ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

David Y. Oshima (2004). Logophoricity, Empathy and De Se Interpretation.

URL: http://www.stanford.edu/~davidyo/docs/led.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2372&langcode=jpn (2018-10-20).

 

Example #1:

    (1) Maxi wa zibuni o nagut-ta.
    Maxi Top selfi Acc hit-Past
    `Maxi hit himselfi .'
Example #2:

    (2) Maxi wa zibuni ga yuusyuu-da         to   omotte-i-ru.
    Maxi Top selfi Nom talented-b e:Pres Comp b elieve-Asp-Pres
    `Maxi b elieves hei is talented.'
Example #3:

    (3) Maxi wa Patj ga zibuni/j o nagut-ta to      it-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Nom selfi/j Acc hit-Past Comp say-Past
    `Maxi said Patj hit himi/j .'
Example #4:

    (4) Maxi wa [zibuni ga yuukan-da        to]   omotte-i-ru.
    Maxi Top [selfi Nom heroic-b e:Pres Comp] b elieve-Asp-Pres
    `Maxi b elieves hei is heroic.'
Example #5:

    (5) Taroi wa [Takashi kara Yoshiko ga zibuni o nikunde-i-ru to]            kii-ta.
    Taroi Top [Takashi from Yoshiko Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Past Comp] hear-Past
    `Taro heard from Takashii that Yoshiko hated himi .' (Sells (1987, p.454))
Example #6:

    utinomesi-ta.
    b eat-Past
    `That Alice hated himi depressed Maxi .'
Example #7:

    nurete-simat-ta.
    get wet-end up-Past
    `Takashii got wet b ecause Yoshiko spilled water on himi .' (Sells (1987, p.455)
Example #8:

    (8) Maxi wa Alice ga zibuni ni kasi-ta          okane o tukatte-simat-ta.
    Maxi Top Alice Nom selfi Dat lend-Past money Acc sp end-end up-Past
    `Maxi has sp ent all money that Alice lent to himi .'
Example #9:

    (i) a. Takashii wa Yoshiko ga zibuni o tazunete-ki -ta node       uresigat-ta.
    Takashii Top Yoshiko Nom selfi Acc visit-come-Past because happy-Past
    `Takashii was happy because Yoshiko came to visit himi .'
Example #10:

    b. *Takashii wa Yoshiko ga zibuni o tazunete-it -ta node      uresigat-ta.
    Takashii Top Yoshiko Nom selfi Acc visit-go-Past because happy-Past
    `Takashii was happy because Yoshiko went to visit himi .'
Example #11:

    (13) a. Boku wa Taro ni okane o yat-ta.
    I     Top Taro Dat money Acc give-Past
    `I gave money to Taro.'
Example #12:

    yat -ta.
    give-Past
    `Taro gave money to Hanako b ecause Hanako gave him a b o ok.'
Example #13:

    tukatte-sima-ta.
    sp ending-end up-Past
    `Taro has sp ent all the money that Hanako had lent to him.'
Example #14:

    (18) a. Max wa Pat o nagut-ta.
    Max Top Pat Acc hit-Past
    `Max hit Pat.'
Example #15:

    b. ?Max wa Pat o nagutte-yat -ta.
    Max Top Pat Acc hit-give-Past
    `Max hit Pat for his sake.'
Example #16:

    c. ?Max wa Pat o nagutte-kure -ta.
    Max Top Pat Acc hit-give-Past
    `Max hit Pat for his sake.'
Example #17:

    (20) a.*Max wa b oku o tasukete-yat -ta.
    Max Top I      Acc help-give-Past
    `Max help ed me (for my sake).'
Example #18:

    (21) a.*Max wa b oku ni hon o kasite-yat -ta.
    Max Top I     Dat book Acc help-give-Past
    `Max lent me a b o ok (for my sake).'
Example #19:

    (23) a. Max wa b oku o Alice ni yat-ta.
    Max Top I     Acc Alice Dat give-Past
    `Max gave me to Alice.'
Example #20:

    yuusyuu-da         to     wa           omotte-i-na-i.
    talented-b e:Pres Comp Contrastive b elieve-Asp-Neg-Pres
    `Taroi b elieves that hei is talented, but hei do es not b elieve hei is talente
Example #21:

    wariatete-{yat-ta/kure-ta}.
    assign-give-Past
    `Maxi assigned himselfi to Alice as a p ortrait mo del.'
Example #22:

    b. Maxi wa Alice no-tame-ni zibuni o gisei-ni-site-{yat-ta/kure-ta}.
    Maxi Top Alice for           selfi Acc sacrifice-give-Past
    `Maxi sacrificed himselfi for Alice.'
Example #23:

    kekkyoku kizuka-nakat-ta.
    after all realize-Neg-Past
    `Taroi carelessly sent a letter to himselfi , and never noticed it.'
Example #24:

    (36) a. Takashii wa Taro ni [Yoshiko ga zibuni o nikunde-i-ru to]        it-ta.
    Takashii Top Taro Dat [Yoshiko Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] say-Past
    `Takashii told Taro that Yoshiko hated himi .'
Example #25:

    b. Taro wa Takashii kara [Yoshiko ga zibuni o nikunde-i-ru to]       kii-ta.
    Taro Top Takashii from [Yoshiko Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] hear-Past
    `Taro heard from Takashii that Yoshiko hated himi .'
Example #26:

    (37) Maryi wa John ni zibuni no ie         de koros-are-ta.
    Maryi Top John by selfi Gen house in kill-Pass-Past
    `Maryi was killed by John in heri house.'
Example #27:

    (i) Miyukii wa [Yoichi ga kanozyoi no titioya o kiratte-i-ru          to] omotte-i-ru.
    Miyuki Top [Yoichi Nom she         Gen father Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] believe-Asp-Pres
    `Miyukii thinks that Yoichi hates heri father.' (Abe (1992, p.8))
Example #28:

    (i) Taroi wa baka-no/itosii Yoshiko ni zibuni no musuko o syookai-si-ta.
    Taroi Top fool     beloved Yoshiko Dat selfi Gen son      Acc introduce-Past
    `Taroi introduced hisi son to that fool/beloved Yoshiko.'
Example #29:

    b. Maxi wa Alice/b oku no-tame-ni zibuni o gisei-ni-site-kure -ta.
    Maxi Top Alice I      for          selfi Acc sacrifice-give-Past
    `Maxi sacrificed himselfi for Alice/me.'
Example #30:

    (i) Masaoi wa zibuni no ie        de Miyuki o motenasite-kure -ta
    Masaoi Top selfi Gen house in Miyuki Acc treat-give-Past
    `Masaoi treated Miyuki in hisi house.'
Example #31:

    c.*Karerai wa [Bill ga otagaii        o nikunde-i-ru to]   omotte-i-ru.
    theyi Top [Bill Nom each otheri Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] think-Asp-Pres
    `Theyi think that Bill hates each otheri .'
Example #32:

    (48) a. Miyukii wa [zibuni ga hannin-da           to]  omotte-i-ru.
    Miyukii Top [selfi Nom criminal-b e:Pres Comp] think-Asp-Pres
    `Miyukii thinks that shei is a criminal.'
Example #33:

    c. Miyukii wa [Yoichi ga zibuni o nikunde-i-ru to]       omotte-i-ru.
    Miyukii Top [Yoichi Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] think-Asp-Pres
    `Miyukii thinks that Yoichi hates heri .'
Example #34:

    d. Miyukii wa [Yoichi ga zibuni no titioya o nikunde-i-ru to]       omotte-i-ru.
    Miyukii Top [Yoichi Nom selfi Gen father Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] think-Asp-Pres
    `Miyukii thinks that Yoichi hates heri father.'
Example #35:

    nusunde-simat-ta.
    steal-end up-Past
    `Masaoi has stolen all the money that hei had lent to my sister.'
Example #36:

    nusunde-simat-ta.
    steal-end up-Past
    `Masaoi has stolen all the money that hei had lent to my sister.'
Example #37:

    nusunde-simat-ta.
    steal-end up-Past
    `Masaoi has stolen all the money that hei had lent to Hanako.'
Example #38:

    (54) Max wa Alicei kara [zibuni ga yuusyo o-si-ta                to] kii-ta.
    Max Top Alicei from [selfi Nom win-Past the championship Comp] hear-Past
    `Max heard from Alicei that shei had won the championship.'
Example #39:

    o sir-as-are-ta.
    Acc know-Caus-Pass-Past
    `Taroi was informed by Ziroj that there is a man who lo oks just like himi/j .'
Example #40:

    b. Johni ga Maryj ni [zibuni/j no siken no kekka] o tuge-rare-ta.
    Johni Nom Maryj by [zibuni/j Gen exam Gen result] Acc inform-Pass-Past
    `Johni was informed by Maryj of the result of hisi /herj exam.'
Example #41:

    e oiyat-ta.
    to drive-Past
    `The evaluation that shei has cancer drove Michikoi to desp eration.'
Example #42:

    a. Billi wa Johnj kara [zibuni/j ga kat-ta      koto] o kii-ta.
    Billi Top Johnj from [selfi/j Nom win-Past Comp] Acc hear-Past
    `Billi heard from Johnj that hei/j had won.'
Example #43:

    kii-ta.
    hear-Past
    `Billi heard from Johnj that Maryk hated himi/j /herselfk .'
Example #44:

    (59)*Max wa Alicei o zibuni ni suisen-si-ta.
    Max Top Alicei Acc selfi Dat recommend-Past
    `Max recommended Alicei to herselfi .'
Example #45:

    (60)*Max wa Pati o zibuni no ie       de tatai-ta.
    Max Top Pati Acc selfi Gen house in hit-Past
    `Max hit Pati in hisi house.'
Example #46:

    (61)*Max wa Pati ni [Alice ga zibuni o kiratte-i-ru      to]   it-ta.
    Max Top Pati Dat [Alice Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] say-Past
    `Max told Pati that Alice hated himi .'
Example #47:

    urande-i-ru.
    resent-Asp-Pres
    `Taroi still resents that I hit himi .'
Example #48:

    nakusite-simat-ta rasi-i.
    lose-end up-Past seem-Pres
    `Taroi seems to have lost the money I lent to himi .'
Example #49:

    omotte-i-ru.
    think-Asp-Pres
    `Maxi believes that that fool/beloved Alice lent himi the textbook.'
Example #50:

    kure -ta.
    give-Past
    `Then, I came out of the house and gave her a candy.'
Example #51:

    kakete-yat -ta.
    put on-give-Past
    `The chief of elves went forward and put a garland on me.'
Example #52:

    *Maxi wa [zibuni ga Alice/Mary ni syo okai-site-kure ta] hito o nagut-ta.
    Maxi Top [selfi Nom Alice Mary Dat intro duce-give-Past] man Acc hit-Past
    `Maxi hit the man that hei intro duced to Alice/Mary.'
Example #53:

    itte-i-ru.
    say-Asp-Pres
    `Taroi contends that I help ed himi .'
Example #54:

    (77) a. Maxi wa Patj kara [zibuni/j ga syo o o tot-ta        to] kii-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj from [selfi/j Nom prize Acc win-Past Comp] hear-Past
    `Maxi heard from Patj that hei/j had won the prize.'
Example #55:

    b. Maxi wa Patj ni [zibuni/j ga syo o o tot-ta       to]   it-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat [selfi/j Nom prize Acc win-Past Comp] tell-Past
    `Maxi told Pat that hei had won the prize.'
Example #56:

    (78) a. Maxi wa zibuni no kyo okasyo o Alice ni kasi-ta.
    Maxi Top selfi Gen textb o ok Acc Alice Dat lend-Past
    `Maxi lent hisi textb o ok to Alice.'
Example #57:

    b. Maxi wa Alice o zibuni no tomo dati ni syo okai-si-ta.
    Maxi Top Alice Acc selfi Gen friend      Dat intro duce-Past
    `Maxi intro duced Alice to hisi friend.'
Example #58:

    c. Maxi wa Alice o zibuni no ie            de motenasi-ta.
    Maxi Top Alice Acc selfi Gen house in entertain-Past
    `Maxi entertained Alice in hisi house.'
Example #59:

    (79) Masaoi wa zibuni no ie        de Miyuki o motenasite-kure- ta.
    Masaoi Top selfi Gen house in Miyuki Acc treat-give-Past
    `Masaoi treated Miyuki in hisi house.' (Ab e (1992, p.18))
Example #60:

    (i) Maxi no zibuni no hyooka
    Maxi Gen selfi Gen evaluation
    `Maxi 's evaluation of himselfi '
Example #61:

    moyasite-{yat -ta/kure -ta}.)
    burn-give-Past
    `Alicei burned heri letter to   Maxj for himj .'
Example #62:

    (87) a. Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o b engo-s-ase-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc defend-Caus-Past
    `Maxi made Patj defend himi /himselfj .'
Example #63:

    b. Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o Alice ni syo okai-site-morat-ta
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc Alice Dat intro duce-Benefactive-Past
    `Maxi made Patj intro duce himi /himselfj to Mary (for hisi sake).'
Example #64:

    (88) a. Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o b oku ni wariate-sase-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc I      Dat assign-Caus-Past
    `Maxi made Patj to assign himi /himselfj to me.'
Example #65:

    b. Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o b oku ni wariatete-morat-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc I      Dat assign-Benefactive-Past
    `Maxi made Patj to assign himi /himselfj to me (for hisi sake).'
Example #66:

    (cf. *Maxi wa kare i o sonkei-site-i-ru. (by Condition B))
    Maxi Top selfi Acc admire-do-Asp-Pres
    `Maxi admires himselfi .'
Example #67:

    (cf. Maxi wa kare i no hahaoya o aisite-i-ru.)
    Maxi Top selfi Gen mother Acc love-Asp-Pres
    `Maxi loves hisi mother.'
Example #68:

    sonkei-site-mo-i-ru.
    admire-do-also-Asp-Pres
    `Davidi used to admire himselfi . Now, hei admires himselfi to o.'
Example #69:

    nikunde-i-na-i.
    hate-Asp-Neg-Pres
    `Maxi hates hisi mother, but hei do es not hate hisi mother.'
Example #70:

    (94) a. Maxi wa zibuni o hihan-si-ta.
    Maxi Top selfi Acc criticize-Past
    `Maxi criticized himselfi .'
Example #71:

    c. Maxi wa zibuni no oto oto o nagut-ta.
    Maxi Top selfi Acc brother Acc hit-Past
    `Maxi hit hisi brother.'
Example #72:

    Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o b oku ni wariate-sase-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc I       Dat assign-Caus-Past
    `Maxi made Patj assign himi /himselfj to me.'
Example #73:

    (i) Maxi wa Patj ni zibuni/j o boku ni syookai-sase-rare-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat selfi/j Acc I        Dat introduce-Caus-Pass-Past
    `Maxi was caused by Patj to introduce himj /himselfi to me.'
Example #74:

    (102) Max ga watasi no musume ni keeki o ??yat-ta/kure-ta.
    Max Nom I       Gen daughter Dat cake Acc give-Past
    `Max gave some cake to my daughter.'
Example #75:

    (ii) Maxi wa Patj ni Alicej ni zibuni/j /k o boku ni syookai-sase-sase-ta.
    Maxi Top Patj Dat Alicej Dat selfi/j /k Acc I      Dat introduce-Caus-Caus-Past
    `Maxi caused Patj to cause Alicek to introduce himi/j /herselfj to me.'
Example #76:

    (103) Aru furansu-zin ga Alice ni keeki o ??yat-ta/kure-ta.
    some French     Nom Alice Dat cake Acc give-Past
    `A Frenchman gave Alice some cake.'
Example #77:

    (138) a. Maxi wa [(i ) Pat ni kane o kasi-ta       to]  syutyo o-si-ta.
    Maxi Top      Pat Dat money Acc lend-Past Comp claim-Past
    `Max claimed that he had lent Pat money.'
Example #78:

    ga,
    though
    lent Pat money."
Example #79:

    (163) Max wa Alicei kara [Pat ga zibuni o kiratte-i-ru     to]   kii-ta.
    Max Top Alicei from [Pat Nom selfi Acc hate-Asp-Pres Comp] hear-Past
    `Max heard from Alice that Pat hates her.'