The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Liina Pylkkänen (2002). Introducing Arguments.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/theses/pylkkanen02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2522&langcode=bem (2019-01-22).


Example #1:

    (209)       Naa-butwiish-ya        Mwape   ulubilo.
    I.past-run-CAUSE       Mwape   fast
    (ii)     *'I QUICKLY MADE Mwape run'
Example #2:

    (210)   a. Naa-mu-fuund-ishya         uku- laanda iciBemba ku-mufulo
    I-PAST-him-learn-CAUSE to-speak            Bemba on-purpose
    (ii)   *`I made him on purpose learn to speak Bemba'
Example #3:

    b. Naa-mon-an-ya       Mwape na Mutumba
    I.past-see-REC-CAUS Mwape and Mutumba
    `I made Mwape and Mutumba see each other'
Example #4:

    b. *Naa-tem-en-eshya Mwape Mutumba iciimuti
    I-cut-BEN-CAUS Mwape Mutumba stick
    `I made Mwape cut Mutumba a stick'