ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Jimmy Lin (2008). Are Degree Achievements Really Achievements?.

URL: http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~jimmylin/publications/Lin-IsCLL9.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2384&langcode=cmn (2018-10-18).

 

Example #1:

    (2)     a. shu4     gao1 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree     tall ten centimeter
    `The    tree is ten centimeters tall.'
Example #2:

    b. shu4     gao1 le5 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree     tall Le ten centimeter
    `The    tree grew ten centimeters.'
Example #3:

    (3)     a. ta1     zai4 yi1 nian2 nei4 gao1 le5 san2        gung1 fen1
    he      at    one year in      taller Le three   centimeter
    `He    grew three centimeters in a year.'
Example #4:

    b. *ta1     gao1 san2 gung1 fen1 gao1 le5 yi1        nian   2
    he       taller three centimeter taller Le one    year
    `He    grew three centimeters for a year.'
Example #5:

    (9)      a. ??ta1 zai4 yi1 nian2 nei4 gao1 le5
    he     at    one year in  taller Le
    `He grew in a year.'
Example #6:

    b. *ta1 gao1 le5 yi1 nian2
    he    taller Le one year
    `He grew for a year.'
Example #7:

    (10) ta1 yi1 shun4 jian1 gao1 le5
    he one moment       taller Le
    `He suddenly became taller.'
Example #8:

    (11)   a. Li3 si4 pang4 le5 liang3 gong1 jing1
    Lisi     fat   Le two       kilograms
    `Lisi gained two kilograms.'
Example #9:

    b. bo1 li2 sui4    le5 man3 di4
    glass shatter Le whole floor
    `The glass shattered all over the floor.'
Example #10:

    (16)   a. *Li3 si4 zheng4 zai4    pang4 le5 liang3      gong1 jing1
    Lisi      in.process.of fat    Le two         kilograms
    intended: `Lisi is gaining two kilograms.'
Example #11:

    b. *bo1 li2 zheng4 zai4    sui4    le5 man3       di4
    glass    in.process.of shatter Le whole        floor
    intended: `The glass is shattering all over   the floor.'
Example #12:

    (17)   a. *Li3 si4 ting2 zhi3 pang4 le5 liang3 gong1 jing1
    Lisi      stop      fat    Le two      kilograms
    intended: `Lisi stopped gaining two kilograms.'
Example #13:

    b. *bo1 li2 ting2 zhi3 sui4    le5 man3 di4
    glass    stop       shatter Le whole floor
    intended: `The glass stopped shattering all over the floor.'
Example #14:

    (18)   a. Zhang1 san1 kan3 dao3 le5 shu4
    Zhangsan    chop fall Le tree
    `Zhangsan chopped the tree down.'
Example #15:

    b. Zhang1 san1 da3 sui4       le5 bo1 li2
    Zhangsan    hit shatter Le glass
    `Zhangsan shattered the glass.'
Example #16:

    (19)   a. Zhang1 san1 zheng4 zai4    ba3 shu4      kan3 dao    3
    Zhangsan     in.process.of Ba tree       chop fall
    `Zhangsan is chopping the tree down.'
Example #17:

    b. Zhang1 san1 zheng4 zai4    ba3 bo1 li2   da3 sui4
    Zhangsan     in.process.of Ba glass      hit shatter
    `Zhangsan is shattering the glass.'
Example #18:

    (23) Li3 si4 pang4 le5
    Lisi     fat   Le
    `Lisi gained weight.'
Example #19:

    (31)   a. ??ta1 zai4 yi1 nian2 nei4 gao1 le5
    he     at    one year in  taller Le
    `He grew in a year.'
Example #20:

    b. *ta1 gao1 le5 yi1 nian2
    he    taller Le one year
    `He grew for a year.'
Example #21:

    (32) ta1 yi1 shun4 jian1 gao1 le5
    he one moment       taller Le
    `He suddenly became taller.'
Example #22:

    (33)   a. *Zhang1 san1 zheng4 zai4     ying2 na4 pan2 qi2
    Zhangsan       in.process.of win    that Cl   chess.game
    intended: `Zhangsan is winning that chess game.'
Example #23:

    b. *huo3 che1 zheng4 zai4     dao4 le5
    train       in.process.of arrive Le
    intended: `The train is arriving.'
Example #24:

    (40)   a. ta1 gao1 /pang4 /lao3
    he taller/fatter/older
    `He is taller/fatter/older.' (compared to a person determined by context)
Example #25:

    b. shei2 gao1 /pang4 /lao3 ? ta1 gao1 /pang4 /lao3
    who taller/fatter/older he taller/fatter/older
    `Who's taller/fatter/older? He is.'
Example #26:

    (41) ta1 hen3 gao1 /pang4 /lao3
    he very taller/fatter/older
    `He is tall/fat/old.'
Example #27:

    (42) shu4      gao1 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree      taller ten centimeter
    ii.   `The tree is ten centimeters taller.' (than something determined by contex
Example #28:

    (43) shu4      gao1 le4 shi2 gung1 fen1
    tree      taller Le ten centimeter
    ii.   `The tree is ten centimeters taller.' (than something determined by contex
Example #29:

    (44) zhe4     fang2 jian1 xiao5    le5 yi1 dian3
    this     room        smaller Le one bit
    ii.    `The room grew smaller.'