ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Lin, Jimmy (2004). Event Structure and the Encoding of Arguments: The Syntax of the Mandarin and English Verb.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/theses/lin04.pdf

(Last accessed 2006-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2382&langcode=cmn (2018-10-17).

 

Example #1:

    (2)     a. shu4 gao1 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree tall ten centimeter
    `The tree is ten centimeters tall.' (e.g., a bonsai tree)
Example #2:

    b. shu4 gao1 le5 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree tall Le ten centimeter
    `The tree grew ten centimeters.'
Example #3:

    (6)       a. shu4 dao3 le5
    tree fall Le
    `The tree fell.'
Example #4:

    b. *hen3 si3
    very dead
    intended: `very dead'
Example #5:

    c. ta1 men5 chi1 wan2 fan4 le5
    they     eat finish meal Le
    `They have finished eating.'
Example #6:

    b. *ta1 xiang4     le5 ba4 ba5
    he    resemble Le dad
    intended: `He resembled dad.' (Ross, 1995:110)
Example #7:

    c. *ta1 cong1 ming2 le5 (yi1 dian3 )
    he    intelligent Le a      little
    intended: `He became intelligent (a bit smarter).' (Rohsenow, 1977:277)
Example #8:

    yi3 jing1 xi3 huan1 le5 ta1
    already like        De him
    `Only when he's given up did you finally discover that you like him.'
Example #9:

    b. ching1 chen2     geng4 xiang4     le5 shi1 yi4       hou4 de5 jing3 se4
    early-morning even resemble Le loss-memory after de scenery
    memory loss.'
Example #10:

    (21)       a. ta1 gao1 le5 san1 gung1 fen1
    I   tall Le three centimeter
    `He grew three centimeters.'
Example #11:

    (26)     a. ta1 kan4 le5 ban4 tian1 , ke3 shi4 mei2           kan4 jian4 /dao4
    he look Le half day          but     not-have look perceive/arrive
    `He looked for a long time, but couldn't see it.'
Example #12:

    d. ta1 zhao3     le5 ban4 tian1 , ke3 shi4 mei2       zhao3   dao4
    he look.for Le half day         but      not-have look.for arrive
    `He looked for a long time, but couldn't find it.'
Example #13:

    (27) *ta1 zhao3     dao4 le5 ban4 tian1 , ke3 shi4 mei2           zhao3 dao4
    he    look.for arrive Le half day        but     not-have look.for arrive
    intended: `He found it for a long time, but couldn't find it.'
Example #14:

    xie3 wan2
    write finish
    intended: `I finished writing a letter yesterday, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #15:

    hua4 wan2
    paint finish
    intended: `I finished painting a picture yesterday, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #16:

    (ke3 shi4 mei2 xie3 wan2 )
    but       not write finish
    `I wrote the letter for an hour (but I didn't finish it).'
Example #17:

    (36)   a. *wo3 xie3 wan2 na4 feng1 xin4 xie3 le5 yi1 ge5 zhong1 tou                       2
    I     write finish that Cl         letter write Le one Cl hour
    intended: `I finished writing the letter for an hour.'
Example #18:

    zuo4 wan2
    make finish
    intended: `I baked a cake yesterday, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #19:

    hao3
    good
    intended: `I built a bridge yesterday, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #20:

    xie3 wan2
    write finish
    intended: `I wrote a character yesterday, but I didn't finish it.'
Example #21:

    (55)    a. shu4 dao3 le5
    tree fall Le
    `The tree fell.'
Example #22:

    b. bo1 li2 sui4    le5
    glass shatter Le
    `The glass shattered.'
Example #23:

    b. #??bo1 li2 zou2 tian1 sui4     le5 , ke3 shi4 mei2      sui4     wan2
    glass      yesterday shatter Le but           not-have shatter finish
    intended: `The glass shattered yesterday, but it didn't finish shattering.'
Example #24:

    (57)    a. shu4 gao1 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree tall ten centimeter
    `The tree is ten centimeters tall.'
Example #25:

    b. shu4 gao1 le5 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree tall Le ten centimeter
    `The tree grew ten centimeters.'
Example #26:

    (58)    a. shu4 gou1 ji3             gung1 fen1
    tree tall how.many centimeter
    `How tall is the tree in centimeters?'
Example #27:

    (59)    a. sui4       (de5 ) bo1 li2
    shattered De       glass
    `shattered glass' (stative)
Example #28:

    b. sui4        le5 de5 bo1 li2
    shattered Le De glass
    `glass that was shattered' (resultative participle)
Example #29:

    (61)    a. Zhang1 san1 you3 yi1 da4 bi3   qian2
    Zhangsan    has one big amount money
    `Zhangsan has a lot of money.'
Example #30:

    b. Zhang1 san1 you3 le5 yi1 da4 bi3        qian2
    Zhangsan    has Le one big amount money
    `Zhangsan has acquired a lot of money.'
Example #31:

    (64)    a. wo3 kan4 jian4          shu4 dao3 zhai4 lu4      bian 1
    I     see perceive tree fall at             road side
    `I see the fallen tree at the side of the road.'
Example #32:

    (65)    a. wo3 zou2 tian1 kan4 jian3         shu4 dao3 zhai4 lu4       bian1
    I    yesterday see perceive tree fall at              road side
    `Yesterday I saw the fallen tree at the side of the road.' (the tree might
Example #33:

    (66)    a. ta1 de2 jian3 ?(le5 )
    he get award Le
    `He won the award.'
Example #34:

    b. ta1 de2 le5 jian3
    he get Le award
    `He won the award.'
Example #35:

    (67)    a. pao3 /he1 /wan2 /tui1 bu4 pao3 /he1 /wan2 /tui1
    run/drink/play/push no run/drink/play/push
    `Are you going to run/drink/play push or not?'
Example #36:

    (68) ??dao3 /si3 /zhui4 /sui4 bu4 dao3 /si3 /zhui4 /sui4
    fall/die/drunk/shatter no fall/die/drunk/shatter
    intended: `Are you going to fall/die/get drunk or not?'
Example #37:

    (69) you3 mei2 you3 dao3 /si3 /zhui4 /sui4
    have not have fall/die/drunk/shatter
    intended: `Is it/he fallen/dead/drunk/shattered?'
Example #38:

    (70) you3 mei2 you3 pao3 /he1 /wan2 /tui1
    have not have run/drink/play/push
    intended: `Did you/he run/drink/play/push?'
Example #39:

    b. bo1 li2 sui4    le5 man3 di4
    glass shatter Le whole floor
    `The glass shattered all over the floor.'
Example #40:

    b. *bo1 li2 zheng4 zai4   sui4     le5 man3 di4
    glass in.process.of shatter Le whole floor
    intended: `The glass is in the process of shattering all over the floor.'
Example #41:

    b. *bo1 li2 ting2 zhi3 sui4    le5 man3 di4
    glass stop          shatter Le whole floor
    intended: `The glass stopped shattering all over the floor.'
Example #42:

    b. ??Zhang1 san1 sui4     le5 bo1 li2
    Zhangsan       shatter Le glass
    intended: `Zhangsan shattered the glass.'
Example #43:

    (80)    a. Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop fall Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree down.'
Example #44:

    b. Zhang1 san1 da3 sui4      le5 bo1 li2
    Zhangsan    hit shatter Le glass
    `Zhangsan shattered the glass.'
Example #45:

    (81)    a. Zhang1 san1 zheng4 zai4    ba3 shu4 kan3 dao        3
    Zhangsan     in.process.of Ba tree chop fall
    `Zhangsan is chopping the tree down.'
Example #46:

    b. Zhang1 san1 zheng4 zai4    ba3 bo1 li2 da3 sui4
    Zhangsan     in.process.of Ba glass hit shatter
    `Zhangsan is shattering the glass.'
Example #47:

    (83)    a. che1 zi5 ting2 le5
    car      stop Le
    `The car stopped.'
Example #48:

    b. Wong2 wu5 ting2 le5 che1 zi5
    Wongwu    stop Le car
    `Wongwu stopped/parked the car.'
Example #49:

    (91) ta1 gao1 le5 san1 gung1 fen1
    I   tall Le three centimeter
    `He grew three centimeters.'
Example #50:

    (93)    a. Li3 si4 xian3 pang4 san3 gong1 jing     1
    Lisi    think fat     three kilogram
    `Lisi wants to gain three kilograms.'
Example #51:

    b. ta2 mei3 nian2 gao1 yi1 gung1 fen1
    he every year tall one centimeter
    `He grows a centimeter every year.'
Example #52:

    c. ni3 chou1 yan1 , hui4 zhao3 si3
    you inhale smoke, will early die
    `If you smoke, you'll die young.'
Example #53:

    (4)      a. Wu3 song1 da3 si3 le5 lao3 hu3
    Wusong    hit die Le tiger
    `Wusong beat the tiger to death.'
Example #54:

    b. Zhang1 san1 ti1 fan1 le5 tong3 zi          5
    Zhangsan    kick spill Le bucket
    `Zhangsan kicked the bucket over.'
Example #55:

    c. Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried the handkerchief wet.'
Example #56:

    (5)      a. Wu3 song1 da3 si3 le5 lao3 hu3
    Wusong    hit die Le tiger
    `Wusong beat the tiger to death.'
Example #57:

    b. lao3 hu3 si3 le5
    tiger    die Le
    `The tiger died.'
Example #58:

    (7)     a. Zhang1 san1 zong1 yu2 mai4 diao4 le5 che1 zi        5
    Zhangsan     finally    sell drop Le car
    `Zhangsan finally sold the car.'
Example #59:

    b. Li3 si4 zou2 tian1 yi3 jing1 zuo4 hao3 le5 gong1 ke4
    Lisi     yesterday already make good Le homework
    `Lisi already finished the homework yesterday.'
Example #60:

    c. Wong2 wu5 kan4 wan2 na4 ben3 shu4 le5
    Wongwu     read finish that Cl      book Le
    `Wongwu finished reading the book.'
Example #61:

    (8)     a. *che1 zi5 diao4 le5
    car       drop Le
    intended: `The car has been gotten rid of.'
Example #62:

    b. *gong1 ke4 hao3 le5
    homework good Le
    intended: `The homework has been finished.'
Example #63:

    c. *na4 ben3 shu4 wan2 le5
    that Cl     book finish Le
    intended: `that book has been finished.'
Example #64:

    (10)    a. chian1 bi3 diao4 le5
    pencil     drop Le
    `The pencil dropped.' (i.e., onto the ground)
Example #65:

    c. dian4 ying3 wan2 le5
    movie       finish Le
    `The movie is over.'
Example #66:

    (11)    a. Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried the handkerchief wet.' (literal RVC)
Example #67:

    b. Li3 si4 ku1 de5 shou3 pa4        shi1 le5
    Lisi     cry De handkerchief wet Le
    `Lisi cried until the handkerchief got wet.'
Example #68:

    (13)     a. wo3 pao3 guo4 qiao2 le5
    I     run over bridge Le
    `I ran over the bridge.'
Example #69:

    b. ta1 na2 zhou3 le5 shu1 bao1
    he take away Le book.bag
    `He took away the book bag.'
Example #70:

    (14) wo3 guo4 (le5 ) qiao2 le5
    I     over Le      bridge Le
    `I crossed the bridge.'
Example #71:

    (15) ta1 men5 chu1 lai2 le5
    they     out come Le
    `They came out.'
Example #72:

    (16)      a. Zhang1 san1 qu4 guo4 Xiang1 Gang3
    Zhangsan      go Exp Hong Kong
    `Zhangsan has been to Hong Kong.'
Example #73:

    b. Li3 si4 lai2   [xia4 le5 yi1 pan2 qi2 ]
    Lisi    come play Le one Cl           chess
    `Lisi came to play a round of chess.'
Example #74:

    c. Wong2 wu3 [kan4 Zhang1 san1 ] lai2       le5
    Wongwu       see    Zhangsan     come Le
    `Wongwu came to see Zhangsan.'
Example #75:

    (17) ta1 ku1 fan2     si3 le5 wo3
    he cry annoy die Le me
    `He cried so much that I got annoyed to death.'
Example #76:

    (18)    a. Zhang1 san1 zhui4 dao3 le5
    Zhangsan    drunk fall Le
    `Zhangsan got so drunk he fell.'
Example #77:

    b. Li3 si4 lei4 hui4 le5
    Lisi    tired bad Le
    `Lisi got really tired.'
Example #78:

    c. lao3 hu3 si3 diao4 le5
    tiger    die drop Le
    `The tired died.'
Example #79:

    (20) ta1 chang4 ku1 le5
    he sing      cry Le
    `He cried from singing.' (e.g., because the song evoked sad memories)
Example #80:

    (21)   a. ta1 chang4 hui4 le5 na4 shou3 ge1
    he sing      know Le that Cl         song
    `He learned the song through singing it.'
Example #81:

    c. xue2 sheng1 men5 ting1 dong3        le5 ke4
    students         listen understand Le class
    `The students understood the class material.'
Example #82:

    (22)   a. wo3 xia4 le5 na4 pan2 qi2
    I     play Le that Cl       chess
    `I played that chess game.'
Example #83:

    b. wo3 ying2 le5 na4 pan2 qi2
    I    win Le that Cl      chess
    `I won that chess game.'
Example #84:

    (29)    a. Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5
    Zhangsan    eat full Le
    `Zhangsan ate himself full.'
Example #85:

    b. Li3 si4 pao3 lei4 le5
    Lisi    run tired Le
    `Lisi ran himself exhausted.'
Example #86:

    c. wo3 xiao4 si3      le5
    I     laugh dead Le
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #87:

    (30)    a. Zhang1 san1 chi1 de5 bao3 le5
    Zhangsan    eat De full Le
    `Zhangsan ate himself full.'
Example #88:

    b. Li3 si4 pao3 de5 lei4 le5
    Lisi    run De tired Le
    `Lisi ran himself exhausted.'
Example #89:

    c. *wo3 xiao4 de5 si3       le5
    I      laugh De dead Le
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #90:

    (32)    a. *Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5 san1 /na4 /na3        wan3 fan4
    Zhangsan      eat full Le three/that/which bowl rice
    rice.'
Example #91:

    b. *Li3 si4 he1    zhui4 le5 liang3 /na4 /na3 bei1 jiu3
    Lisi     drink drunk Le two/that/which glass wine
    wine.'
Example #92:

    (33) Zhang1 san1 qi2 lei4 le5 ma3
    Zhangsan    ride tired Le horse
    `Zhangsan rode the horse, and . . . '
Example #93:

    (34) Zhang1 san1 qi2 lei4 le5 liang3 /na4 /na3 pi1 ma3
    Zhangsan    ride tired Le two/that/which Cl horse
    `Zhangsan rode the horse, and . . . '
Example #94:

    (41)    a. *Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5 zi4 ji3
    Zhangsan      eat full Le himself
    intended: `Zhangsan ate himself full.'
Example #95:

    b. Li3 si4 pao3 lei4 le5 zi4 ji3
    Lisi    run tired Le himself
    `Lisi ran himself exhausted.'
Example #96:

    c. wo3 xiao4 si3      le5 zi4 ji3
    I     laugh dead Le myself
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #97:

    (42)     a. ??Zhang1 san1 chi1 de5 zi4 ji3    bao3 le5
    Zhangsan       eat De himself full Le
    intended: `Zhangsan ate himself full.'
Example #98:

    b. Li3 si4 pao3 de5 zi4 ji3    lei4 le5
    Lisi    run De himself tired Le
    `Lisi ran himself exhausted.'
Example #99:

    c. *wo3 xiao4 de5 zi4 ji3 si3   le5
    I      laugh De myself dead Le
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #100:

    a. Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop fall Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree down.'
Example #101:

    b. Li3 si4 ca1 gan1 le5 zhou1 zi        5
    Lisi    wipe dry Le table
    `Lisi wiped the table dry.'
Example #102:

    a. Zhang1 san1 xiao4 tung4 le5 du4 zi5
    Zhangsan    laugh hurt Le stomach
    `Zhangsan laughed so hard his stomach hurt.'
Example #103:

    b. Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried his handkerchief wet.'
Example #104:

    (45)    a. Zhang1 san1 kan3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree.'
Example #105:

    b. Li3 si4 ca1 le5 zhou1 zi5
    Lisi    wipe Le table
    `Lisi wiped the table.'
Example #106:

    (46)    a. *Zhang1 san1 xiao4 le5 du4 zi5
    Zhangsan      laugh Le stomach
    intended: `Zhangsan laughed his stomach.'
Example #107:

    b. *Li3 si4 ku1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry Le handkerchief
    intended: `Lisi cried his handkerchief.'
Example #108:

    (47)    a. Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop fall Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree down.'
Example #109:

    b. shu4 kan3 dao3 le5
    tree chop fall Le
    `The tree got chopped down.'
Example #110:

    (48)    a. Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried his handkerchief wet.'
Example #111:

    (49)    a. Zhang1 san1 xiao4 tung4 le5 du4 zi5
    Zhangsan     laugh hurt Le stomach
    `Zhangsan laughed so hard that his stomach hurt.'
Example #112:

    (52) shu4 dao3 le5
    tree fall Le
    `The tree fell.'
Example #113:

    (54) Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop fall Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree down.'
Example #114:

    (56) Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried his handkerchief wet.'
Example #115:

    (57) ??Zhang1 san1 kan3 diao4 le5 shu4 ye4
    Zhangsan       chop drop Le leaf
    `Zhangsan's chopping caused the leaves to fall off.'
Example #116:

    (60) Zhang1 san1 kan3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped (at) the tree.'
Example #117:

    (63) Li3 si4 ku1 shi1 le5 shou3 pa4
    Lisi     cry wet Le handkerchief
    `Lisi cried his handkerchief wet.'
Example #118:

    (65) wo3 xiao4 si3      le5
    I     laugh dead Le
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #119:

    (67) Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5 fan4
    Zhangsan    eat full Le meal
    `Zhangsan got full from eating the meal.'
Example #120:

    (68) Zhang1 san1 qi2 lei4 le5 ma3
    Zhangsan    ride tired Le horse
    `Zhangsan rode the horse, and . . . '
Example #121:

    (79)    a. Zhang1 san1 zhui4 dao3 le5
    Zhangsan    drunk fall Le
    `Zhangsan got so drunk he fell.'
Example #122:

    b. Li3 si4 lei4 hui4 le5
    Lisi    tired bad Le
    `Lisi got really tired.'
Example #123:

    c. lao3 hu3 si3 diao4 le5
    tiger    die drop Le
    `The tired died.'
Example #124:

    (80)    a. #Zhang1 san1 zhui4 le5 , ke3 shi4 ta1 mei2 zhui4
    Zhangsan      drunk Le but        he not drunk
    intended: `Zhangsan got drunk, but he wasn't drunk.'
Example #125:

    b. #shu4 dao3 le5 , ke3 shi4 mei2 dao3
    tree   fall Le but           not fall
    intended: `The tree fell, but it didn't really fall.'
Example #126:

    (84)    a. na4 ping2 jiu3 zhui4 dao3 le5 Zhang1 san1
    that bottle wine drunk fall Le Zhangsan
    `The bottle of wine got Zhangsan so drunk he fell over.'
Example #127:

    b. Li3 si4 zhui4 dao3 le5 Zhang1 san1
    Lisi    drunk fall Le Zhangsan
    `Lisi got Zhangsan so drunk he fell over.'
Example #128:

    (87) shu4 bei4 Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5
    tree Bei Zhangsan      chop fall Le
    `The tree was chopped down by Zhangsan.'
Example #129:

    (88) *fan4 bei4 Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5
    meal Bei Zhangsan       eat full Le
    intended: `The meal was eaten full by Zhangsan.'
Example #130:

    (90) *Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5
    Zhangsan      chop fall Le
    intended: `Zhangsan chopped down.'
Example #131:

    (91) Zhang1 san1 chi1 bao3 le5
    Zhangsan    eat full Le
    `Zhangsan ate himself full.'
Example #132:

    (106)   a. shu4 kan3 dao3 le5
    tree chop fall Le
    `The tree got chopped down.'
Example #133:

    b. shou3 pa4    ku1 shi1 le5
    handkerchief cry wet Le
    `The handkerchief got wet from crying.'
Example #134:

    c. qi4 qui2 chui1 po4     le5
    balloon blow broken Le
    `The balloon got popped from blowing.'
Example #135:

    (107) ma3 qi2 lei4 le5
    horse ride tired Le
    ii. ??`Someone got tired from riding the horse.'
Example #136:

    b. *ku1 le5 ji3     ge5 ren2
    cry Le a.few Cl person
    `A few people cried.'
Example #137:

    (109)   a. xiao4 si3    le5 yi1 xie1 ren2
    laugh dead Le one some person
    `Some died laughing.'
Example #138:

    b. chui1 po4     le5 bu4 shao3 qi4 qui2
    blow broken Le not few        balloon
    `Many balloons were popped (from blowing).'
Example #139:

    (120)   a. Li3 si4 pao3 lei4 le5
    Lisi    run tired Le
    `Lisi ran himself exhausted.'
Example #140:

    (123)   a. Zhang1 san1 xiao4 tung4 le5 du4 zi5
    Zhangsan    laugh hurt Le stomach
    `Zhangsan laughed so hard that his stomach hurt.'
Example #141:

    (125)   a. Zhang1 san1 he1   zhui4 le5
    Zhangsan    drink drunk Le
    `Zhangsan drank himself drunk.'
Example #142:

    (126)   a. wo3 xiao4 si3 le5
    I     laugh die Le
    `I laughed myself to death.'
Example #143:

    b. na4 jian4 shi4      xiao4 si3    le5 wo3
    that Cl    matter laugh dead Le I
    `That matter caused me to laugh to death.'
Example #144:

    (135)      a. na4 ping2 jiu3 he1        zhui4 le5 Zhang1 san   1
    that bottle wine drink drunk Le Zhangsan
    `The bottle of wine got Zhangsan drunk.'
Example #145:

    (137) wo       zhui1 lei4 le5 hu2 li2
    I        chase tired Le fox
    iv. *`The fox chased me, and I got tired as a result.'
Example #146:

    (139)    a. hu2 li2 zhui1 lei4 le5
    fox     chase tired Le
    `The fox got tired from chasing someone.' (sub ject-control RVC)
Example #147:

    b. wo3 zhui1 lei4 le5 hu2 li2
    I    chase tired Le fox
    `The fox got tired from chasing me.' (causative reading of previous)
Example #148:

    (140)    a. Zhang1 san1 he1   de5 zhan4 bu4 qi3 lai2
    Zhangsan    drink De stand not get.up
    `Zhangsan drank so much he couldn't get up.'
Example #149:

    b. Li3 si4 wan2 de5 lian2 shi2 jian1 dou1 wong4 diao4 le5
    Lisi    play De even time          all    forget drop Le
    `Lisi played so much he forgot about the time.'
Example #150:

    (141)    a. Zhang1 san1 ca1     diao4 le5 hui1 chen2
    Zhangsan    wiped drop Le dust
    `Zhangsan wiped off the dust.'
Example #151:

    (143)   a. *Zhang1 san1 xiao4 ku1 le5 Li3 si4
    Zhangsan     laugh cry Le Lisi
    intended: `Zhangsan laughed so hard Lisi cried.'
Example #152:

    b. Zhang1 san1 xiao4 de5 Li3 si4 ku1 le5
    Zhangsan     laugh De Lisi       cry Le
    `Zhangsan's laughing got Lisi so upset that he cried.'
Example #153:

    (162)   a. bo1 li2 sui4   le5
    glass shatter Le
    `The glass shattered.'
Example #154:

    b. ??Zhang1 san1 sui4     le5 bo1 li2
    Zhangsan       shatter Le glass
    intended: `Zhangsan shattered the glass.'
Example #155:

    (164) Zhang1 san1 da3 le5 bo1 li2
    Zhangsan    hit Le glass
    `Zhangsan hit the glass.'
Example #156:

    (165) na4 bei1 jiu3 he1        zui4   le5 Zhang1 san1
    that glass wine drink drunk Cl Zhangsan
    `That glass of wine got Zhangsan drunk (from drinking it).'
Example #157:

    (174)   a. shou3 pa4    ku1 shi1 le5
    handkerchief cry wet Le
    `The handkerchief got wet from crying.'
Example #158:

    b. Zhang1 san1 ku1 lei4 le5
    Zhangsan    cry tired Le
    `Zhangsan cried himself tired.'
Example #159:

    (177)      a. du4 zi5 xiao4 tung4 le5
    belly laugh hurt Le
    `(My) belly hurts from laughing.'
Example #160:

    b. Zhang1 san1 he1   zhui4 le5
    Zhangsan    drink drunk Le
    `Zhangsan drank himself drunk.'
Example #161:

    (178)      a. ?na4 jian4 shi4 /??Li3 si4 xiao4 tung4 le5 (Zhang1 san1 de5 ) du4 zi   5
    that Cl     matter/Lisi laugh hurt Le (Zhangsan            De) belly
    laughing.'
Example #162:

    b. na4 ping2 jiu3 /Li3 si4 he1      zhui4 le5 Zhang1 san   1
    that bottle wine/Lisi durnk fall       Asp
    `That bottle of wine/Lisi got Zhangsan drunk.'
Example #163:

    (5)     a. ni3 ai4 ta1
    you love her
    `You love her.'
Example #164:

    c. bo1 li2 sui4     de5 man3 di4
    glass shatter De whole floor
    `The glass lies in shattered pieces all over the floor.'