ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

PYLKKÄNEN, LIINA (2002). INTRODUCING ARGUMENTS.

URL: http://semlab1.sbs.sunysb.edu/Users/fmar/egg_2005/pylkkanen_2002_ch2.pdf

(Last accessed 2006-02-11).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2134&langcode=jpn (2018-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    Taroo-ga Hanako-ni          tegami-o kaita.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT letter-ACC wrote
    `Taro wrote Hanako a letter'
Example #2:

    *Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni hasitta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT run-PAST
    `Taro ran for Hanako'
Example #3:

    *Taroo-ga Hanako-ni        kanojo -no kaban-o      motta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT she -GEN bag-ACC               held
    `Taro held Hanako her bag'
Example #4:

    Taroo-ga katuo-o              nama -de    tabe -ta
    Taro-NOM bonito-ACC           raw         eat-PAST
    `Taro ate the bonito raw'
Example #5:

    Taroo-ga ie -o          hadaka -de nut-ta.
    Taro-NOM house-ACC naked           paint-PAST
    `Taro painted the house naked'
Example #6:

    *Kono- ie -ga      hadaka -de nur-are-ta
    this-house-NOM naked           paint-PASS-PAST
    `This house was painted naked'
Example #7:

    *Tarooga Hanako-kara kimono -sugata -de ringo-o           morat-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-from kimono-dressed            apple -ACC receive -PAST
    `Taro received an apple from Hanako dressed in a kimono'
Example #8:

    a. Taroo-ga hadaka -de Hanako-ni         hon-o         yonda
    Taro-NOM naked         Hanako-DAT book-ACC read
    `Taro read Hanako a book naked' False if Taro isn't naked
Example #9:

    b. Taroo-ga Hanako-ni        hadaka -de hon-o           yonda
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT naked              book-ACC read
    `Taro read Hanako a book naked' Fals e if Taro isn't naked
Example #10:

    Heya -ga       (dorobou-ni-yotte) aras-are -ta
    room-NOM       thief-BY             destroy-PASS-PAST
    'The room was destroyed (by the thief)'
Example #11:

    Taro-ga    dorobou-ni heya -o      aras-are -ta
    Taro-NOM thief-DAT room-ACC destroy-PASS-PAST
    'Taro's room got destroyed on him by the thief'
Example #12:

    Hanako-ga      dorobo-ni yubiwa-o to-rare-ta.
    Hanako-NOM thief-DAT ring-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was affected by the thief stealing her ring'
Example #13:

    Taro-ga     Hanako-ni       shinkoushukyoo-o hajime -rare-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT new religion-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was adversely affected by Hanako starting a new religion on him'
Example #14:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni       Martin Luther King-o       tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-DAT Martin Luther King-ACC rescue -PASS-PAST
    `Kennedy rescued Martin Luther King to Nixon's detriment'
Example #15:

    *Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni-yotte Martin Luther King-o             ta suke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-BY           Martin Luther King-ACC rescue -PASS-PAST
    `Martin Luther King was rescued by Kennedy to Nixon's detriment'
Example #16:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni/ni-yotte      inochi-o    tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-DAT/BY          life-ACC save -PASS-PAST
    `Nixon had Kennedy save his life'
Example #17:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni-yotte inochi-o           tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-BY           life-ACC      save -PASS-PAST
    `Nixon had Kennedy save his life'
Example #18:

    Sono daishujutsu-ga         (Yamada ishi-n iyotte) shittoo-o          kaishis -are-ta
    that    big.operation-NOM Yamada -by                performance-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    `That big operation had Dr. Yamada start its performance'      (Kubo 1992: ex. 2
Example #19:

    *Iwa-ga         ame -ni        fu-rare-ta
    rock-NOM rain-DAT fall-PASS-PAST
    `The rock had rain fall on it'                                   (Kubo 1992: ex.
Example #20:

    Hanako-ga      dorobo-ni yubiwa-o to-rare-ta.
    Hanako-NOM thief-DAT ring-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was affected by the thief stealing her ring'
Example #21:

    Taro-ga     Hanako-ni       shinkoushukyoo-o hajime -rare-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT new religion-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was adversely affected by Hanako starting a new religion him'
Example #22:

    ??Chiimu-ga coochi-ni             nak-are-ta
    team-NOM        coach-dat         cry-PASS-PST
    'The team was a ffected by it's coach crying'
Example #23:

    Taro-ga          coochi-ni  nak-are-ta
    Taro-NOM         coach-dat  cry-PASS-PST
    'Taro's coach cried on him'
Example #24:

    *Taro-ga Jiro-ni- yotte      sara-o            mot-are-ta
    Taro-NOM Jiro-BY             plates-ACC        hold-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Jiro holding the plates'
Example #25:

    Taro-ga     Jiro-ni      sara-o          mot-are-ta
    Taro-NOM Jiro-DAT plates-ACC             hold-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Jiro holding the plates'
Example #26:

    Taroo-ga ame -ni     hur-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM rain-DAT fall-PASS-PAST
    `Taro got rained on'
Example #27:

    *Taroo -ga hadaka-de ame -ni       hur-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM naked             rain-DAT fall-P ASS-PAST
    `Taro got rained on naked '
Example #28:

    Taroo-ga ie -o          hadaka -de nutta.
    Taro-NOM house-ACC naked           painted
    `Taro painted the house naked'
Example #29:

    Musume -wa dorobou-ni-yotte hairpin-o                   tor-are-ta.
    girl-TOP         thief-BY              hairpin-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    `The girl was affected by the thief stealing her hairpin'
Example #30:

    *Musume -wa kimono -sugata -de dorobou-ni-yotte hairpin-o                   tor-are-ta.
    girl-TOP         kimono-dress          thief-BY            hairpin-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    `The girl was affected by the thief stealing her hairpin while she was dressed i
Example #31:

    Hanako-ga      kimono-sugata -de mir-are-ta
    Hanako-NOM dressed-in-kimono see-PASS-PAST
    `Hanako was seen in a kimono'
Example #32:

    Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni        waraw -are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT laugh-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by Hanako's laughing'
Example #33:

    Hanako-    ga    wazato      warat-ta.
    Hanako-    NOM on.purpose laugh-PAST
    `Hanako    laughed on purpose'
Example #34:

    *Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni        wazato         waraw -are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT on.purpose                laugh-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by Hanako's laughing on purpose'
Example #35:

    Tarooi -wa Hanakoj -o       zibuni/*j -no kuruma -kara or-osi-ta.
    Taro-TOP Hanako-ACC self -GEN car-FROM                 get.out-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taroo cause Hanako to get out of his car'
Example #36:

    Tarooi -wa Hanakoj -o       zibuni/j -no kuruma -kara ori-sase-ta.
    Taro-TOP Hanako-ACC self -GEN car-FROM                get.out-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taroo cause Hanako to get out of his/her car'
Example #37:

    Tarooi -ga Hanakoj -ni     zibuni/j -no heya -de   hirunes-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT self -GEN heya -IN             nap-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Hanako napping in his/her room'
Example #38:

    Tarooi -ga Hanakoj -ni     zibuni/*j -no heya -de      mi-rare-ta.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT self -GEN heya -IN                 see-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was seen by Hanako in his/*her room'
Example #39:

    Hanakoi -no      zibuni -no heya -de-no hirune
    Hanako-GEN self -GEN room-IN-GEN nap.NOM
    'Hanakoi 's nap in heri room'
Example #40:

    *Hanako-no      zibun-no heya -de-no   wazato hirune
    Hanako-GEN self -GEN room-IN-GEN on.purpose nap.NOM
    '*Hanako's nap in her room on purpose'
Example #41:

    Hanako-    ga     zibun-no heya -de        wazato hirunesi-ta.
    Hanako-    NOM self -GEN room-IN on.purpose nap-PAST
    'Hanako    nappe d in her room on purpose'