ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ken Hiraiwa (2000). On Nominative-Genitive Conversion*.

URL: http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~hiraiwa/documents/NGC_MITWPL39.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2692&langcode=jpn (2018-10-18).

 

Example #1:

    a.    Kinoo     John ga      katta           hon
    yesterday John-NOM buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #2:

    b.          Kinoo     John no     katta            hon
    yesterday John-GEN buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #3:

    a.    Kinoo       John ga      katta         hon
    yesterday   John-NOM buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #4:

    b.     Kinoo       John no     katta          hon
    yesterday John-GEN buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #5:

    wo     sira-nakatta
    -ACC know-NOT-PST
    `John didn't know that Mary came yesterday.'
Example #6:

    wo     sira-nakat-ta
    -ACC know-NOT-PST.
    `John didn't know that Mary came yesterday.'
Example #7:

    a.    John ga     kita.
    John-NOM come-PST-END
    `John came here.'
Example #8:

    b.   *John no     kita.
    John-GEN come-PST-END
    `John came here.'
Example #9:

    a.    John wa [CP kinoo      Mary ga      kita  to] sinjiteita
    John-TOP yesterday Mary-NOM come-PST C believe-PST
    `John believed that Mary came yesterday.'
Example #10:

    b.   *John wa [CP kinoo      Mary no     kita   to] sinjiteita
    John-TOP yesterday Mary-GEN come-PST C believe-PST
    `John believed that Mary came yesterday.'
Example #11:

    a.    John wa [CP kinoo     dare ga    kita ka] tazuneta
    John-TOP yesterday who-NOM come-PST C ask-PST
    `John asked who came yesterday.'
Example #12:

    b.    *John wa [CP kinoo     dare no    kita ka] tazuneta.
    John-TOP yesterday who-GEN come-PST C ask-PST
    `John asked who came yesterday.'
Example #13:

    (16)   a.     sono hon wo       katta          hito
    the book-ACC buy-PST-ADN person
    `the person who bought the book'
Example #14:

    b.    *sono hon no       katta          hito
    the    book-GEN buy-PST-ADN person
    `the person who bought the book'
Example #15:

    a.    Kinoo     John ga     hon wo      katta      mise
    yesterday John-NOM book-ACC buy-PST-ADN shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday'
Example #16:

    b.    *Kinoo     John no     hon wo       katta     mise
    yesterday John-GEN book-ACC buy-PST-AND shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday'
Example #17:

    c.    *Kinoo      hon wo i    John no ti katta         mise
    yesterday book-ACC John-GEN         buy-PST-ADN shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday'
Example #18:

    hon wo       yonda
    books-ACC read-PST
    `John read more books than Mary did.'
Example #19:

    hon wo       yonda.
    books-ACC read-PST
    `John read more books than Mary did.'
Example #20:

    (23)   a.    John wa [ame ga          yamu              made] office ni ita.
    John-TOP rain-NOM stop-PRES-ADN until office-at be-PST.
    `John was at his office until the rain stopped.'
Example #21:

    b.    John wa [ame no         yamu               made] office ni ita.
    John-TOP rain-GEN stop-PRES-ADN until office-at be-PST.
    `John was at his office until the rain stopped.'
Example #22:

    suki-ni-tigainai
    like-must-PRES
    `I think that John likes Mary.'
Example #23:

    suki-ni tigainai.
    like-must-PRES
    `I think that John likes Mary.'
Example #24:

    nanimo renraku ga nai.
    any      call-NOM be-not-PST
    month.'
Example #25:

    nanimo renraku ga nai.
    any      call-NOM be-not-PRES
    month.'
Example #26:

    hiekondekuru.
    colder-get-PRES
    `It gets chillier as the sun goes down around here.'
Example #27:

    hiekondekuru.
    colder-get-PRES
    `It gets chillier as the sun goes down around here.'
Example #28:

    Mary no     koto wo wasurete-itta.
    Mary-GEN FN-ACC forget-go-PST
    `Mary slipped out of John's memory as times went by.'
Example #29:

    Mary no     koto wo wasurete-itta.
    Mary-GEN FN-ACC forget-go-PST
    `Mary slipped out of John's memory as times went by.'
Example #30:

    de wa oochigai             da.
    -TOP great-difference be-PRES
    `It makes a great difference whether John comes or not.'
Example #31:

    de wa oochigai              da.
    -TOP great-difference be-PRES
    `It makes a great difference whether John comes or not.'
Example #32:

    (i)    John ga      [ringo no    yoku ureta              no] wo eranda
    John-NOM apple-GEN good ripe-PRES-ADN -NML-ACC select-PST
    `John selected the apple which is good and ripe.'
Example #33:

    (30)     a.    John ga       sikar-are-ta             no wa Mary ni da.
    John-NOM scold-PASS-PST-ADN C -TOP Mary-DAT CPL
    `It is by Mary that John was scolded.'
Example #34:

    b.    John no       sikar-are-ta             no wa            Mary ni  da
    John-GEN scold-PASS-PST-ADN C -TOP                      Mary-DAT CPL
    `It is by Mary that John was scolded.'
Example #35:

    wo     katteni              tabeta
    -ACC without-permission eat-PST.
    `John ate an apple, which was on the plate.'
Example #36:

    wo     katteni              tabeta
    -ACC without-permission eat-PST.
    `John ate an apple, which was on the plate.'
Example #37:

    (ii)    *John ga     [yoku ringo no      ureta            no] wo eranda
    John-NOM good apple-GEN ripe-PRES-ADN NML-ACC select-PST
    John selected the apple which is good and ripe.'
Example #38:

    (iii)    Dare ga/*no kimasita ka?
    who-NOM/GEN came-END Q
    `Who came?'
Example #39:

    oiteatta       no] wo     katteni               tabeta.
    put-PST-ADN C -ACC without-permission eat-PST.
    `John ate many apples, which was on the plate.'
Example #40:

    oiteatta       no] wo     katteni                    tabeta.
    put-PST-ADN C -ACC without-permission                eat-PST.
    `John ate many apples, which was on the plate.'
Example #41:

    (36)   a      John ga     suki-na             ongaku wa          blues da
    John-NOM like-PRES-ADN music-TOP                   blues be-PRES
    `The music that John likes is the Blues.'
Example #42:

    yuumei da.
    well-known-be-PRES
    `It is well-known that John is gentle.'
Example #43:

    Mary ga      simpai da.
    Mary-NOM be-worried-PRES.
    `I am worried about Mary rather than about John.'
Example #44:

    b.     John wa ijou-na                 made ni sinkeisitsu da
    John-TOP extraordinary-ADN extent to nervous-PRES
    `John was extraordinarily nervous.'
Example #45:

    omotta
    think-PST
    `John thought that Mary was the most beautiful in the class.'
Example #46:

    tazuneta
    ask-PST
    `John doesn't know who is the most beautiful in the class.'
Example #47:

    (39)   a.    [Dare ga/*no            kite mo]     kamaimasen.
    [whoever-NOM/GEN come-COND even-if ] care-not-PRES.
    `I don't care whoever will come.'
Example #48:

    b.    [John ga/*no       kureba]           minna    yorokobuyo
    [John-NOM/GEN come-COND              everyone be-pleased-PRES
    `Everyone will be delighted if John comes.'
Example #49:

    c.    Omae ga/*no     koi!
    you-NOM/GEN come-IMP
    `(You) Come here!'
Example #50:

    kanjita/omoweta.
    think-PST
    expected.'
Example #51:

    a.    John ga      Mary ga       totemo kawii          to omotta.
    John-NOM Mary-NOM very               pretty-PRES C think-PST
    `John considered Mary to be very pretty.'
Example #52:

    b.     John ga      Mary wo     totemo kawii         to omotta.
    John-NOM Mary-ACC very            pretty-PRES C think-PST
    `John considered Mary to be very pretty.'
Example #53:

    a.    Mary ga     [John ga       se ga   takai to] sinjite-iru
    Mary-NOM John-NOM height-NOM high-PRES C believed
    `Mary believed that John is tall.'
Example #54:

    b.    Mary ga     [John wo se ga         takai to] sinjite-iru
    Mary-NOM John-ACC height-NOM hight-PRES C believed
    `Mary believed that John is tall.'
Example #55:

    c.   *Mary ga     [John ga     se wo     takai to] sinjite-iru
    Mary-NOM John-NOM height-ACC high-PRES C believed
    `Mary believed that John is tall.'
Example #56:

    John ga      nihongo ga/* wo          dekiru
    John-NOM Japanese-NOM/*ACC            do-can-PRES
    `John can speak Japanese.'
Example #57:

    sinjite-ita
    believe-PST
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese'
Example #58:

    sinjite-ita
    believe-PST
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese.'
Example #59:

    sinjite-ita
    believe-PST
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese.'
Example #60:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese very well' [NOM-NOM]
Example #61:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese very well' [GEN-NOM]
Example #62:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese very well' [NOM-GEN]
Example #63:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese very well' [GEN-GEN]
Example #64:

    a.    John ga      se ga          takai riyuu
    John-NOM height-NOM high-PRES-ADN reason
    `the reason why John is so tall'       [NOM-NOM]
Example #65:

    b.    John no     se ga           takai riyuu
    John-GEN height-NOM high-PRES-ADN reason
    `the reason why John is so tall'        [GEN-NOM]
Example #66:

    c.    John ga      se no          takai  riyuu
    John-NOM height-GEN high-PRES-ADN reason
    `the reason why John is so tall'         [NOM-GEN]
Example #67:

    d.     John no     se no           takai riyuu
    John-GEN height-GEN high-PRES-ADN reason
    `the reason why John is so tall'        [GEN-GEN]
Example #68:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John came home crying'
Example #69:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John came home crying'
Example #70:

    (58)   a.     Kinoo     Yamada-sensei ga     o-kai-ni-natta    hon
    yesterday Yamada-teacher-NOM H-buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which Teacher Yamada bought yesterday'
Example #71:

    b.     Kinoo     Yamada-sensei no     o-kai- ni-natta   hon
    yesterday Yamada-teacher-GEN H-buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which Teacher Yamada bought yesterday'
Example #72:

    izure no    hi ni    -ka wa ga sato wo          mi-mu
    when-GEN day-DAT Q        I-GEN home-ACC see-will-ADN
    `Crossing the snowy Mt. Ooyama, when can I see my native village?'
Example #73:

    wagagotoku mono omohe ka mo koe no                 kanashi-ki
    I-GEN-like worried-about Q F            voice-GEN sad-ADN
    their native land as I yearn for mine?'
Example #74:

    [CP Tomo no        empoo yori ki-tar-u ] wo                    yorokobite
    friends-GEN away from come-PST-ADN-ACC delighted-at
    `(being) delighted at (the fact) that friends came all the long way...'
Example #75:

    kanousei]
    possibility
    `the possibility that a great earthquake will occur in the future'
Example #76:

    kanousei]
    possibility
    `the possibility that a great earthquake will occur in the future'
Example #77:

    kanousei]
    possibility
    `the possibility that a great earthquake will occur in the future'
Example #78:

    kanousei]
    possibility
    `the possibility that a great earthquake will occur in the future'
Example #79:

    jouhou]
    information
    `the information that John will plat at the House of Blues'
Example #80:

    jouhou
    information
    `the information that John will plat at the House of Blues'
Example #81:

    omotteiru]          honi ]
    think- PRES-ADN booki
    `the book which Mary thinks that John bought'
Example #82:

    omotteiru]           honi ]
    think- PRES-ADN book
    `the book which Mary thinks that John bought'
Example #83:

    (i)    John ga     Mary no      yokogao wo/*ga totemo utsukusiku        omotta.
    John-NOM Mary-GEN face-ACC/*-NOM very              beautiful-INF think-PST
    `John thought that Mary's face is very beautiful.'
Example #84:

    honi ]
    booki
    `the book which it is thought that John bought'
Example #85:

    omotteiru]           honi
    think- PRES-ADN book
    `the book which Mary thinks that John bought'
Example #86:

    riyuu
    reason
    `the reason why John can speak Japanese very well'  (=(54c))
Example #87:

    sira-nakat-ta.
    know-not-PST.
    `John didn't know that Mary came yesterday.'
Example #88:

    [CP Tomo no         empoo yori ki-tar-u ] wo                  yorokobite.....
    friends-GEN away from come-PST-ADN-ACC delighted-at
    `(being) delighted at the fact that friends came all the long way...'
Example #89:

    kirai   da
    dislike CPL
    `Mary dislikes John, although he likes her'
Example #90:

    Dare ga    kimasita ka?
    who-NOM come-PST Q
    `Who came here?'
Example #91:

    [dare ka mo yuhamu]             ihe   tohoku site
    who-Q F         tie-will-ADN home away-because
    `If I untie my sash away from you, who will refasten it for me'
Example #92:

    a.   Kinoo       John ga     katta          hon
    yesterday   John-NOM buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #93:

    b.     Kinoo       John no     katta          hon
    yesterday John-GEN buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #94:

    hinaku-ni
    dry-up-NEG-DAT
    are dried.'
Example #95:

    b.     Tomo no       empoo yori ki-tar-u                -wo      yorokobite
    friends-GEN away        from come-PST -ADN-ACC delighted-at
    `(being) delighted at (the fact) that friends came all the long way...'
Example #96:

    a.    Kinoo     John ga     hon wo      katta      mise
    yesterday John-NOM book-ACC buy-PST-ADN shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday' [NOM-ACC]
Example #97:

    b.   *Kinoo     John no     hon wo       katta     mise
    yesterday John-GEN book-ACC buy-PST-AND shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday'  [GEN-ACC]
Example #98:

    c.   *Kinoo      hon wo i    John no ti katta         mise
    yesterday book-ACC John-GEN         buy-PST-ADN shop
    `the shop where John bought books yesterday'   [ACC-GEN]
Example #99:

    John ga/no        MIT ni     itta hi
    John-NOM/-GEN MIT-DAT go-PST-ADN day
    `the day when John went to MIT'
Example #100:

    [[John ga/no        ti katta]      honi ]
    John-NOM/-GEN        buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought'
Example #101:

    [[John ga/no           ti katta       no]-wa kono hon wo   da.
    John-NOM/GEN            buy-PST-AND C -TOP this book-ACC CPL
    `It is this book that John bought.'
Example #102:

    a. *[[John no      hon wo     kasita]    hito]
    John-GEN book-ACC lend-AND-PST person
    `the person whom John lent a book'
Example #103:

    b.     [[John no    pro-       kasita]      hito]
    John-GEN pro-ACC       lend-AND-PST person
    `the person whom John lent (a book)'
Example #104:

    a.    John ga     nihongo ga    hanas-eru  (koto)
    John-NOM Japanese-NOM speak-can-PRES (that)
    `John can speak Japanese'                 [NOM-NOM]
Example #105:

    b.     John ga     nihongo wo    hanas-eru  (koto)
    John-NOM Japanese-ACC speak-can-PRES (that)
    `John can speak Japanese'                  [NOM-ACC]
Example #106:

    a.    John ni     nihongo ga    hanas-eru  (koto)
    John-DAT Japanese-NOM speak-can-PRES (that)
    `John can speak Japanese'                   [DAT-NOM]
Example #107:

    b.    *John ni     nihongo wo    hanas-eru  (koto)
    John-DAT Japanese-ACC speak-can-PRES (that)
    `John can speak Japanese'                   [DAT-ACC]
Example #108:

    a.    John ga      nihongo ga/wo/no           hanas-eru      jijitsu
    John-NOM Japanese-NOM/ACC/GEN speak-can-PRES-ADN fact
    `the fact that John can speak Japanese'           [NOM-NOM]
Example #109:

    b.     John no        nihongo ga/*wo/no        hanas-eru        jijitsu
    John-GEN Japanese-NOM/ACC/GEN speak-can-PRES-ADN fact
    `the fact that John can speak Japanese'            [GEN-NOM]
Example #110:

    (i)    Kinoo      John no      katta          hon
    yesterday John-GEN buy-PST-ADN book
    `the book which John bought yesterday'
Example #111:

    c.      John ni      nihongo ga/*wo/no          hanas-eru       jijitsu
    John-DAT Japanese-NOM/ACC/GEN speak-can-PRES-ADN fact
    `the fact that John can speak Japanese'           [DAT-NOM]
Example #112:

    a.    John ka Mary ga       kita             riyuu
    John or Mary-NOM come-PST-ADN reason
    `the reason John or Mary came.' (reason > J or M)
Example #113:

    b.      John ka Mary no         kita riyuu
    John or Mary-GEN        come-PST-ADN reason
    (J or M)>reason: `the   reason John came or the reason Mary came.'
Example #114:

    [DP John ka Mary no [kyonen kuruma wo kaikaeta]           riyuu]
    John or Mary-GEN last-year car-ACC buy-PST-ADN reason
    `the reason John or Mary bought a new car last year'
Example #115:

    a. nihon ga       kome wo/*ga/*no        yunyuu suru kanousei
    Japan-NOM rice-ACC/NOM/GEN import-do-PRES-ADN possibility
    `the possibility that Japan will import rice.'
Example #116:

    b. kome noi nihon ga          proi yunyuu suru         kanousei
    rice-GEN Japan-NOM                import-do-PRES-ADN possibility
    `the possibility that Japan will import rice.'
Example #117:

    a. [DP akai [CP John ga/no        katta] kuruma]
    red     John-NOM/GEN buy-PST-ADN car
    `the red car that John bought'