ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Tang, Sze-Wing (1998). Parametrization of Features in Syntax.

URL: http://www.cbs.polyu.edu.hk/tang/Dissertation/Tang%201998b.pdf

(Last accessed 2006-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2375&langcode=jpn (2018-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    (20)     Mary-ga John-ni ringo-o       san-tu age-ta (koto).
    Mary-Nom John-to apple-Acc three-Cl give-Past fact
    `Mary gave three apples to John.'
Example #2:

    (21)     Mary-ga age-ta no-wa [John-ni ringo-o                san-tu] da.
    Mary-Nom give-Past Nm-Top John-to apple-Acc three-Cl be
    `Lit.: It is [three apples to John] that Mary gave.'
Example #3:

    (24)   John-ga isoide ronbun-o yonda.
    John-Nom quickly paper-Acc read
    `John read the paper quickly.'
Example #4:

    (26)   a.      ??John-ga isoide hon-wa          katta.
    John-Nom quickly book-Contrast bought
    `John quickly bought A BOOK.'
Example #5:

    (78)   Kimi-wa naze ebi-o       tabe-ta-no?
    you-Top why shrimp-Acc eat-Past-Q
    `Why did you eat shrimp?'
Example #6:

    (79)   Kimi-wa [Mary-ga naze ebi-o          tabe-ta-to] omot-ta-no?
    you-Top Mary-Nom why shrimp-Acc eat-Past-C think-Past-Q
    `Why did you think [Mary ate shrimp t]?
Example #7:

    (56)    John-wa [Mary-o kasikoku] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent considered
    `John considered Mary intelligent.'
Example #8:

    (57)    Watasi-wa Suzuki sensei-o       o-utukusiku omotta.
    I-Top      Suzuki teacher-Acc Hon-pretty considered
    `I considered Prof. Suzuki pretty.'
Example #9:

    (58)    *Suzuki sensei-wa watasi-o o-utukusiku omotta.
    Suzuki teacher-Top I-Acc Hon-pretty considered
    `Prof. Suzuki considered me pretty.'
Example #10:

    (59)    John-wa [dare-o      kasikoku]-mo omotte-inai.
    John-Top anyone-Acc intelligent-Q consider-not
    `John considers nobody intelligent.'
Example #11:

    (60)    *Dare-wa [Mary-o kasikoku]-mo omotte-inai.
    anyone-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-Q consider-not
    `Nobody considers Mary intelligent.'
Example #12:

    (61)   John-ga sono senbei-o            karaku/oisiku/?tiisaku/?sikakuku omotta.
    John-Nom that rice cracker-Acc spicy/tasty/ small/square           considered
    `John considered the rice cracker spicy/tasty/black/small/square/round.'
Example #13:

    (62)   John-ga sono senbei-o         itumo-yori sikakuku omotta.
    John-Nom that rice cracker than usual squire considered
    `Lit.: John considered that the rice cracker looks a square than usual.'
Example #14:

    (63)   John-wa [Mary-o kasiko-i-to]              omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-Present-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be intelligent.'
Example #15:

    (64)   *John-wa [Mary-o kasikoku-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-C considered
    `John considered Mary intelligent.'
Example #16:

    (65)   *John-wa [Mary-o kasiko-i]               omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-Present considered
    `John considered Mary to be intelligent.'
Example #17:

    (66)   *John-wa [Mary-ga kasikoku] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Nom intelligent considered
    `John considered Mary intelligent.'
Example #18:

    (67)   John-wa [Mary-ga kasiko-i-to]              omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Nom intelligent-Present-C considered
    `John considered that Mary was intelligent.'
Example #19:

    (68)   *John-wa [Mary-o tabun kasikoku] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably intelligent considered
    `John considered Mary probably intelligent.'
Example #20:

    (69)   John-wa [Mary-o tabun        kasiko-i-to]        omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably intelligent-Present-C considered
    `John considered that Mary probably was intelligent.'
Example #21:

    (70)     *[Kasikoku] John-wa Mary-o t omotta.
    intelligent John-Top Mary-Acc considered
    `John considered Mary intelligent.'
Example #22:

    (71)     [Kasiko-i-to]         John-wa Mary-o t omotta.
    intelligent-Present-C John-Top Mary-Acc considered
    `John considered that Mary was intelligent.'
Example #23:

    (i)       ??Donokurai kasikoku John-wa Mary-o          omotta-no?
    how         intelligent John-Top Mary-Acc considered-Q
    `How intelligent did John consider Mary?'
Example #24:

    (75)      (?)John-wa [Mary-o kirei-ni] omotta.                          (Adjectival nominal)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #25:

    (i)       *John-ni-wa Mary-ga kirei-da.
    John-to-Top Mary-Nom pretty-be
    `To John, Mary is pretty.'
Example #26:

    (ii)      John-ni-wa sono hon-ga          taikutu-da.
    John-to-Top that book-Nom boring-be
    `To John, that book is boring.'
Example #27:

    (76)     John-wa [Mary-o kirei-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #28:

    (77)     John-wa [zyookyoo-o mizime-ni] omotta.
    John-Top situation-Acc miserable considered
    `John considered the situation miserable.'
Example #29:

    (78)     (*)John-wa [Mary-o sensei-ni] omotta.                            (Nominal)
    John-Top Mary-Acc teacher considered
    `John considered Mary a teacher.'
Example #30:

    (79)     John-wa [Mary-o sensei-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc teacher-C considered
    `John considered Mary a teacher.'
Example #31:

    (80)     John-wa [Mary-o orokamono-ni] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc fool         considered
    `John considered Mary a fool.'
Example #32:

    (81)     John-wa Mary-o netui-no             aru sensei-ni omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc enthusiasm-Gen be teacher considered
    `John considered Mary a teacher with enthusiasm.'
Example #33:

    (83)     John-wa [Mary-o kirei-da-to] omotta.                                                (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be pretty.'
Example #34:

    (84)     John-wa [Mary-o sensei-da-to] omotta.                                               (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc teacher-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be a teacher.'
Example #35:

    (86) *John-wa [Mary-o        kirei-ni-to] omotta.          (ni-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-C        considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #36:

    (87)   *John-wa [Mary-o kirei] omotta.                     (to-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #37:

    (88)   *John-wa [Mary-o kirei-da] omotta.                  (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-be considered
    `John considered Mary to be pretty.'
Example #38:

    (89) *John-wa [Mary-ga        kirei-ni] omotta.            (ni-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Nom pretty considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #39:

    (90)   (?~??)John-wa [Mary-ga kirei-to] omotta.            (to-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Nom pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #40:

    (91)   John-wa [Mary-ga kirei-da-to] omotta.               (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Nom pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be pretty.'
Example #41:

    (92) ??John-wa [Mary-o tabun kirei-ni] omotta.             (ni-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably pretty considered
    `John considered Mary probably pretty.'
Example #42:

    (93)   John-wa [Mary-o tabun       kirei-to] omotta.       (to-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary probably pretty.'
Example #43:

    (94)   John-wa [Mary-o tabun kirei-da-to] omotta.          (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary probably to be pretty.'
Example #44:

    (95) ??[Kirei-ni] John-wa Mary-o t omotta.                 (ni-SC)
    pretty John-Top Mary-Acc considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #45:

    (96)    [Kirei-to] John-wa Mary-o t omotta.                                     (to-SC)
    pretty-C John-Top Mary-Acc considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #46:

    (97)    John-wa [Mary-o tabun kirei-da-to] omotta.                              (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc probably pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary probably to be pretty.'
Example #47:

    (99)    John-wa [Mary-o kirei-to] omotta.                                       (to-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #48:

    (100) John-wa [Mary-o kirei-da-to] omotta.                                      (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be pretty.'
Example #49:

    (101) ?John-wa [sono toki-no Mary-o kirei-to] omotta.      (to-SC)
    John-Top that time-Gen Mary-Acc pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary pretty at that time.'
Example #50:

    (102) John-wa [sono toki-no Mary-o kirei-da-to] omotta. (ECM)
    John-Top that time-Gen Mary-Acc pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be pretty at that time.'
Example #51:

    (ii)   [Omae-o otoko (da) to] mikonde tanomi-ga aru.
    you-Acc man be C regard as favor-Nom exist
    `Regarding you as a man, I have a favor to ask you.'
Example #52:

    (103) *John-wa [Mary-o san-nen mae-ni kirei-to] ima omotteiru.                     (to-SC)
    John-Top Mary-Acc three-year ago pretty-C now consider
    `Lit.: Now John considers Mary pretty three years ago.'
Example #53:

    (104) *John-wa [Mary-o san-nen mae-ni kirei-da-to] ima omotteiru.                          (ECM)
    John-Top Mary-Acc three-year ago pretty-be-C now consider
    `Lit.: Now John considers Mary to be pretty three years ago.'
Example #54:

    (105) John-wa [Mary-o san-nen mae-ni kirei-dat-ta-to] ima omotteiru.
    John-Top Mary-Acc three-year ago pretty-be-Past-C now consider
    `Now John considers Mary to have been pretty three years ago.'
Example #55:

    (106) (?~??)John-wa [Mary-ga kirei-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Nom pretty-C considered
    `John considered Mary pretty.'
Example #56:

    (107) John-wa [Mary-ga kirei-da-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Nom pretty-be-C considered
    `John considered that Mary is pretty.'
Example #57:

    (120) *John-wa [Mary-o orokamono] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc fool        considered
    `John considered Mary a fool.'
Example #58:

    (122) *John-wa [Mary-o kasikoku-to] omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-C considered
    `John considered Mary intelligent.'                             (=(64))
Example #59:

    (123) John-wa [Mary-o kasiko-i-to]              omotta.
    John-Top Mary-Acc intelligent-Present-C considered
    `John considered Mary to be intelligent.'                       (=(63))
Example #60:

    (136) John-wa gakusei-d-at-ta.                               (noun)
    John-Top student-Case-be-Past
    `John was a student.'
Example #61:

    (137) John-wa hogaraka-d-at-ta.                              (adjectival noun)
    John-Top cheerful-Case-be-Past
    `John was cheerful.'
Example #62:

    (138) John-wa kasikok-at-ta.                                 (adjective)
    John-Top intelligent-be-Past
    `John was intelligent.'
Example #63:

    (139) John-wa kasiko-i.
    John-Top intelligent-Non.past
    `John is intelligent.'
Example #64:

    (140) John-wa onigiri-o      tabe-ta.                        (verb)
    John-Top riceball-Acc eat-Past
    `John ate rice balls.'