The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:


URL: http://www.people.ku.edu/~torrence/academic/haroldverbmovement.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2765&langcode=wol (2019-05-20).


Example #1:

    (1)   a. Dem-oon-naa                            Vperf-past-SA
    go- past-1sg
    'I went'
Example #2:

    b. D-oon-naa dem                         di-past-SA V
    di-past-1sg leave
    'I was leaving'
Example #3:

    c. Dem-u-ma           woon              Vperf-neg-SA past
    go  Neg-1sg      past
    'I did not leave'
Example #4:

    d. D-oon- u- ma dem                      di-past-neg-SA V
    di-past-Neg-1sg go
    'I was not leaving'
Example #5:

    (3)     Teg-na-ln-f
    put-3sg-3plobj -loc
    'He put them there'
Example #6:

    (4) Dem-u-nu
    'We did not leave'
Example #7:

    (i) di-naa-y jng a-y          teere
    di-1sg-di read indef-cl book
    'I read books'
Example #8:

    (5) D- u- nu        dem
    di-Neg-1pl      leave
    'We will not leave'
Example #9:

    (6) a. Xac bi moo mtt jign ji                    Subject Focus
    dog the SA bite woman the
    'The DOG bit the woman'
Example #10:

    b. Jign ji la xac bi mtt                   Non-Subject Focus
    woman the SA dog the bite
    'The dog bit the WOMAN'
Example #11:

    c. Xac bi dafa mtt jign ji Verb Focus
    dog the SA bite woman the
    'The dog BIT the woman'
Example #12:

    (7)     a. Lekk-naa
    'I have eaten'
Example #13:

    b. Lekk-u-ma
    'I have not eaten'
Example #14:

    (8)    a. Toog-na
    'He sat'
Example #15:

    b. Bgg-naa mu9 toog
    want-1sg 3sg sit
    'I want him to sit'
Example #16:

    (9) Ppp Dll jnd-na am togg ko te lekk ko.
    P.    D. buy-3sg food cook 3sg and eat 3sg
    'Papp Dall bought some food, cooked it, and ate it'
Example #17:

    (10) a. Lakk-naa ganaar gi
    fry-1sg chicken the
    'I fried the chicken'
Example #18:

    b. Jm-naa lakk ganaar gi
    try-1sg fry chicken the
    'I tried to fry the chicken'
Example #19:

    (11) a. yaay-am              la Aysatu seet-i dmb
    mother-3sg.poss 3sg A.         visit-go yesterday
    'It's her mother that Aysatu went to visit yesterday'
Example #20:

    (12) a. Xc bi      mtt-na gr gi                           (Perfective)
    dog the(sg) bite-3sg man the(sg)
    'The dog has bitten the man'
Example #21:

    b. Xc bi       di-na mtt gr gi    (Imperfective)
    dog the(sg) di-3sg bite man the(sg)
    'The dog bites/will bite the man'
Example #22:

    (14) a. Lekk-naa jn wa                            Affirmative Perfective
    eat-1sg fish the
    'I ate the fish'
Example #23:

    b. Lekk-u-ma jn wa                         Negative Perfective
    eat-neg-1sg fish the
    'I didn't eat the fish'
Example #24:

    c. Di-naa lekk jn wa                       Affirmative Imperfective
    di-1sg eat fish the
    'I will eat the fish'
Example #25:

    d. D-u-ma lekk jn wa                       Negative Imperfective
    di-neg-1sg eat fish the
    'I will not eat the fish'
Example #26:

    (i) Ka lanu lekk-ul jn?
    when 1pl eat-neg fish
    'When didn't we eat fish?'
Example #27:

    (17) a. Gr gi       daanu-na
    man the(sg) fall- 3sg
    'The man has fallen'
Example #28:

    b. Taabal ji        daanu-na
    table the(sg) fall-3sg
    'The table has fallen'
Example #29:

    c. Bunt bi        daanu-na
    door the(sg) fall-3sg
    'The door has fallen'
Example #30:

    d. Ndap yi daanu-nau
    dish the(pl) fall-3pl
    'The dishes have fallen'
Example #31:

    e. Nit     i     daanu-nau
    people the(pl) fall-3pl
    'The people have fallen'
Example #32:

    (18) Bi-nga-ko-fa lekk-ee
    when-2sg-it-there eat-perfective
    "When you ate it there"
Example #33:

    (19) Tee     nga lekk-ko-fa
    why.not 2sg eat-it-there
    'Why didn't you eat it there?'
Example #34:

    (22) a. Dem-oon-naa               Vperf-past-SA            (Perfective)
    'I had gone'
Example #35:

    b. D-oon-naa dem          di-past-SA V              (Imperfective)
    di-past-1sg go
    'I had been going'
Example #36:

    c. Dem-u-ma woon V                perf-neg-SA     past (Perfective)
    go Neg-1sg past
    'I had not gone'
Example #37:

    d. D-oon-u-ma dem di-past-neg-SA V
    di-past-Neg-1sg go
    'I had not been going'
Example #38:

    (i)         D- u- ma woon jngalekat
    di-Neg-1sg past       teacher
    'I was not a teacher'
Example #39:

    (26) Smba bgg-na door di lekk jn wi
    S.    want-3sg begin di eat fish the(sg)
    'Samba wanted to begin eating the fish'
Example #40:

    (27) a. Smba bgg-na door di-ko lekk
    S. want-3sg begin di-3sgobj eat
    'Samba wanted to begin eating it'
Example #41:

    (33)    Dem-u-ma woon                  (=22c)
    go-neg- 1sg past
    'I had not gone'
Example #42:

    (41) a. Lekk-agum-naa
    'I have already eaten'
Example #43:

    b. Lekk-oon-naa
    'I had eaten'
Example #44:

    c. Lekk-agum-naa woon
    eat-already-1sg past
    'I had already eaten'
Example #45:

    (44)   Kon Abdu dem-oon-na
    cond A.    go-past-3sg
    'Abdu would have gone'