ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Jeffrey Lidz (2001). THE ARGUMENT STRUCTURE OF VERBAL REFLEXIVES.

URL: http://www.ling.nwu.edu/~lidz/vrmpub.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 187&langcode=kan (2019-07-15).

 

Example #1:

    (1)     a.      hari tann-annu hogaL-i-koND-a
    Hari self-ACC praise-PP-REFL.PST-3      SM
    Hari praised himself.
Example #2:

    b.   * hari rashmi-yannu hogaL-i-koND-a
    Hari Rashmi-ACC praise-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari praised Rashmi.
Example #3:

    c.   * hari tann-annu hogaL-id-a
    Hari self-ACC praise-PST-3     SM
    Hari praised himself.
Example #4:

    d.      hari rashmi-yannu hogaL-id-a
    Hari Rashmi-ACC praise-PST-3       SM
    Hari praised Rashmi.
Example #5:

    (2)     a.      baagil-u muchi-tu
    door-NOM close-PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #6:

    b.      baagil-u muchi-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #7:

    c.      hari baagil-annu much-id-a
    Hari door-ACC     close-PST-3   SM
    Hari closed the door.
Example #8:

    d.    * hari baagil-annu much-i-koND-a
    Hari door-ACC close-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari closed the door.
Example #9:

    (3)     a.      hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-d-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       open-PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #10:

    b.      hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       open -PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #11:

    c.      hari rashmiy-a kannu-gaL-annu tere-d-a
    Hari rashmi-GEN eye-PL-ACC     open -PST-3        SM
    Hari opened Rashmi's eyes.
Example #12:

    d.    * hari rashmiy-a kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari Rashmi-GEN eye-PL-ACC     open -PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened Rashmi's eyes.
Example #13:

    (4)     a.      rashmi-ge tannu ishta-aada
    Rashmi-DAT self-NOM liking-becomes
    Rashmi likes herself.
Example #14:

    (5)     a.      hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #15:

    b.      baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #16:

    (6)     a.          raaju      tann-a angiy-annu hari-d-a
    Raaju-NOM self-GEN shirt-ACC tear-PST-3SM
    Raaju tore his shirt.
Example #17:

    b.          raaju      tann-a angiy-annu hari-du-koND-a
    Raaju-NOM self-GEN shirt-ACC tear-PP-REFL-PST-3SM
    Raaju got his shirt torn.
Example #18:

    c.          raaju      hariy-a angiy-annu hari-d-a
    Raaju-NOM Hari-GEN shirt-ACC tear-PST-3   SM
    Raaju tore Hari's shirt.
Example #19:

    d.    * raaju      hariy-a angiy-annu hari-du-koND-a
    Raaju-NOM Hari-GEN shirt-ACC tear-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Raaju tore Hari's shirt.7
Example #20:

    (7)      a.      hari-yu tann-a kal-annu mur-id-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN leg-ACC break-PST-3SM
    Hari broke his leg (accidentally).
Example #21:

    b.      hari-yu tann-a kal-annu mur-idu-koND-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN leg-ACC break-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari broke his leg (deliberately).
Example #22:

    (8)      a.      hari-yu tann-a tale-yannu eTT-id-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN head-ACC lift-PST-3SM
    Hari lifted his head.
Example #23:

    b.      hari-yu      tann-a tale-yannu eTT-i-koND-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN head-ACC lift-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari lifted his head.
Example #24:

    (9)      a.      hari-yu kannu-gaL-annu tere-d-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC     open-PST-3       SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #25:

    b.      hari-yu kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC    open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #26:

    (10)    a.   # hari-yu tann-a kal-annu kooli-ninda mur-id-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN leg-ACC stick-INSTR break-PST-3SM
    Hari broke his leg with a stick.
Example #27:

    b.      hari-yu tann-a kal-annu kooli-ninda mur-idu-koND-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN leg-ACC stick-INSTR break-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari broke his leg with a stick.
Example #28:

    (11)   a.   # hari-yu tann-a tale-yannu kai-gaL-inda eTT-id-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN head-ACC hand-PL-INSTR lift-PST-3SM
    Hari lifted his head with his hands.
Example #29:

    b.      hari-yu tann-a tale-yannu kai-gaL-inda eTT-i-koND-a
    Hari-NOM self-GEN head-ACC hand-PL-INSTR lift-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari lifted his head with his hands.
Example #30:

    (12)   a.   # hari-yu kannu-gaL-annu kai-gaL-inda tere-d-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC         hand-PL-INSTR open-PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes with his hands.
Example #31:

    b.      hari-yu kannu-gaL-annu kai-gaL-inda tere-du-koND-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC        hand-PL-INSTR open-PP-REFL.PST-3       SM
    Hari opened his eyes with his hands.
Example #32:

    (13)   a.      raaju      tann-a angiy-annu kai-gaL-inda hari-d-a
    Raaju-NOM self-GEN shirt-ACC hand-PL-INSTR tear-PST-3SM
    Raaju tore his shirt with his hands.
Example #33:

    b.    # raaju      tann-a angiy-annu kai-gaL-inda hari-du-koND-a
    Raaju-NOM self-GEN shirt-ACC hand-PL-INSTR tear-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Raaju got his shirt torn with his hands.
Example #34:

    (14)   Rashmi baagil-annu kai-gaL-inda much-id-aLu
    Rashmi door-ACC hand-PL-INSTR close-PST-3SF
    Rashmi closed the door with her hands.
Example #35:

    (16)    a.      naan-u baagil-annu much-i-de
    I-NOM door-ACC close-PST-1S
    I closed the door.
Example #36:

    c.      baagil-u much-i-tu
    door-NOM close-PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #37:

    d.      baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #38:

    (17)    a.      divya-la celuv-ige divaakara          mana soot-a
    Divya-GEN beauty-DAT Divakara-NOM mind lose.PST-3SM
    Divakara lost his mind because of Divya's beauty.
Example #39:

    b.      caL-ige avan-ige jvara         bant-u
    cold-DAT he-DAT fever-NOM come-PST-3SN
    He got a fever because of the cold.
Example #40:

    (18)    a.      gaaL-ige baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    wind-DAT door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed because of the wind.
Example #41:

    (19) * raaju      hari-ya kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Raaju-NOM Hari-GEN eye-PL-ACC      open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Raaju opened Hari's eyes.
Example #42:

    (20) * aaghaata-dinda raaju hariy-annu hoDe-du-koND-a
    accident-INSTR Raaju Hari-ACC hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Raaju accidentally hit Hari.
Example #43:

    (28)     baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed. (externally caused)
Example #44:

    (29)     hari bagil-annu much-id-a
    Hari door-ACC close-PST-3SM
    Hari closed the door.
Example #45:

    (18)    a.       gaaL-ige baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    wind-DAT door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed because of the wind.
Example #46:

    (34)   hari-yu kannu-gal-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC         open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes (with some instrument).
Example #47:

    (37)    hari     kannu-gaL-annu tere-d-a
    Hari-NOM eye-PL-ACC      open-PST-3            SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #48:

    (39)    a.      hari tanna naaligey-annu chaach-id-a
    Hari self-GEN tongue-ACC   stick.out-PST-3SM
    Hari stuck out his tongue.
Example #49:

    b.      hari tanna naaligey-annu chaach-i-koND-a
    Hari self-GEN tongue-ACC stick.out-PP-REFL.      PST-3SM
    Hari stuck out his tongue.
Example #50:

    (40)    a.      hari-yu (tann-annu) hoDe-du-koNDa
    Hari-NOM (self-ACC) hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari hit himself.
Example #51:

    (42)    a.      rashmi-ge hari     ishta-aad-a
    Rashmi-DAT Hari-NOM liking-become.NPST-3SM
    Rashmi likes Hari.
Example #52:

    b.      rashmi-ge tannu ishta-aad-a
    Rashmi-DAT self-NOM liking-become.NPST-3SM
    Rashmi likes herself.
Example #53:

    45) ?? Hari tann-annu priitisu-koLL-utt-aane
    Hari self-ACC love-REFL-NPST-3SM
    Hari loves himself.
Example #54:

    (46)    Hari mattu Rashmi priitisu-koLL-utt-aare
    Hari and Rashmi love-REFL-NPST-3PL
    Hari and Rashmi love each other.
Example #55:

    (47)    a.      Hari tann-annu mechi-koLL-utt-aane
    Hari self-ACC like-REFL-NPST-3SM
    Hari likes himself.
Example #56:

    b.      Rashmi tann-annu hachi-koLL-utt-aaLe
    Rashmi self-ACC be.fond.of-REFL-NPST-3SF
    Rashmi is fond of herself.
Example #57:

    (48)     a.       avan-u beva-t-a
    he-NOM sweat-PST-3SM
    He sweated.
Example #58:

    b.       avan-ige beva-t-itu
    he-DAT sweat-PST-3SN
    He sweated.
Example #59:

    (49)     a.       avan-u beva-tu-koND-a
    he-NOM sweat-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    He sweated.
Example #60:

    (50)     rashmi awan-age-taane hari-yannu tooris-id-aLu
    Rashmi he-DAT-self    Hari-ACC show-PST-3SF
    Rashmi showed Hari to himself.
Example #61:

    (53)    a.          hari santooshaag-iruw-aage kaNis-utt-aane
    Hari happy-be-PRED          seem-PRES-3SM
    Hari seems to be happy.
Example #62:

    b.          hari tan-age santooshaag-iruw-aage kaNis-utt-aane
    Hari self-DAT happy-be-PRED        seem-PRES-3SM
    Hari seems to himself to be happy.
Example #63:

    b.     * hari tan-age santooshaag-iruw-aage kaNis-koLL-utt-aane
    Hari self-DAT happy-be-PRED        seem-REFL-PST-3SM
    Hari seems to himself to be happy
Example #64:

    (55)      (a) * hari taanu     rashmiy-annu hoDe-du-koND-a anta heeL-id-a
    Hari self-NOM Rashmi-ACC hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM that say-PST-3       SM
    Hari said that he hit Rashmi.
Example #65:

    (b) * hari tannu rashmi-yannu hoDe-d-a anta heeL-idu-koND-a
    Hari self-NOM Rashmi-ACC hit-PST-3SM that say-PP-REFL.PST-3       SM
    Hari said that he hit Rashmi.
Example #66:

    (c)    hari tannu rashmi-yannu hoDe-d-a anta heeL-id-a
    Hari self-NOM Rashmi-ACC hit-PST-3SM that say-PST-3SM
    Hari said that he hit Rashmi.
Example #67:

    (56)   a.      baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #68:

    b.      baagil-u much-i-tu
    door-NOM close-PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #69:

    (57)   a.      gaal-ige baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    wind-DAT door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    Because of the wind, the door closed.
Example #70:

    b.    * gaal-ige baagil-u much-i-tu
    wind-DAT door-NOM close-PST-3SN
    Because of the wind, the door closed.
Example #71:

    (60)    hari (tann-annu) hoDe-du-koND-a
    Hari (self-ACC) hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari hit himself.
Example #72:

    (61)     a.      hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-d-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       open-PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #73:

    b.      hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari eye-pl-ACC       open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #74:

    (62)    a.    * hari kannu-gaL-annu kai-gaL-inda tere-d-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       hand-PL-INSTR open-PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes with his hands.
Example #75:

    b.      hari kannu-gaL-annu kai-gaL-inda tere-du-koND-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC      hand-PL-INSTR open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes with his hands.
Example #76:

    (63)    hari (tan-age) pustaka-vannu koTTu-koND-a
    Hari (self-DAT) book-ACC    give.PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari gave himself a book.
Example #77:

    (64)    hari (*tan-age) kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari (*self-DAT) eye-PL-ACC   open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #78:

    (73)    a.       hari hoDe-du-koND-a
    Hari hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari hit himself.
Example #79:

    c.        hari tann-annu hoDe-du-koND-a
    Hari self-ACC hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari hit himself.
Example #80:

    (75)     a.     hari tann-annu hogaL-i-koND-a
    Hari self-ACC praise-PP-REFL.PST-3    SM
    Hari praised himself.
Example #81:

    b.     baagil-u much-i-koND-itu
    door-NOM close-PP-REFL.PST-3SN
    The door closed.
Example #82:

    c.     hari kannu-gaL-annu tere-du-koND-a
    Hari eye-PL-ACC       open-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    Hari opened his eyes.
Example #83:

    (i)      a.        Hari tann-annu mattu tann-a hendatiy-annu hoDe-d-a
    Hari self-ACC and self-GEN wife-ACC             hit-PST-3SM
    `Hari hit himself and his wife.'
Example #84:

    b.       Hari pustakavannu tann-a hindee nooD-id-a
    Hari book-ACC self-GEN behind see-PST-3SM
    `Hari saw the book behind him(self).'
Example #85:

    (i)       avar-u obbar-annu-obbaru            hoDe-d-a
    they-NOM someone-ACC-someone hit-PST-3SM
    'They hit each other.'
Example #86:

    (ii)     avar-u obbar-annu-obbaru            hoDe-du-koND-a
    they-NOM someone-ACC-someone hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    'They hit each other.'
Example #87:

    (iii)   Hari tann-annu-taane hoDe-d-a
    Hari self-ACC-self       hit-PST-3SM
    'Hari hit himself.'
Example #88:

    (iv)       Hari tann-annu-taane hoDe-du-koND-a
    Hari self-ACC-self hit-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    'Hari hit himself.'
Example #89:

    (i)       Hari tanna naaligey-annu chaach-i-(koND)-a
    hari self-GEN tongue-ACC stick.out-PP-REFL.PST-3SM
    'hari stuck out his tongue'
Example #90:

    (i)       rashmi tan-age-taane hariy-annu paricaya-maaDi-koND-aLu
    Rashmi self-DAT-self Hari-ACC introduction-do-REFL.PST-3SF
    'Rashmi introduced Hari to herself.'
Example #91:

    (i)      moegikaazi *(nungungu) matham-ay-dhin
    child-ABS *(self-ELATIVE) hit-INTRANS-PST
    'The child hit himself'