ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Stephanie Durrleman (2005). NOTES ON THE LEFT PERIPHERY IN JAMAICAN CREOLE.

URL: http://www.unige.ch/lettres/linge/syntaxe/journal/Volume4/[email protected]

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 2954&langcode=jam (2020-08-13).

 

Example #1:

    (1)         Tomorrah mi       wi ramp wi di pickney-dem
    Tomorrow 1st sg [Fut] play with the child - 3rd pl
    `Tomorrow I will play with the children'
Example #2:

    (3)   a.    da bwai deh , mi laik im
    that boy [loc], 1st sg like him
    `As for that boy, I like him'
Example #3:

    (8)            Da bwai deh i, im i mudda love im i bad
    Det boy [loc], 3rd sg mother love 3rd sg bad
    `As for that boy, his mother loves him a lot'
Example #4:

    (9) a. * Evribady i, dem i         mudda laik t i
    Everybody, 3rd pl         mother like
    `Everybody, their         mother likes'
Example #5:

    (10) a.          Di pickney-dem nuh waan go skuul
    The child-[3rd pl] [neg] want go school
    `The children do not want to go to school'
Example #6:

    b.      Di pickney-dem nuh waan go deh
    The child- [3rd pl] [neg] want go there
    `The children do not want to go there'
Example #7:

    (11)        Di pickney-dem         deh      a skuul
    The child-[3rd pl] [copula+loc] at school
    `The children are at school'
Example #8:

    (16)       Da bwai -deh, im tel tu moch lai
    That one deh , 3rd sg tell too much lie
    `As for that boy, he tells too many lies'
Example #9:

    (17)       Evribady deh         a skuul
    Everybody cop[+loc] at school
    `Everybody is at school"
Example #10:

    (18)       Mi laik evribady deh
    1st sg like everybody Adv[+loc]
    `I like everybody there'
Example #11:

    (21) a.      Yestadei, da bwai (-deh), im nyam aff di whole a di bammi-dem
    Yesterday, that boy ([Top]), 1st sg eat off the whole of the bammy [pl]
    `Yesterday, that very boy, he ate up all of the bammies'
Example #12:

    (23) a.      Piita nyam di bammi
    Peter eat the bammy
    `Peter ate the bammy'
Example #13:

    b.   A di bammi Piita nyam (...nutn more)
    a the bammy Mary eat (... nothing more)
    `What Peter ate was the bammy (... nothing else)'
Example #14:

    (26)        * A Jan mi laik im
    A John 1st sg like him
    `JOHN I like him'
Example #15:

    (27)          A Jan mi laik
    A John 1st sg like
    `JOHN I like'
Example #16:

    (32)         (Weh yu tink im sweet yu              up fa?) A synting     im waan fram yu!
    (Why 2nd sg think 3rd sg sweet 2nd sg up for?) A something 3rd sg want from you
    `Why do you think that he flattered you? He wanted SOMETHING from you!'
Example #17:

    (33)         A Jiemz i im *i/k mudda love bad, (nuh, Piita)
    A James 3rd sg mother love bad, ([neg] Peter)
    `It's James his mother loves a lot, (not Peter)
Example #18:

    (34) a.     A wok mi      a     wok
    A work 1st sg [prog] work
    `What I'm doing is working'
Example #19:

    (35) a.     A di rockstone [im      wuda     fling ef mi neva stap im
    A the rock-stone 3rd sg [modal] throw if 1st sg never stop 3rd sg
    `He would've thrown the rock if I hadn't stopped him'
Example #20:

    (36)         Mi en      nuo se im         wudn    kom                       (Bailey 1966:37)
    1sg [past] know se 3rd sg [+Mod+neg] come
    `I knew that she wouldn't come'
Example #21:

    (37)         Mi hier se fait brok out op a shap                             (Bailey 1966:37)
    1sg hear se fight broke out up at shop
    `I hear that there is a fight up at the shop'
Example #22:

    (38)         Mi sari se unu        neba kom                                 (Bailey    1966:44)
    1sg sorry se you [pl] never come
    `I am sorry that you (pl.) did not come'
Example #23:

    (39) a.       Mi tink seh [Piita nyam di bammi]
    1sg think seh Peter eat the bammy
    `I think that Peter ate the bammy'
Example #24:

    b.     Mi tink seh a di bammi [Piita nyam]
    1sg think seh a the bammy Peter eat
    `I think that what Peter ate was the bammy'
Example #25:

    (41)          A di bammi mi love                                                -> DP
    A the bammy 1sg love
    `What I love is the bammy'
Example #26:

    (42)          A tayad mi did tayad mek mi gwaan so                              -> A
    A tired 1sg [past] tired make me go+on so
    `It is because I was TIRED that I behaved that way'
Example #27:

    (43)          A wok mi a wok                                                    -> V
    A work 1sg [prog] work
    `What I'm doing is working'
Example #28:

    (44)        * A di bammi mi love di bammi                                       ->DP
    A the bammy 1sg love
    `What I love is the bammy'
Example #29:

    (50)         Yu nuh tink seh im tief, bot ...
    2nd sg [neg] think seh 3rd sg steal, but...
    `You don't think that he steals, but...
Example #30:

    a.    A tief im tief di mango -dem !
    A steal 3rd sg steal the mango-pl
    steal the mangoes he did!'
Example #31:

    (51)      * A tayad i mi did ti mek mi gwaan so
    A tired 1sg [past] tired make me go+on so
    `It is because I was TIRED that I behaved that way'
Example #32:

    (52)      * A wok i mi a ti
    A work 1sg [prog] work
    `What I'm doing is working'
Example #33:

    (58)          A di ron [shi ron mek shi         fiil so taiad                              (Christie   1997)
    A the run 1st sg run make 1st sg feel so tired
    `It's the running she did that makes her feel so tired'
Example #34:

    (59)          A di tayad mi tayad mek mi fiil so
    A the tired 1st sg tired make 1st sg feel so
    `It's because I'm tired that I feel this way'
Example #35:

    (61)          A nuh adinary tayad mi tayad
    A [neg] ordinary tired 3rd sg tired
    `It's not an ordinary kind of fatigue that I'm experiencing'
Example #36:

    (66)     ?? A fi di pickney mi bring di ackee                                         -> ??PP
    A for the child 1sg bring the ackee
    `It is for THE CHILDREN I brought the ackee'
Example #37:

    (67)         A di pickney mi bring di ackee fa                ->DP with P-stranding
    A the child 1sg bring the ackee for
    `It is THE CHILDREN whom I brought the ackee for'.
Example #38:

    (68)         A opa stedyam dem en            kip it                                   (Christie 1997)
    A up+at stadium 3rd pl [+past] keep it
    `It's up at the Stadium they kept it'
Example #39:

    (69)         Opa stedyam a             wan gud place fi hide
    Up+at stadium [equative] article good place to hide
    `Up at the stadium is a good place to hide'
Example #40:

    (71)         [Opa stedyam]i? [Deh-so/Dat]i a           wan gud place fi hide
    Up+at stadium? There/That [equative] one good place to hide
    `Up at the stadium? There/That is a good place to hide'
Example #41:

    as in : A mosa         ron im ron
    A epistemic run 3rd sg run
    `He probably RAN' ; (see also examples from texts).
Example #42:

    A mosa di ackee im tief
    A epistemic the ackee 3rd sg steal
    `What was stolen by him is probably the ackee'.
Example #43:

    (73)         A wa im a nyam?
    A what him [prog] eat
    `What is he eating?'
Example #44:

    (74)         A-huu put i de?                                               (Bailey (1966))
    A who put it there
    `Who put it there?'
Example #45:

    (75)         A-we unu pudong uno kluoz?                                    (Bailey       (1966))
    A where 2nd pl put-down 2nd pl clothes
    `Where have you (pl) put your clothes?'
Example #46:

    (76) a.      A wa yaa say?
    A what 3rd sg say
    `What are you saying ?'
Example #47:

    (77)         Wa im en tell uno say?                                        (Adams (1995))
    What him [+past] tell you[plur] say
    `What did he tell you all?'
Example #48:

    (78)        Wa yu niem                                                         (Bailey (1966))
    What you name
    `What's your name'
Example #49:

    (79)        - Piita tel Jan
    Peter tell John
    `Peter told John'
Example #50:

    - Im tel JAN!?
    3rd sg tell John
    `He told JOHN!?'
Example #51:

    (82) a.     Jan buy tuu baiskl
    John buy two bicycle
    `John bought two bicycles'
Example #52:

    b.   A tuu baiskl      [Jan buy
    A two bicycle John buy
    `What John bought is two bicycles'
Example #53:

    (84)          A dem im bring dat *fi/fa
    A 3rd pl 3rd sg bring that for
    `THEY are who s/he brought that for'
Example #54:

    (85) a.     Kk s mot  n Asb
    sell car DET P
    `Koku sold the car to/for Asiba'
Example #55:

    (86) a.     Me (w) Kk s mot  n eci
    Who FOC       sell car DET P
    `To/for whom did Koku sell the car?'
Example #56:

    (87) a.       Asbi (w) K`k s mot  n eci
    FOC         sell car DET P
    `It's to/for Asiba that Koku sold the car'
Example #57:

    (88)        Wi neva ya a wa im en            a     say                    (Adams (1995))
    2pl never hear a what he [+past] [prog] say
    `We never heard what he was saying'
Example #58:

    (89)        Mi no bizniz a huu tel yu                                     (Bailey (1966))
    Me [neg] buisness a who tell you
    `I don't care who told you'
Example #59:

    (94) a.     Im bring di bammi dis maanin
    3sg bring the bammy this morning
    `He brought the bammy this morning'
Example #60:

    b.   A wen [im bring di bammy
    A when 3sg bring the bammy
    `When did he bring the bammy?'
Example #61:

    c.   A di bammi [im bring dis maanin
    A the bammy 3sg bring this morning
    `What he brought this morning is the bammy'
Example #62:

    (98)         Mi en nuo se im wudn kom                                      (Bailey 1966:37)
    1sg [past] know se 3rd sg [+Mod] [+neg] come
    `I knew that she wouldn't come'
Example #63:

    (99)         Mi hier se fait brok out op a shap                            (Bailey     1966:37)
    1sg hear se fight break out up at shop
    `I hear that there is a fight up at the shop'
Example #64:

    (100)        Mi sari se unu      neba kom                                  (Bailey     1966:44)
    1sg sorry se you [pl] never come
    `I am sorry that you (pl.) did not come'
Example #65:

    (101)        Mieri nuo seh [IP di bwai neva tief di mango-dem
    Mary know seh [ the boy never thief the mango-pl
    `Mary knows that the boy never stole the mangoes'
Example #66:

    (103)        Mi nuo [NP dat] aredi
    1st sg know that already
    `I know that already'
Example #67:

    (105) a.         Mi tink seh a di bammi [Piita nyam
    1sg think seh a the bammy Peter eat
    `I think that what Peter ate was the bammy'
Example #68:

    (108)            Paul swear seh Mieri nuh laik mi
    Paul swear seh Mary [neg] like 1st sg
    `Paul swears that Mary doesn't like me'
Example #69:

    (109)            (A) Wa im swear seh?
    (A)What 3rd sg swear seh
    `What does he swear?'
Example #70:

    (111)            Mi tel yu seh Jan tief di mango-dem
    1st sg tell 2nd sg seh John steal the mango-pl
    `I tell you that John stole the mangoes'
Example #71:

    (112)            A Jani     mi tel yu         seh t i tief di mango-dem
    A John 1st sg tell 2nd sg seh trace steal the mango-pl
    Literally: `It's JOHN that I told you that stole the mangoes'
Example #72:

    (119)       Mi nuo seh Jan tief di mango-dem
    1st sg know seh John theif the mango-pl
    `I know that John stole the mangoes'
Example #73:

    (122)       Im run gaan lef            ar                                   (Adams 1995:35)
    3rd sg run gone leave/left 3rd sg
    `He has run away and left her'
Example #74:

    (125)         Mieri tink seh Piita nyam di bammi
    Mary think seh Peter eat the bammy
    `Mary thinks that Peter ate the bammy'
Example #75:

    (126)         (A) Wa Mieri tink seh?
    A what Mary think seh
    `What does Mary think'
Example #76:

    (127)         Mi nuo seh dat sweet yu
    1st sg know seh that sweet you
    `I know that that amuses you
Example #77:

    (128)         (A) Wa yu nuo seh?
    A what 2nd sg know seh
    `What do you know'
Example #78:

    (130) a.      A wa Mieri tell yu seh?
    A what Mary tell yu seh
    `What did Mary tell you'
Example #79:

    (131) a.      A huu yu     tink seh tief di mango-dem
    A who 2nd sg think seh steal the mango-pl
    'Who do you think stole the mangoes?'
Example #80:

    (136)           Yestadei, a Jan tief di mango-dem?                                Jamaican Creole
    Yesterday, a John steal the mango-[pl]
    `Yesterday, did John steal the mangoes?'
Example #81:

    (137)           Yestadei, a Jan tief di mango-dem (nuh Piita)
    Yesterday, a John steal the mango-[pl] (neg Peter)
    `Yesterday, JOHN stole the mangoes (not Peter)'
Example #82:

    (138)           I wuda nais fi Jan fi go                                                (Bailey 1966:124)
    It [modal] nice Fin John to go
    `It would be nice for John to go'
Example #83:

    (140)      * A so fi Jan fi gwaan ...
    [+Foc] so FIN John to go+on ...
    `It's THAT WAY for John to behave...'
Example #84:

    (142)         Yestadei, fi     Jan fi gwaan so, dat nuh right at all
    Yesterday, FIN John to go+on so, that not right at all
    `Yesterday, for John to behave that way, that is not right at all'
Example #85:

    (145) a.      Da bwai-deh, a wa [ im tief]?
    That boy [loc] a what [3rd sg steal]
    `As for that boy, what did he steal?'
Example #86:

    (148) A Joe        a               di one who        a     `tan up a      gate wid a      daag?
    Foc J. Equative -Copula the one who [+prog] stand up Preposition gate with Article dog
    `Is Joe the one who is standing up at the gate with the dog?'
Example #87:

    (149)            Im a nyam di bammi
    S/he [+progressive] eat the bammy
    `S/he is eating the bammy'
Example #88:

    (150)            A waak m i waak mek mi kom so liet                           (Bailey 1966: 34)
    A walk 1st sg walk make 1st sg come so late
    `*It's because I'm walking that I'm coming so late'
Example #89:

    (151)            A-wen Boti lef ya?                                           (Bailey (1966:89 ))
    A-when Bertie leave here
    `* When is Bertie leaving here?'
Example #90:

    b.   Mi go a wan shap an mi buck-up fi di bwai muddah
    1st sg go to Det shop and 1st sg bump-into Prep Det boy mother
    `I went to a shop and I bumped into the boy's mother'
Example #91:

    (159)        A one duppy?                                                 (Adams 1995:15)
    A article ghost
    `Is it a ghost?'
Example #92:

    (160)        A di bammi Piita nyam (...nutn more)
    a the bammy Mary eat (... nothing more)
    `What Peter ate was the bammy (... nothing else)'
Example #93:

    (161)       Is mad yu mad (...) ?
    Is mad you mad
    `Are you mad?'
Example #94:

    (162)       Is whe im gone eeh, Sah?
    Is where 1st sg gone eh, Sir
    `Where is he gone, eh, Sir?'
Example #95:

    (163)       Is wha mek wid dis ole bus, eeh Sah?
    Is what make with this old bus, eh Sir
    `What is going on with this old bus, eh, Sir?'
Example #96:

    (164)       But is why Me ave fe put up wid all dem crosses, Lahd?
    But is why 1st sg have to put up with all 3rd pl crosses, Lord
    `But why do I have to put up with all those crosses, Lord?'
Example #97:

    (165)       Is dat dem do all de while yu know... take de fare from de likkle one dem (...)
    Is that 3rd pl do all the while you know ... take the fare from the little one 3rd pl
    `THAT is what they always do, you know... take the fare from the little ones (..
Example #98:

    (170)        *              nyam evryting
    pro 1st sg eat everything
    `I eat everything
Example #99:

    (175) a.     Acrolect: Wans opan a taim die woz a jengklman huu had wan uondli daata.
    Once upon a time there was a gentleman who had one only daughter
    `Once upon a time, there was a gentleman who had an only daughter'
Example #100:

    b.   Basilect: Wantaim, wan man en ha wan gyal-pickni nomo.
    One time one man [+past] have one girl child nomore
    `Once upon a time, there was a gentleman who had an only daughter'
Example #101:

    (176) a.     Acrolect: Bot luo, aafta shi gat mari, insted it woz a man, it woz a bul-kou.
    But lo, after she got marry, instead it was a man, it was a bull-cow
    `But lo, after she got married, instead of its being a man, it was a bull'
Example #102:

    b.   Basilect: Bot luo, afta im marid, steda man, a bulkou im marid
    But lo, after 3rd sg married, instead+of man, a bull-cow 3rd sg married
    `But lo, after she got married, instead of its being a man, it was a bull'
Example #103:

    (177) a.     (I)        komiin like seh di pickney a go run weh
    Expletive seem like seh the child [prog] [prosp] run away
    "It seems like the child is going to run away"
Example #104:

    (178) a.     (i) look like im nuh like yu
    look like 3rd sg [neg] like 2nd sg
    "It looks like s/he does not like you"
Example #105:

    (179)        Mi tink seh a di mango Jan tiif
    1st sg think seh a [Det] mango John steal
    "I think that what John stole was the MANGOES"
Example #106:

    (180) a.     A di moni im tief
    A the money Peter steal (thief)
    `Peter stole THE MONEY'
Example #107:

    (181)        Di puss a fi Mieri, an di daag a fi Piita
    The cat [equative] for Mary, and the dog [equative] for Peter
    `The cat is for Mary, and the dog is for Peter'
Example #108:

    (182)        Mi mudda a di bess out a all a uno
    Poss mother [equative] the best out of all of you-pl
    `My mother is the best out of all of you'
Example #109:

    (183)          Piita neva shuda tek di puss weh! Di puss did a fi Mieri!
    Peter never [modal] take the cat away! The cat [past] [equative] for Mary!
    `Peter never should've taken the cat away! The cat was for Mary!'
Example #110:

    (184)          Mi      mudda did          a       di bess out a all a uno
    Possessor mother [past] [equative] the best out of all of you-pl
    `My mother was the best out of all of you'
Example #111:

    (185)          A di daag mi bring fi Piita.
    A the dog 1st sg bring for Peter
    `THE DOG I brought for Peter'
Example #112:

    (186)          A mi        mudda shuda win di competishan
    A possessor mother [modal] win the competition
    `MY MOTHER should've won the competition'
Example #113:

    (189) a.       A who tief di mango-dem?
    A who steal(thief) the mango [+pl]
    `Who stole the mangoes?'
Example #114:

    (190)          Iz dat taim mii baan
    Iz that time 1st sg born
    `it is that time that I was born'
Example #115:

    (191)       iz shii di tel mi dat not tuu long ago
    iz 3rd sg [past] tell 1st sg that [neg] too long ago
    `it is she that told me that not too long ago'
Example #116:

    (192)       nuo, iz not tuelv skuul let uova
    [neg] iz [neg] twelve school let over
    `no, it is not at twelve that school finishes'
Example #117:

    (193)       ov kuors iz mii rait dis
    of course iz 1st sg write this
    `of course it is me that wrote this'
Example #118:

    (196)       A tief yu tief di mango-dem!
    A thief you thief the mango-3rd plur
    `You STOLE the mangoes!'
Example #119:

    (197)       A wa im tek ?
    A what 3rd sg take
    `What did s/he take?'
Example #120:

    (198)       A di mango Piita tief
    A the mango Peter thief
    `Peter stole THE MANGO'
Example #121:

    (204)         [R-r]i ni [Aj ra ti w]                                                  (Manfredi 1993)
    Nom-buy Comp buy paper
    'It is a buying that Aje [is doing, did] to [a book/books]'
Example #122:

    (214)        Ruoz-dem tel im se a Klaris mash di pat                        (Bailey 1966: 111)
    Rose-[pl] tell 3rd sg say Foc Klaris mash the pot
    `Rose and the others told her that it was Claris (who) broke the pot'
Example #123:

    (215)        If     a tief im       tief di mango, im shuda jus say so
    Force a thief 3rd sg thief the mango, 3rd sg [modal]just say so
    "If what he did was steal the mango, he should just say so"