rel]-imprf kes]-acc       comforted.
    `John comforted her when she was crying.'
Example #16:

    kes]-ul          tallayessta.
    kes]-acc         comforted.
    `John comforted most students when they were crying.'
Example #17:

    kes]-ul           tallayessta.
    kes]-acc          comforted.
    `John comforted every student when he/she was crying.'
Example #18:

    sey-kay ssu-]-n             kes]-ul onul     achim-ey          ilkessta.
    three-cl write-prf]-rel     kes]-acc this    morning-loc       read.
    `Chelswu wrote three term   papers this semester and every student read them thi
Example #19:

    kaiphala-ko        seltukhayssta.
    join-comp          persuaded.
    bride) to join the women's club in the neighborhood.'
Example #20:

    kaiphala-ko        seltukhayssta.
    join-comp          persuaded.
    wife) to join the women's club in the neighborhood.'
Example #21:

    cip-e          tul-ess-ta.
    grasp-comp    lift-pst-decl.
    `There was an apple on the table and John picked it up.'
Example #22:

    kes]-ul        onul      cip-e          tul-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc       today grasp-comp         lift-pst-decl.
    today.'
Example #23:

    mantu-]-un kes]-ul            nayta peliessta.
    make-prf]-rel kes]-acc        took out and threw away.
    `Mary made a doll yesterday and John took it out and threw it away today.'
Example #24:

    mantu-]-un kes]-ul                nayta peliessta.
    make-prf]-rel kes]-acc            took out and threw away.
    `Mary made a doll yesterday and John took it out and threw it away today.'
Example #25:

    no-n]-un                kes]-ul         ppayassa-se            nayta peliessta.
    play-imprf]-rel         kes]-acc        confisticate-conj      took and threw away.
    it away.'
Example #26:

    iss-n]-un                  kes]-ul           yatanchi-ess-ta.
    cop-imprf]-rel             kes]-acc          scold-pst-decl.
    `Mary was running in the playground and John scolded her (for that).'
Example #27:

    (15)   *Minho-nun         [[Mary-ka         yengliha]-n      kes]-ul           koylophiessta
    M.-top            [[M.-nom          smart]-rel       kes]-acc          bothered.
    Intended: `Mary is smart and Minho bothered her for that.'
Example #28:

    iss-n]-un                  kes]-ul             (ppayassa-se)             peliessta.
    cop-imprf]-rel             kes]-acc            (took.away-and)           threw.away
    away.'
Example #29:

    hwumchi-]-n            kes]-ul        kongwon-ese             chephoha-ess-ta.
    steal-prf]-rel         kes]-acc       park-loc                arrest-pst-decl.
    `The thief stole money at the bank and the police caught him in the nearby park.
Example #30:

    hwumchi-]-n            kes]-acc       cip-eyse                scold-pst-decl.
    steal-prf]-rel         kes]-ul        house-loc               yatanchi-ess-ta.
    `Mary stole a doll at the store and John scolded Mary at home.'
Example #31:

    conkyengha-n-ta.       admire-imprf-decl.
    most-gen               congressman-pl-nom             Kerry-acc
    `Most congressmen admire Kerry.'
Example #32:

    Nayil-un               senke-il-i-ta.
    tomorrow-top           election-day-cop-decl.
    `Tomorrow is the election day.'
Example #33:

    cohkess-ta.
    feel.happy-decl.
    (= Kerry).'
Example #34:

    takkanay-ess-ta.
    wipe.out-pst-decl.
    Lit.: `John's pants got dirty and John wiped the dirt from his pants.'
Example #35:

    (12)     John-uy           paci-ka          teleweciessta.
    J.-gen            pants-nom        get.dirty.
    `John's pants got dirty.'
Example #36:

    */#Kulayse          ku-nun           kukes-ul         takkanayssta.
    So                he-top           it-acc           wiped.out.
    Intended: `So he wiped it (= the dirty stuff) out.'
Example #37:

    (i)      *John-un          ku       paci-lul          tak-a-nay-ess-ta.
    J.-top           that     pants-acc         wipe-comp-out-pst-decl.
    Intended: `John wiped the pants (to make them clean).'
Example #38:

    chingchanhaessta.
    praised.
    `Every mani introduced hisi wife to the guestk and hek praised her immediately.'
Example #39:

    chingchanhaessta.
    praised.
    immediately'.
Example #40:

    nol-ko          iss-n]-un                         kes]-ul         koylophi-ess-ta.
    play-comp       cop-imprf]-rel                    kes]-acc        bother-pst-decl.
    only her or him.'
Example #41:

    (takaka-se)                 kkyeanessta.
    (approach-and)              hugged.
    `Maryi was introducing Suej to the beautiful actressk and John hugged her
Example #42:

    wilohayssta.
    comforted.
    `Mary was feeling sad and John comforted her.'
Example #43:

    wus-key-ha-ess-ta.
    laugh-comp-do-pst-decl.
    him to laugh for five minutes.'
Example #44:

    iss-n]-un        kes]-ul             ppayassessta.
    cop-imprf]-rel kes]-acc              took.away.
    `Mary was making the sculpture with a knife and John took it away from her.'
Example #45:

    yelli-ko                iss-n]-un              kes]-ul      phokphahayssta
    take.place-comp         cop-imprf]-rel         kes]-acc     blew up.
    `An important meeting was taking place in a building and the terrorists blew it
Example #46:

    (takaka-se)             kkyeanessta.
    (approach-and)          hugged.
    approached and hugged the actress.'
Example #47:

    kes]-ul           mek-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc          eat-pst-decl.
    `Mary dried a ripe persimmon and John ate it.'
Example #48:

    kes]-ul           mek-ess-ta.
    kes]-acc          eat-pst-decl.
    `Mary cooked raw fish and John ate it.'
Example #49:

    mantu-]-un kes]-ul              nayta peliessta.
    make-prf]-rel kes]-acc          took out and threw away.
    `Mary made a doll yesterday and John took it out and threw it away today.'
Example #50:

    nayta peliessta.
    took out and threw away.
    forcefully and threw it away.'
Example #51:

    iss-n]-un                 kes]-ul         ppayassa-ase peliessta.
    cop-imprf]-rel            kes]-acc        take.away-and threw away.
    threw it away.'
Example #52:

    mantul-]-un             kes]-ul             ppayassa-ase           peliessta.
    make-prf]-rel           kes]-acc            take.away-and          threw away.
    the knife away from her.'
Example #53:

    talli--n        kes-ul          mwul-ul       cwuessta.
    run-prf-rel     kes-acc         water-acc     gave.
    water when she was done with it.'
Example #54:

    talli--n        kes-ul          sang-ul       cwuessta.
    run-prf-rel     kes-acc         prize-acc     gave.
    `Mary ran on the playground ten times and John gave her a prize for that.'
Example #55:

    peli-ess-ta.
    threw.away-pst-decl.
    Intended: `Mary cares for a doll and John threw it away.'
Example #56:

    akki-n]-un                kes]-ul             peli-ess-ta.
    care.for-imprf]-rel       kes]-acc            threw.away-pst-decl.
    `Mary cares for a doll very much and John threw it away.'
Example #57:

    nwuselha-]-n        kes]-ul          cwukyessta.
    reveal-prf]-rel     kes]-acc         killed.
    killed him for that.'
Example #58:

    nwuselha-]-n        kes]-ul          cwukyessta.
    reveal-prf]-rel      kes]-acc         killed.
    him for that.'
Example #59:

    kes-ul            yatanchi-ess-ta.
    kes-acc           scold-pst-decl.
    something else (e.g., for having fought with her younger brother).'
Example #60:

    kes-ul          Bill-kwa       ssawuess-ta-mey           yatanchi-ess-ta.
    kes-acc         B.-acc         fight-decl-comp           scold-pst-decl.
    `Mary was watching television and John scolded her for having fought with Bill.'
Example #61:

    (7)a.   John-un [[totwuk-i        tomangka-n]-un            kes]-ul          capassta.
    J.-top    [[thief-nom run.away-imprf]-rel           kes]-acc         caught.
    `A thief was running away and John caught him.'
Example #62:

    capassta.
    caught.
    running away.'
Example #63:

    (9)     John-un         [[totwuk-i      tomangka-n]-un         kes]-ul         tulessta.
    J.-top          [[thief-nom    run.away-imprf]-rel      kes]-acc       heard.
    `A/the thief was running away and John heard it (= the sound).'
Example #64:

    (10)    John-un         [[totwuk-i      tomangka-n]-un        kes]-ul       alassta.
    J.-top          [[thief-nom     run.away-imprf]-rel   kes]-acc      knew.
    `A/the thief was running away and John knew it (= the fact).'
Example #65:

    (11)    John-un         [[totwuk-i      tomangka-n]-un        soli]-lul     tulessta.
    J.-top          [[thief-nom     run.away-imprf]-rel   sound]-acc    heard.
    `A/the thief was running away and John heard the sound.'
Example #66:

    (12)    John-un         [[totwuk-i      tomangka-n]-un        sasil]-ul     alassta.
    J.-top          [[thief-nom     run.away-imprf]-rel   fact]-acc     knew.
    `A/the thief was running away and John knew the fact.'
Example #67:

    noh--un         kes]-i          epeciessta.
    put-prf-rel     kes]-nom        disappeared.
    `John put a book on the desk and it disappeared'
Example #68:

    chong-ul        ssoassta.
    gun-acc         shot.
    `A thief was running away and John shot at him.'
Example #69:

    meli-lul        sstatumessta.
    hair-acc        patted.
    `A puppy was sleeping and John patted its hair.'
Example #70:

    po-i-ess-ta.
    see-pass-pst-decl.
    `The event of Mary leaving was seen from a distance as well.'
Example #71:

    kes]-ey        chenglyek-ul              ilh-ess-ta.
    kes]-dat       hearing-acc               lose-pst-decl.
    `John lost his hearing from (the sound of) Mary singing loudly every day.'
Example #72:

    kyengkwayha--n          soli
    pleasant-stat-rel       sound
    `the pleasant sound of children jumping and playing on the lawn'
Example #73:

    al-li-e                 ciessta.
    know-caus-comp          became.
    Lit.: `(The fact) that Mary is leaving tomorrow became known to John.'
Example #74:

    nolassta.
    got surprised.
    `John got surprised (by the fact) that Mary is leaving tomorrow.'
Example #75:

    cwungkyek
    shock
    `the shock of the fact that Mary was John's murderer'
Example #76:

    potoha-ess-ta.
    report-pst-decl.
    `John reported that Mary is leaving tomorrow.'
Example #77:

    poto-toy-ess-ta.
    report-pass-pst-decl.
    `It was reported that Mary is leaving tomorrow.'
Example #78:

    (17)a. John-un        Mary-ka       nay-il          ttena-tolok(-*ul)     top-ess-ta.
    J.-Top         M.-nom        tomorrow        leave-comp-(acc)      help-pst-decl.
    `John helped Mary to leave tomorrow.'
Example #79:

    b. Mary-ka         nay-il        ttena-tolok(-*i)       toy-e-iss-ta
    M-nom          tomorrow      leave-comp(-nom)       schedule-pass-exist-decl.
    `Mary is scheduled to leave tomorrow.'
Example #80:

    (18)a. Mary-nun              Bill-uy          swukce-ha-ki-lul             top-ess-ta.
    M.-nom            B.-gen           homework-do-nml-acc          help-pst-decl.
    Lit.: `Mary helped with Billy's doing homework.'
Example #81:

    (19)a. Mary-nun              Bill-uy          swukce-ha-m-ul               top-ess-ta.
    M.-nom            B.-gen           homework-do-nml-acc          help-pst-decl.
    Lit.: `Mary helped with Billy's doing homework.'
Example #82:

    (20)    Mary-nun       sonyen-uy        swukce-ha-(-*un)-ki-lul            towassta.
    M.-nom         boy-gen          homework-do(-*rel)-nml-acc         helped.
    Lit.: `Mary helped with the boy's his homework.'
Example #83:

    (21)    Mary-nun       sonyen-uy        swukce-ha(-*un)-um-ul              towassta.
    M.-nom         boy-gen          homework-do(-*rel)-nml-acc         helped.
    Lit.: `Mary helped with the boy's his homework.'
Example #84:

    al-ess-ta.
    know-pst-decl.
    `A/the thief was running away and John knew it.'
Example #85:

    cap-ess-ta.
    catch-pst-decl.
    `A/the thief was running away and John caught him.'
Example #86:

    ilkessta.
    read.
    Not: `John is reading a book right now and Mary read it some time in the past.'
Example #87:

    wilo-ha-ess-ta
    comfort-do-pst-decl
    `John comforted Mary when she was crying.'
Example #88:

    noh--un          kes-ul       cipetul-ess-ta.
    aux-prf-rel      kes-acc      pick.up-pst-decl.
    `Mary put an apple on the table and John picked it up when it was on the table.'
Example #89:

    epeci-ess-ta.
    disappear-pst-decl.
    `The book disappeared when it was in the state of being in the book case.'
Example #90:

    machwuchi-ess-ta.
    run.into-pst-decl.
    Lit.: `John got faced with the thief when he (= the thief) was running away.'
Example #91:

    ppwuli-ess-ta.
    spray-pst-decl.
    `John sprayed chilli powder at the thief when he (= the thief) was running away.
Example #92:

    meli-lul          ssutatum-ess-ta.
    hair-acc          pat-pst-decl.
    `John patted the puppy's hair when it (= the puppy) was sleeping.'
Example #93:

    (35)a. John-un              [totwuk-i       tomangka-nun              kes]-ul              cap-ess-ta.
    J.-top           [thief-nom      run.away.-rel.imprf       kes]-acc             catch-pst-decl.
    `A thief was running away and John caught him.'
Example #94:

    cap-hi-ess-ta.
    catch-pass-pst-decl.
    `A thief was running away and he got caught by John.'
Example #95:

    heymayi-ko       iss-nun         kes]-ul          palkyen-ha-ess-ta.
    wander-comp cop-rel.imprf kes]-acc                discover-do-pst-decl.
    `A puppy was wandering on the street and John found it in that state.'
Example #96:

    (i)       John-un       Mary-lul         phal-ul         kancilephi-ess-ta.
    J.-top        M.-acc           arm-acc         tickle-pst-decl.
    `John tickled Mary on the arm.'
Example #97:

    (ii)      Mary-nun phal-i               John-ekey        kancilephie-ci-ess-ta.
    M.-top      arm-nom           J.-dat           tickle-pass-pst-decl.
    `Mary had her arm tickled by John.'
Example #98:

    heymayi-te-n            kes]-i          John-ekey       palkyen-toy-ess-ta.
    wander-ret-rel.prf      kes]-nom        J.-dat          discover-pass-pst-decl.
    `A puppy was wandering on the street and it got discovered by John in that state
Example #99:

    kes-ul            yatanchi-ess-ta.
    kes-acc           scold-pst-decl.
    something else (e.g., for having fought with her younger brother).'
Example #100:

    kes]-ul         capassta.
    kes]-acc        caught.
    Reading 3: `A cat was chasing a mouse and Jinho caught the mouse and the cat.'
Example #101:

    iss-n-un        kes-ul          cheyphohayssta.
    cop-imprf-rel kes-acc           arrested.
    But not: `Bill was introducing John to Sam and the police caught two of them.'
Example #102:

    mantul-n]-un               kes]-ul             ppayassa-ase             peliessta.
    make-imprf]-rel            kes]-acc          take.away-and              threw away.
    and threw it away.'
Example #103:

    twu-]-n        kes]-o          phathi-ey       kaci-e          ka-ss-ni?
    aux-prf]-rel   kes]-acc        party-to        bring-conj      go-pst-Q?
    `What is such that Mila put it in the refrigerator and Jinho took it to the part
Example #104:

    an-h-ess-ta.
    neg-do-pst-decl.
    `But, in fact, Mila didn't make bread.'
Example #105:

    an-h-ess-ta.
    neg-do-pst-decl.
    `But, in fact, Mila didn't make bread.'
Example #106:

    an-h-ess-ta.
    neg-do-pst-decl.
    `A/the thief was running away and Jinho didn't catch him.'
Example #107:

    (44)    Jinho-ka        [[totwuk-i       tomangka-n]-un        kes]-ul            cap-ess-ni?
    J.-nom          [[thief-nom      run.away-imprf]-rel   kes]-acc           catch-pst-Q
    `Did John catch the thief running away?'
Example #108:

    an-h-ess-ta.
    neg-do-pst-decl.
    `But, in fact, Mila didn't make bread.'
Example #109:

    an-h-ess-ta.
    neg-do-pst-decl.
    `But, in fact, Mila didn't make bread.'
Example #110:

    (49)       John-un           [[totwuk-i        tomangka-n]-un        kes]-ul         capessta.
    J.-top            [[thief-nom       run.away-imprf]-rel   kes]-acc        caught.
    `A/the thief was running away and John caught him.'
Example #111:

    (50)    John-un         [[totwuk-i    tomangka-n]-un         kes]-ul       tulessta.
    J.-top          [[thief-nom   run.away-imprf]-rel    kes]-acc      heard.
    `A/the thief was running away and John heard it (= the sound).'
Example #112:

    (51)    John-un         totwuk-i       tomangka-n-un        kes-ul        tulessta.
    J.-top          thief-nom      run.away-imprf-rel   kes-acc       heard.
    `A/the thief was running away and John heard it.'
Example #113:

    #Kulentey,       sashil-un      totwuk-i      tomangka-ci          anhassta
    But,            fact-top       thief-nom     run.away-ci          did.not.
    `But in fact, the thief didn't run away.'
Example #114:

    (52)    John-un [[totwuk-i tomangka-n(*-ta)-nun             kes-ul]       capessta.
    J.-top      [[thief-nom run.away-imprf(-ind)-rel    kes-acc]      caught.
    `A/the thief was running away and John caught him.'
Example #115:

    (53)    John-un [[totwuk-i tomangka-n(*-ta)-nun             kes-ul]       tulessta.
    J.-top      [[thief-nom run.away-imprf(-ind)-rel    kes-acc]      heard.
    `A/the thief was running away and John heard it.'
Example #116:

    (54)    John-un [[totwuk-i tomangka-n(-ta)-nun                        kes-ul]           alassta.
    J.-top      [[thief-nom run.away-imprf(-ind)-rel              kes-acc]          knew.
    `A/the thief was running away and John knew it.'
Example #117:

    Jinho-nun        [[ai-ka       wul-n]-un        kes]-ul           tallay-ess-ta.
    J.-top           [[child-nom   cry-imprf]-rel kes]-acc            comfort-pst-decl.
    `Jinho comforted a/the child while she (= the child) was crying.'
Example #118:

    ponay-]-n        kes]-ul       onul(-ey-ya)               pat-ess-ta.
    send-prf]-rel kes]-acc         today(-loc-foc)            receive-pst-decl.
    `Although Mila sent a book two months ago, Jinho received it (only) today.'