ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

SACHIKO AOSHIMA (2001). Mono-clausality in Japanese Obligatory Control Constructions.

URL: http://academic2.american.edu/~aoshima/papers/895-F2.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2446&langcode=jpn (2018-01-21).

 

Example #1:

    e.g.     John1 - ga [[PRO 1 sono ronbun- o yomi] wasureta].
    John- Nom          the paper-Acc read forgot
    `John forgot to read the paper.'
Example #2:

    e.g.     John1 - wa [[PRO 1 sono ronbun- o yon] de] mita.
    John-Nom                    the paper-Acc read to       tried
    `John tried to read the paper.'
Example #3:

    (i)        ani1 -ga         [[PRO1 zitensya-o naosi] te] kureta/ageta.
    My brother-Nom            bike-Acc      fix to gave
    `My brother fix the bike for me/my friend.'
Example #4:

    (ii)       John-g a Mary 1 -ni [[PRO1 sono hon -o      yon] de] moratta.
    John -Nom Mary-Dat            that book -Acc read to received
    `John got Mary to read that book.'
Example #5:

    e.g.    John- ga      Mary1 - ni [[PRO 1 sono ronbun- o yomu] yooni] itta.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat               the paper-Acc read         to      told
    `John told Mary to read the paper.'
Example #6:

    kokoromita.
    tried
    `John tried that he would read the paper.'
Example #7:

    e.g.    John1 - ga   [[PRO 1 ronbun- o kaku] koto- o]             kokoromita.
    John-Nom                paper-Acc write      fact -Acc   tried
    `John tried that he wrote a paper.'
Example #8:

    b.       John1 - ga [[PRO 1      sono ronbun- o yon] de] mita.
    John-Nom               that paper-Acc read to          tried
    `John tried to read that paper.'
Example #9:

    (i)     John-wa Mary -ni ki te hosikatta koto wa hosikatta.
    John -Top Mary-Dat come to wanted thing-Foc wanted
    'John did want Mary to come.'
Example #10:

    d.      John- ga Mary1 - ni [[PRO 1 sono ronbun- o yomu] yooni] itta.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat           that paper-Acc read to        told
    `John told Mary to read that paper.'
Example #11:

    (7)    a.      John1 - ga [PRO 1 zibunzisin1/*2- o home- ]sobireta.
    John-Nom            himself -Acc       praise-failed
    'John failed to praise himself.'
Example #12:

    b.      John1 - ga [[PRO 1 zibunzisin1/*2- o home] te] mita.
    John-Nom             himself -Acc       praise to       tried
    `John tried to praise himself.'
Example #13:

    yooni] tanonda.
    to      asked
    'John asked Mary to praise himself/herself.'
Example #14:

    to]  omotta.
    Comp thought
    'Bill thought that John failed to praise himself.'
Example #15:

    to] omotta.
    Comp thought
    `Bill thought that John tried to praise himself.'
Example #16:

    homeru] yooni] itta koto- o]        sitteiru.
    praise      to     told that -Acc knew
    'Bill knew that John told Mary to evaluate himself/herself.'
Example #17:

    (9)    a.   [Mary1 - no hahaoya]2 - ga [PRO 2 zibunzisin*1/2 - o home- ] sobireta.
    Mary-Gen mother-Nom                  herself -Acc          praise-failed
    'Mary's mother failed to praise herself.'
Example #18:

    b.   [Mary1 - no hahaoya]2 - ga [[PRO 2 zibunzisin*1/2 - o home] te] mita.
    [Mary-Gen mother] -Nom                herself -Acc        praise to tried
    'Mary's mother tried to praise herself.'
Example #19:

    homeru] yooni] itta.
    praise      to        told
    'Mary's mother told John to praise him/herself.'
Example #20:

    (10)   a.   John1 - ga   [PRO 1 kaeri- ] kaneta node, Bill- mo soo sita.
    John-Nom              leave hesitated so that Bill-also so did
    'John hesitated to leave , and Bill did too.' = Bill hesitated to leave .
Example #21:

    Bill- mo soo sita.
    Bill-also so did
    `John tried to praise himself and Bill did too.'
Example #22:

    Bill- mo soo sita.
    Bill-also so did.
    'John told Mary to praise him and Bill did, too.'
Example #23:

    moratta.
    received
    `John got Mary to evaluate each other.'
Example #24:

    (12)     a.       Mary1 - ga       [PRO 1 zibun- no syasin- o            erabi- ]kaneta.
    Mary-Nom            self -Gen picture -Acc choose-hesitated
    'Mary hesitated to choose her picture.'
Example #25:

    b.       Mary1 - ga      [[PRO 1 zibun- no syasin- o eran] de] mita.
    Mary-Nom                self -Gen picture -Acc choose to tried
    'Mary tried to choose her picture.'
Example #26:

    yooni] settokusita.
    to         persuaded
    'John persuaded Mary to choose her picture.'
Example #27:

    (13)    a.      John1 - dake- ga    [PRO 1 sono ronbun- o yomi- ] sobireta
    John-only- Nom            the paper-Acc read failed
    `Only John failed to read the paper.'
Example #28:

    b.      John1 - dake- ga    [[PRO 1 sono ronbun- o    yon] de] mita.
    John-only- Nom            that paper-Acc read to         tried
    `Only John tried to read that paper.'
Example #29:

    yooni] itta.
    to       told
    'John told only Mary to read that paper.'
Example #30:

    kokoromita.
    tried
    `John tried to read the paper.'
Example #31:

    to] tanonda.
    Comp asked
    `John asked Mary to read that paper.'
Example #32:

    b.      John- ga      Mary1 - ni [[PRO 1 ronbun- o kaku] koto- o] tanonda.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat               paper-Acc write fact -Acc asked
    `John asked Mary to write a paper.'
Example #33:

    to   sinzir- areteiru.
    Comp believ e-Pass
    'It is believed that evaluating oneself is bold.'
Example #34:

    to sinzir- areteiru.
    Comp believe-Pass
    'It is believed that evaluating oneself is important.'
Example #35:

    da]       to]     sinzirareteiru] koto- o     sitteita.
    Copula Comp believe-Pass fact -Acc knew.
    'John knew that it is believed that evaluating himself is bold.'
Example #36:

    da]       to]     sinzirareteiru] koto- o     sitteita.
    Copula Comp believe-Pass fact -Acc knew.
    important.'
Example #37:

    to]- wa   daitan da]              to]   omotta.
    Comp-Top bold            Copula Comp thought
    'Mary's teacher thought that evaluating that paper was bold.'
Example #38:

    koto]- ga taisetu        da]       to]       omotta.
    fact -Acc important Copula Comp thought
    important.'
Example #39:

    node Bill- mo soo sita.
    so that Bill-Nom so did
    (Lit.) 'John tried to evaluate himself, and Bill did, too.'
Example #40:

    node       Bill- mo soo sita.
    so that Bill-Nom so did
    (Lit.) 'John tried to evaluate himself, and Bill did, too.'
Example #41:

    to]- wa daitan da      to]               itta.
    fact -Nom bold Copula that               told
    'John told Mary that choosing her picture was bold.'
Example #42:

    koto- ga] taisetu da                 to] itta.
    fact -Nom important Copula that                  told
    'John told Mary that choosing her picture was important.'
Example #43:

    muri            da]          to]      itta.
    impossible Copula Comp told
    `John told only Mary that beating him is impossible.'
Example #44:

    muri          da]       to]      itta.
    impossible Copula Comp told
    `John told only Mary that beating him is impossible.'
Example #45:

    (23)      John1 - wa [[ Bill2 - ga Mary3 - ni zibunzisin*            - o subete sasageta] to] omotta
    John-Top Bill-Nom Mary- Dat himself -Acc                      all      devote that thought
    `John thought that Bill devoted all of himself to Mary.'
Example #46:

    (i)       John1 -wa [[Bill2 -ga zibunzisin ? * 1/2 -o hihansita] to ] o motta.
    John -Top Bill-Nom himself-Acc              criticized that thought
    `John thought that Bill criticized himself.'
Example #47:

    (25)      John1 - ga Mary2 - ni [[PRO 2 zibunzisin1/2 - o   hinansi] te] moratta.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat             himself/herself -Acc criticize to received
    `John had Mary criticize himself/herself.'
Example #48:

    (26)      John1 - ga Mary2 - ni [[PRO 2 zibunzisin1/2 - o       hinansuru] yooni] tanonda.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat             himself/herself -Acc criticize to            asked
    `John asked Mary to criticize himself/herself.'
Example #49:

    (27)    Senseetati1 - ga gakuseetati2 - ni [[PRO 2 otagai1/2 - o     syookaisi] te] moratta.
    Teachers-Nom students-Dat                   each other-Acc introduce to received
    `The teachers had the students introduce each other.'
Example #50:

    (28)    Senseetati1 - ga gakuseetati2 - ni [[PRO 2 otagai1/2 - o syookaisuru] yooni] itta.
    Teachers-Nom students-Dat                   each other-Acc introduce to            told
    `The teachers told the students to introduce each other.'
Example #51:

    (i)     John1 -ga iinkai2 -ni     [[PRO2 zibunzisin 1 -o   hinansi] te] moratta.
    John -Nom committee-Dat            himself-Acc     criticize to received
    `John had the committee criticize himself.'
Example #52:

    (ii)    John1 -ga iinkai2 -ni    [[PRO2 zibunzisin 1 -o    hinansuru] yooni] tanonda.
    John -Nom committee-Dat           himself-Acc       criticize to     asked
    `John asked the committee to criticize himself.'
Example #53:

    (29)        a.       *Boku- wa [John- ga          nanimo taberu to]        omowa- na- katta.
    I-Top         John-Nom       nothing eat         Comp think -Neg-Past
    'I did not think that John ate anything.'
Example #54:

    (31)       a.       John- wa [PRO nanimo nomi]- tuke- na- katta.
    John-Top     nothing drink -used to-Neg-past
    'John was not used to drinking anything.'
Example #55:

    b.       John- wa [[PRO nanimo nom] de] mi- na- katta.
    John-Top           nothing drink to           try-Neg-Past
    `John did not try to drink anything.'
Example #56:

    (i)        John-ga sono hon -o         yon -de naita.
    John -Nom that book -Acc read-Part cried
    'John read that book and cried.'
Example #57:

    (33)     *John- wa Mary- ni [[PRO nanimo nomu] yooni] iwa- na- katta.
    John-Top Mary-Dat            nothing drink            to       tell-Neg-Past
    `John told Mary to drink nothing.'
Example #58:

    (35)        a.     John- wa Bill- ni [doo sono syoo- o             zitai- suru   yooni] itta no?
    John-Top Bill-Dat how that prize-Acc turn down to                     told Q
    'Howi did John tell Bill [to turn down that prize ti]?'
Example #59:

    b.     *John- wa Bill- ni [naze sono syoo- o zitai- suru yooni] itta no?
    John-Top Bill-Dat why that prize-Acc turn down to         told Q
    'Whyi did John tell Bill [to turn down that prize ti]?'
Example #60:

    (36)    a.      John- ga   [PRO naze Mary- ni         tegami- o kaki- ] wasureta no?
    John-Nom         why Mary-Dat letter-Acc write forgot          Q
    Why did John forget to write the letter?'
Example #61:

    b.      *John- wa Mary- no        koto- ga  kininatta kara.
    John-Top Mary-Gen        thing-Nom worried because
    'Because John worried about Mary.'
Example #62:

    c.      John- wa betuno yooji- ga             atta kara.
    John-Top another business-Nom had because
    'Because John had another thing to do.'
Example #63:

    (37)    *John- ga [[PRO naze sono sakana - o tabe] te] mita no.
    John-Nom      why the fish-Acc eat           to tried Q
    'Why1 did John try [to eat the fish t1 ]?'
Example #64:

    (38)     Mary- ga nihongo- o/ga   umaku hanas- eru.
    Mary-Nom Japanese-Acc/Nom well speak -can
    'Mary can speak Japanese well.'
Example #65:

    (i)      *Kyonen John-ga          [PRO sono ronbun-o gonen mae-ni kaki] naosita
    last year John-Nom          the paper-Acc five years ago write fixed
    '(lit.) Last year John rewrote the paper that he wrote five years ago.'
Example #66:

    (i)      John1 -ga Mary 2 -ni [pro 2 zibunzisin 1/2 -o home -ro    to] meijita.
    John -Nom Mary-Dat         oneself-Acc praise-ImpMd Comp ordered
    'John ordered Mary that pro praise him/herself.'
Example #67:

    (iii)    *John-ga [pro naze Mary -o home -yoo             to] kokoromita no.
    John -Nom why Mary-Acc praise-IntMd Comp tried                      Q
    'Why did John try that pro would praise Mary t.'
Example #68:

    (iv)     John1 -ga Mary 2 -ni [Bill3 -ga    zibunzisin 1 /3 -o home -ro      to] meijita.
    John -Nom Mary-Dat Bill-Nom oneself-Acc praise-ImpMd Comp ordered
    'John ordered Mary that Bill should praise him/herself.'
Example #69:

    (v )     * John-ga [Mary -ga     Bill-o home -yoo          to]   kokoromita.
    John -Nom Mary-Nom Bill-Acc praise-IntMd Comp tried
    'John tried that Mary would praise Bill.'
Example #70:

    (42)     Hon- o         takusan yom- u       yooni    *(to).
    Book -Acc       many   read-nonpast modal-aux Comp
    'You should read many books.'                                    (Uchibori 1996:
Example #71:

    meiji/motome/susume -ta.
    order/require/urge-past
    'The principal ordered/required/urged the teachers to prise the students.'
Example #72:

    (43)      a.       John- wa itumo gakko- de ranti- o               tabe- ru.
    John-Top usually school-at lunch-Acc eat -Nonpast
    'John usually eats lunch at school.'
Example #73:

    b.       John- wa gakko- de kinoo             ranti- o      tabe- ta.
    John-Top school-at yesterday lunch-Acc eat -Past
    'John ate lunch at school yesterday.'
Example #74:

    d.       John- wa moo     ranti- o tabe- ta.
    John-Top already lunch-Acc eat -Perfect
    'John has already eaten lunch.'
Example #75:

    (47)     John- ga      Maryi- ni [[PRO i sono ringo- o tabe- u/*ta]                  yooni] itta.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat            that apple-Acc eat -Imperfect/Perfect to told
    `John told Mary to eat/*have eaten that apple.'
Example #76:

    (50)    John- ga Mary- ni [PRO mainiti gakko- de ranti- o taberu yooni] itta.
    John-Nom Mary-Dat every day school-at lunch-Acc eat         to      told
    'John told Mary to eat lunch at school every day.'
Example #77:

    yooni] itta.
    to      told
    'John told Mary to praise himself/herself.'
Example #78:

    (57)   a.      *John- wa Bill- ni [naze sono syoo- o zitai- suru yooni] itta no?
    John-Top Bill-Dat why that prize-Acc turn down to         told Q
    'Whyi did John tell Bill [to turn down that prize ti]?'
Example #79:

    [VP soo si]- kaneta.
    so do-hesitated
    'John hesitated to eat that apple, and Bill hesitated to do so.'
Example #80:

    [VP soo si- te] mita.
    so do-to      tried
    `John tried to eat that apple, and Bill also tried to.'
Example #81:

    Bill- mo [VP soo suru yooni] itta.
    Bill-also     so do to        told
    (Lit.)'John told Mary to eat that apple and Bill told her to do so, too.'
Example #82:

    (64)    Emi- ga [VP ringo- ga tabe] - rare- ru.
    Emi-Nom     apple-Nom eat -can-pres
    `Emi can eat apples.'                                  (Wurmbrand 1998: 135)
Example #83:

    (68)    a.       *sono zitensya- ga naosi te mi- rare- ta.
    the bike-Nom          repair to try-passive-past
    '*The bike was tried to repair.'
Example #84:

    to] itta] (koto).
    that said fact
    'Each other's teachers said that Mary criticized them.'
Example #85:

    to] itta] (koto).
    that said fact
    'Them, each other's teachers said that Mary criticized'
Example #86:

    homeru yooni tanonda]] (koto).
    praise    to      asked        fact
    'John asked each other's teachers to praise them.'
Example #87:

    homeru yooni tanonda]]]] (koto).
    praise to      asked      fact
    'Them, John asked each other's teachers to praise.'
Example #88:

    homeru yooni tanonda]]]] (koto).
    praise to      asked       fact
    'Them, John asked each other's teachers to praise.'
Example #89:

    syookais ita]] (koto).
    introduced fact
    'John introduced them to each other's teachers.'
Example #90:

    syookaisita]]] (koto).
    introduced          fact
    'Them, John introduced to each other's teachers.'
Example #91:

    syookaisita]]] (koto).
    introduced          fact
    'Them, John introduced to each other's teachers.'
Example #92:

    tanonda]]] (koto).
    asked      fact
    'Himself/herself, John asked Mary to praise.'
Example #93:

    tanonda]]] (koto).
    asked         fact
    ''Himself/herself, John asked Mary to praise.'
Example #94:

    (80)    a.      John- ga    Billi- o Maryj- ni    [tj ti homeru] yooni itta (koto).
    John-Nom Bill-Acc Mary-Dat                                         praise                to         told fact
    'Billi, John told Mary to praise ti.'
Example #95:

    b.    Billi- o John- ga Maryj- ni           [tj ti homeru] yooni itta (koto).
    Bill-Acc John-Nom Mary-Dat                                          praise                to            told fact
    'Billi, John told Mary to praise ti.'
Example #96:

    homeru yooni tanonda]]]] (koto).
    praise     to          asked    fact
    'Them, John asked each other's teachers to praise.'
Example #97:

    homeru yooni tanonda]]]] (koto).
    praise     to          asked    fact
    'Them, John asked each other's teachers to praise.'
Example #98:

    tanonda]]]] (koto).
    asked      fact
    'Himself/herself, John asked Mary to praise.'
Example #99:

    tanonda]]]] (koto).
    asked           fact
    ''Himself/herself, John asked Mary to praise.'
Example #100:

    (90)     Homeru yooni itta no- wa [John- ga Mary- ni                 zibunzisin- o] da.
    praize to        told NL-Top John-Nom Mary-Dat self -Acc                      Copula
    (Lit) 'It's [John, Mary, him/herself] that told to praise.'
Example #101:

    (i)      Ageta no -wa [Mary -ga John-ni ringo-o 3-tu] da.
    gave NL-Top Mary-Nom John-Dat apple-Acc 3 -CL be
    Lit. 'It's [Mary three apples to John] that gave.'
Example #102:

    John-ga        Bill-ni ringo-o mittu           da.
    John -Nom Bill-Dat apples-Acc three-cl Copula.
    (lit.) 'It's John, Bill, three apples that wisely ordered to buy before he went
Example #103:

    (91)    *John- ga     zibuzisini- o Mary- ni [CP Tomi- ga        ti hometa to] itta (koto).
    John-Nom himself -Acc Mary-Dat             Tom-Nom         praised that told fact
    (Lit) 'Himselfi, John told Mary that Tomi praised ti.'
Example #104:

    Tomi- ga zibuzisini- o da.
    Tom-Nom himself -Acc Copura
    (Lit) 'It's Tomi himselfi that John told Mary that he praised.'
Example #105:

    to] nenjita.
    Comp prayed
    'John prayed that Mary could speak Japanese much better.'
Example #106:

    yooni/home- ro/- tekure to] inotta (koto)
    modal aux/praise-subj Comp     prayed fact
    'Himself, John prayed that Mary would praise.'
Example #107:

    ti suisensuru yooni/suisensi- ro/- tekure to] inotta (koto).
    recommend modal aux/recommend-subj Comp prayed fact
    `Them, each other's teachers prayed that the principal would
Example #108:

    yooni/home- ro/- tekure to] inotta (koto).
    modal aux/praise-subj Comp prayed fact
    'Himself, John prayed that Mary would praise.'
Example #109:

    [Mary- ga   zibunzisin- o] da.
    Mary-Nom          him/herself -Acc Copula
    Lit. 'It's [Mary, him/herself] that John prayed to praise.'
Example #110:

    [John-ga       Mary -ga     zibunzisin -o ]      da.
    John -Nom Mary-Nom him/herself-Acc Copula
    Lit. 'It's [Mary would praise Bill] that John prayed.'