ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Liina Pylkkänen (2002). Introducing Arguments.

URL: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/theses/pylkkanen02.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2522&langcode=jpn (2018-04-25).

 

Example #1:

    Taroo-ga Hanako-ni          tegami-o kaita.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT letter-ACC wrote
    `Taro wrote Hanako a letter'
Example #2:

    *Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni hasitta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT run-PAST
    `Taro ran for Hanako'
Example #3:

    *Taroo-ga Hanako-ni        kanojo -no kaban-o      motta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT she -GEN bag-ACC               held
    `Taro held Hanako her bag'
Example #4:

    Taroo-ga katuo-o              nama -de    tabe -ta
    Taro-NOM bonito-ACC           raw         eat-PAST
    `Taro ate the bonito raw'
Example #5:

    Taroo-ga ie -o          hadaka -de nut-ta.
    Taro-NOM house-ACC naked           paint-PAST
    `Taro painted the house naked'
Example #6:

    *Kono- ie -ga      hadaka -de nur-are-ta
    this-house-NOM naked           paint-PASS-PAST
    `This house was painted naked'
Example #7:

    *Tarooga Hanako-kara kimono -sugata -de ringo-o           morat-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-from kimono-dressed            apple -ACC receive -PAST
    `Taro received an apple from Hanako dressed in a kimono'
Example #8:

    a. Taroo-ga hadaka -de Hanako-ni         hon-o         yonda
    Taro-NOM naked         Hanako-DAT book-ACC read
    `Taro read Hanako a book naked' False if Taro isn't naked
Example #9:

    b. Taroo-ga Hanako-ni        hadaka -de hon-o           yonda
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT naked              book-ACC read
    `Taro read Hanako a book naked' Fals e if Taro isn't naked
Example #10:

    Heya -ga       (dorobou-ni-yotte) aras-are -ta
    room-NOM       thief-BY             destroy-PASS-PAST
    'The room was destroyed (by the thief)'
Example #11:

    Taro-ga    dorobou-ni heya -o      aras-are -ta
    Taro-NOM thief-DAT room-ACC destroy-PASS-PAST
    'Taro's room got destroyed on him by the thief'
Example #12:

    Hanako-ga      dorobo-ni yubiwa-o to-rare-ta.
    Hanako-NOM thief-DAT ring-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was affected by the thief stealing her ring'
Example #13:

    Taro-ga     Hanako-ni       shinkoushukyoo-o hajime -rare-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT new religion-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was adversely affected by Hanako starting a new religion on him'
Example #14:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni       Martin Luther King-o       tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-DAT Martin Luther King-ACC rescue -PASS-PAST
    `Kennedy rescued Martin Luther King to Nixon's detriment'
Example #15:

    *Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni-yotte Martin Luther King-o             ta suke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-BY           Martin Luther King-ACC rescue -PASS-PAST
    `Martin Luther King was rescued by Kennedy to Nixon's detriment'
Example #16:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni/ni-yotte      inochi-o    tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-DAT/BY          life-ACC save -PASS-PAST
    `Nixon had Kennedy save his life'
Example #17:

    Nixon-wa Kennedy-ni-yotte inochi-o           tasuke -rare -ta
    Nixon-TOP Kennedy-BY           life-ACC      save -PASS-PAST
    `Nixon had Kennedy save his life'
Example #18:

    Sono daishujutsu-ga         (Yamada ishi-n iyotte) shittoo-o          kaishis -are-ta
    that    big.operation-NOM Yamada -by                performance-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    `That big operation had Dr. Yamada start its performance'      (Kubo 1992: ex. 2
Example #19:

    *Iwa-ga         ame -ni        fu-rare-ta
    rock-NOM rain-DAT fall-PASS-PAST
    `The rock had rain fall on it'                                   (Kubo 1992: ex.
Example #20:

    Hanako-ga      dorobo-ni yubiwa-o to-rare-ta.
    Hanako-NOM thief-DAT ring-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    'Hanako was affected by the thief stealing her ring'
Example #21:

    Taro-ga     Hanako-ni       shinkoushukyoo-o hajime -rare-ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT new religion-ACC begin-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was adversely affected by Hanako starting a new religion him'
Example #22:

    ??Chiimu-ga coochi-ni             nak-are-ta
    team-NOM        coach-dat         cry-PASS-PST
    'The team was a ffected by it's coach crying'
Example #23:

    Taro-ga          coochi-ni  nak-are-ta
    Taro-NOM         coach-dat  cry-PASS-PST
    'Taro's coach cried on him'
Example #24:

    *Taro-ga Jiro-ni- yotte      sara-o            mot-are-ta
    Taro-NOM Jiro-BY             plates-ACC        hold-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Jiro holding the plates'
Example #25:

    Taro-ga     Jiro-ni      sara-o          mot-are-ta
    Taro-NOM Jiro-DAT plates-ACC             hold-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Jiro holding the plates'
Example #26:

    Taroo-ga ame -ni     hur-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM rain-DAT fall-PASS-PAST
    `Taro got rained on'
Example #27:

    *Taroo -ga hadaka-de ame -ni       hur-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM naked             rain-DAT fall-P ASS-PAST
    `Taro got rained on naked '
Example #28:

    Taroo-ga ie -o          hadaka -de nutta.
    Taro-NOM house-ACC naked           painted
    `Taro painted the house naked'
Example #29:

    Musume -wa dorobou-ni-yotte hairpin-o                   tor-are-ta.
    girl-TOP         thief-BY              hairpin-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    `The girl was affected by the thief stealing her hairpin'
Example #30:

    *Musume -wa kimono -sugata -de dorobou-ni-yotte hairpin-o                   tor-are-ta.
    girl-TOP         kimono-dress          thief-BY            hairpin-ACC steal-PASS-PAST
    `The girl was affected by the thief stealing her hairpin while she was dressed i
Example #31:

    Hanako-ga      kimono-sugata -de mir-are-ta
    Hanako-NOM dressed-in-kimono see-PASS-PAST
    `Hanako was seen in a kimono'
Example #32:

    Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni        waraw -are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT laugh-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by Hanako's laughing'
Example #33:

    Hanako-    ga    wazato      warat-ta.
    Hanako-    NOM on.purpose laugh-PAST
    `Hanako    laughed on purpose'
Example #34:

    *Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni        wazato         waraw -are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT on.purpose                laugh-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by Hanako's laughing on purpose'
Example #35:

    Tarooi -wa Hanakoj -o       zibuni/*j -no kuruma -kara or-osi-ta.
    Taro-TOP Hanako-ACC self -GEN car-FROM                 get.out-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taroo cause Hanako to get out of his car'
Example #36:

    Tarooi -wa Hanakoj -o       zibuni/j -no kuruma -kara ori-sase-ta.
    Taro-TOP Hanako-ACC self -GEN car-FROM                get.out-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taroo cause Hanako to get out of his/her car'
Example #37:

    Tarooi -ga Hanakoj -ni     zibuni/j -no heya -de   hirunes-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT self -GEN heya -IN             nap-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was affected by Hanako napping in his/her room'
Example #38:

    Tarooi -ga Hanakoj -ni     zibuni/*j -no heya -de      mi-rare-ta.
    Taro-NOM Hanako-DAT self -GEN heya -IN                 see-PASS-PAST
    'Taro was seen by Hanako in his/*her room'
Example #39:

    Hanakoi -no      zibuni -no heya -de-no hirune
    Hanako-GEN self -GEN room-IN-GEN nap.NOM
    'Hanakoi 's nap in heri room'
Example #40:

    *Hanako-no      zibun-no heya -de-no   wazato hirune
    Hanako-GEN self -GEN room-IN-GEN on.purpose nap.NOM
    '*Hanako's nap in her room on purpose'
Example #41:

    Yasai-ga            kusa-tta.
    vegetable -NOM      rot-PAST
    `The vegetable rotted'
Example #42:

    Taroo-ga yasai-o kus-ase -ta.
    Taro-NOM vegetable -ACC rot-CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro caused the vegetable to rot'
Example #43:

    John-ga     kodomo-o nak-asi-ta.
    John-NOM child-ACC cry-CAUSE-PAST
    `John made the child cry'
Example #44:

    John-ga     Taroo-ni Eigo-o             os-hie -ta.
    John-NOM Taro-DAT English-ACC learn-CAUS-PAST
    `John taught Taro English' (Lit: John made Taro learn English)
Example #45:

    (155)   Taroo-ga musuko- o            sin-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM son-ACC              die -CAUSE-PAST
    (ii) `Taro' s son died on him' (the adversity causative)
Example #46:

    (156)   Musuko-ga sin-ase-rare -ta.
    son-NOM         die -CAUSE-PASS-PAST
    (ii) *'Somebody's son died on them' (implicit affected argument)
Example #47:

    Taroo-ga musuko- ni sin-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM son-DAT die -PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son died on him'
Example #48:

    Taroo-ga musuko- ni sin-are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM son-DAT die -PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son died on him'
Example #49:

    Taroo-ga        sensoo-ni-yotte musuko- o sin-ase-ta
    Taroo-NOM war-BY                son-ACC die -CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro's son was caused to die on him by the war'
Example #50:

    *Taroo-ga       sensoo-ni-yotte musuko- ni sin-are-ta
    Taroo-NOM war-BY                son-DAT die -PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son died on him by the war'
Example #51:

    Nikki- ga        Hanako-ni-yotte   yom-are-ta.
    diary-NOM Hanako-BY         read-PASS-PAST
    `The diary was read by Hanako'
Example #52:

    *Yasai-ga      Hanako-ni-yotte    kusa-tta.
    Vegetable -NOM Hanako-BY          rot-PAST
    `*The vegetable rotted by Hanako'
Example #53:

    *Yasai-ga           kouon-ni-yotte    kusa-tta.
    Vegetable -NOM high.temperature-BY rot-PAST
    `*The vegetable rotted by the heat'
Example #54:

    (160)        Taroo-wa kawa-wo oyogu koto ni- yotte mukougisi-ni             watatta.
    Taro-TOP river-ACC swim C BY                the -other-side -DAT got
    `Taro got to the other side by swimming across the river'
Example #55:

    *Taroo-ga       Hanako-ni-yotte     musuko- o sin-ase-ta
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-BY                 son-ACC die -CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro's son was caused to die on him by Hanako'
Example #56:

    Musuko-ga Hanako-ni-yotte      sin-ase-rare -ta
    son-NOM Hanako-BY              die -CAUSE-PASS-PAST
    `The son was caused to die by Hanako'
Example #57:

    Musuko-ga sensoo-ni-yotte       sin-ase-rare -ta
    son-NOM war-BY                  die -CAUSE-PASS-PAST
    `The son was caused to die by the war'
Example #58:

    Sensoo-ga Taro-o       sin-ase-ta
    war-NOM Taro-ACC die -CAUSE- PAST
    `The war caused Taro to die'
Example #59:

    Taroo-ga        titioya -ni   sin-are-ta.
    Taro-NOM        father -DAT die -PASS-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his father dying'
Example #60:

    #Taroo-ga       titioya -o        sin-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM        father-ACC       die -CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro was affected by his father dying'
Example #61:

    ??Taroo-ga    musuko- o katteni korob-ase-ta
    Taro-NOM      son-ACC by.self fall.down-CAUSE-PAST
    `Something caused Taro's son to fall down on him all by himself'
Example #62:

    Taroo-ga        musuko- ni katteni korob-are-ta
    Taro-NOM son-DAT by.self fall.down-PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son fell down on him all by himself'
Example #63:

    Taroo-ga       katteni     koronda.
    Taro-NOM       by.self     fell.down
    `Taro fell down all by himself'
Example #64:

    Hanako-ga     wazato      warat-ta.
    Hanako-NOM on.purpose laugh-PAST
    `Hanako laughed on purpose'
Example #65:

    *Taroo-ga      Hanako-ni        wazato         waraw -are-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Hanako-DAT on.purpose                laugh-PASS-PAST
    `Taro was adversely affected by Hanako's laughing on purpose'
Example #66:

    (190)   a. Taroo-wa niku-o         kog-asi-ta.
    Taro-TOP meat-ACC burn-CAUSE-PAST
    (ii) `The meat got scorched to Taro's detriment'       (adversity)
Example #67:

    b. Taroo-ga hahaoya -o          sin-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM mother-ACC die -CAUSE-PAST
    (ii) `Taro's mother died on him'                       (adversity)
Example #68:

    c. Taroo-wa niku-o         koge -sase-ta.
    Taro-TOP meat-ACC burn-CAUSE-PAST
    (ii) *`The meat got scorched to Taro's detriment'      (adversity)
Example #69:

    (191)    a. Taroo-ga musuko- o isagiyoku sin-ase-ta.
    Taro-NOM son-ACC bravely              die -CAUSE-PAST
    (ii) *`Something caused Taro to be adversely affected by his son dying bravely.'
Example #70:

    (192)        Taroo-ga musuko- o sini-taku-sase-ta.
    Taro-NOM son-ACC die -DES-CAUSE-PST
    (ii) *`Taro was adversely affected by his son wanting to die'
Example #71:

    Taroo-wa niku-o         kog-e-sase-ta.
    Taro-TOP meat-ACC burn-INTRANS-CAUSE-PST
    (ii) *`The meat got scorched to Taro's detriment.'
Example #72:

    Taroo-wa niku-o         kog-asi-ta.
    Taro-TOP meat-ACC burn-CAUSE-PST
    (ii) `The meat got scorched to Taro's detriment.'(adversity)
Example #73:

    (225)         John-ga    kodomo-o nak-asi-ta.
    John-NOM child-ACC cry-CAUSE-PAST
    `John made the child cry'
Example #74:

    *Taroo-ga        hatake shigoto-ni sei-o                  de-sase -ta
    Taroo-NOM farm work-DAT energy-ACC                        come.out-CAUSE
    'Taro did the farm work diligently'
Example #75:

    Taroo-ga Hanako-o        heya -kara     de-sase -ta
    Taro-NOM Hanako-ACC room-FROM come.out-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taro made Hanako come out of the room'
Example #76:

    Ano     kodomo-ga itumo oya-o                   nak-asi-te                iru
    that    child-NOM always parents-ACC            cry-CAUSE-PROG            be
    'That child is always troubling his parents'
Example #77:

    *Keisatsu-ga Taroo-ni dorobo-o ie -kara                de-sase -sase-ta
    police-NOM Taro-DAT thief-ACC house-FROM come.out.-CAUSE-CAUSE-PAST
    'The police made Taro make the thief come out of the house'
Example #78:

    Taroo-ga        Jiroo- ni   sensei-o          nak-as-ase-ta.
    Taroo-NOM Jiroo-DAT teacher-ACC               cry-CAUSE-CAUSE-PAST
    'Taro made Jiro make the teacher cry'
Example #79:

    b. Kodomo- ga     odori-sugi-ta
    child-NOM dance-TOO-PAST
    (ii)   *Too many children danced.                             (quantitative)
Example #80:

    (231)       Kodomo- ga naki-sugi-ta
    child-NOM cry-TOO-PAST
    (ii)   *`Too many children cried'
Example #81:

    ??Taroo-ga    musuko- o katteni korob-ase-ta
    Taro-NOM      son-ACC by.self fall.down-CAUSE-PAST
    `Something caused Taro's son to fall down on him all by himself'
Example #82:

    Taroo-ga        musuko- ni katteni korob-are-ta
    Taro-NOM son-DAT by.self fall.down-PASS-PAST
    `Taro's son fell down on him all by himself'
Example #83:

    Taroo-ga       katteni     koronda.
    Taro-NOM       by.self     fell.down
    `Taro fell down all by himself'
Example #84:

    (242)        *Taroo-ga katteni arui-tei-ru.
    Taro-NOM by.self walk -PROG-PRES
    'Taro is walking by himself'
Example #85:

    (243)        Robotto- ga     katteni arui-tei-ru.
    robot-NOM       by.self walk -PROG-PRES
    'The robot is walking by himself'
Example #86:

    Taroo-ga        sensoo-ni-yotte musuko- o sin-ase-ta
    Taroo-NOM war-BY                son-ACC die -CAUSE-PAST
    `Taro's son was caused to die on him by the war'