ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Bodomo, Adams & Ken Hiraiwa (2005). Relativization in Dagaare.

URL: http://www.hku.hk/linguist/staff/Bodomo/JDS/2004/JDS2004_BodomoHiraiwa.pdf

(Last accessed ).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3101&langcode=dga (2018-01-24).

 

Example #1:

    n da s re la             a      ane      na   e/*o  nan       bin      ky
    1Sg.PST read F           D     book      DEM /3Sg. REL       put      here
    `I read the book that     is   lying    here.'
Example #2:

    n da s re la a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa e/*o deyan
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL write /3Sg. last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #3:

    *n da s re la [a Dakoraa nan n maa ane (kam a) deyan ]
    1Sg. PST read F D Dakoraa REL write book ID     last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #4:

    *n da s re la [a Dakoraa nan n maa ane (na) deyan ]
    1Sg. PST read F D Dakoraa REL write book DEM last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #5:

    n da s re la a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa deyan
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL write last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #6:

    n     da s re la ane (kan (a)) Dakoraa nan n maa deyan
    1Sg. PST read F book (ID)          Dakoraa REL write last-year
    `I read a book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #7:

    n     da     la a ane na.
    1Sg. bought F D book DEM
    `I bought that book.'
Example #8:

    n da s re la a ane (na) *(nan ) bin ky
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM REL put here
    `I read the book that is lying here.'
Example #9:

    n     da s re la a ane (na) Dakoraa*(nan ) n maa deyan
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL write last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #10:

    a pe na      Dakoraa nan an           o     zu e la kpon
    D root DEM Dakoraa REL lie.PERF 3Sg. on be F big
    `The roof top on which Dakoraa slept is big.'
Example #11:

    a d na Dakoraa nan e wo i an e e zaa                   kpie la
    D man DEM Dakoraa REL be tall pass           yesterday die F
    `The man who Dakoraa is taller than died yesterday.'
Example #12:

    n     da s re la a ane             nan bin ky
    1Sg. PST read F D book (DEM) REL put here
    `I read the book that is lying here.'
Example #13:

    n da s re la  ane              Dakoraa nan n maa deyan
    1Sg. PST read F D book (DEM) Dakoraa REL write last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #14:

    a. n da         la a ane na
    1Sg. bought F D book DEM
    `I bought that book.'
Example #15:

    b. *n da           ane na
    1Sg. bought that book DEM
    `I bought that book.'
Example #16:

    c. n da            ane na ?(la)!
    1Sg. bought (D) book DEM (F)
    `I bought that book!'
Example #17:

    (11) a. a mon o-ri na
    D mango-PL DEM
    `Those mangoes'
Example #18:

    b. mon o-ri na la ka Dakoraa di zaamen
    mango-PL.DEM F C Dakoraa ate yesterday
    `It's those mangoes that Dakoraa ate yesterday'
Example #19:

    a. Ayuo da      la a ane na n         nan b n ka Dakoraa *(nan ) s re (o) la deyan
    Ayuo bought F D book DEM 1Sg. REL know C Dakoraa (REL) read 3Sg. F .last -year
    `Ayuo bought the book that I know that Dakoraa read last year.'
Example #20:

    b. Ayuo da     la a ane na n *(nan ) b n ka Dakoraa s re (o) la deyan
    Ayuo bought F D book DEM 1Sg.             know C Dakoraa read 3 Sg. F last-year
    `Ayuo bougth the book that I know that Dakoraa read last year.'
Example #21:

    b. *Ayuo da ny la a d       na n *(nan ) b n ka *(o) nan zaa n m la Dakoraa
    Ayuo PST saw F D man DEM 1Sg. REL know C 3Sg. REL PST hit      F Dakoraa
    `Ayuo saw the man who I know hit Dakoraa.'
Example #22:

    *n da s re la ane na n nan ny la a p              na nan n maa (o)
    1Sg. PST read F book DEM I REL saw F D woman DEM REL write (3Sg.)
    `I read the book that I saw the woman who wrote.'
Example #23:

    *n da s re la a ane na, n nan ny la a p                o      nan n maa (o)
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM I REL saw F D woman 3Sg. REL write (3Sg.)
    `I read the book that I saw the woman when she was writing it.'
Example #24:

    a. *bon la ka fo da ny a p              nan n maa deyan
    what F C 2Sg. PST see D woman REL wrote last-year
    `What did you see the woman that wrote last year?'
Example #25:

    b. *fo da ny a p           nan n maa bon la deyan
    2Sg. PST see D woman REL wrote what F last-year
    `What did you see the woman that wrote last year?'
Example #26:

    ad     nan ar               la
    D man still stand.PERF F
    `The man is still standing.'
Example #27:

    a d nan wa ta,                 n de la ane ko o
    D man when come read.PERF 1Sg. take F book give 3Sg.
    `When the man arrived I gave him a book.'
Example #28:

    n da ny la a ane na Dakoraa nan nan n maara.
    1Sg. PST saw F D book DEM Dakoraa REL still write.IMP.
    `I saw the book that Dakoraa was still writing.'
Example #29:

    n da s re la a ane na Dakoraa (*da) nan (da) n maa deyan
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa (PST) REL (PST) write last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #30:

    n     da s re la a ane na Dakoraa (*zaa) nan (za ) n maa
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa (PST) REL (PST) write
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote yesterday.'
Example #31:

    b. n ny la a ane na           Dakoraa nan da nan n maa
    1Sg. saw F D book DEM Dakoraa REL PST still write
    `I saw the book that Dakoraa was still writing.'
Example #32:

    a. n ny          a ane na Dakoraa nan n ma (*la)
    1Sg. saw.F D book DEM Dakoraa REL wrote F
    `I saw the book that Dakoraa wrote.'
Example #33:

    n ny         a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa (*-ng)
    1Sg. saw.F D book DEM Dakoraa REL wrote               F
    `I saw the book that Dakoraa wrote.'
Example #34:

    a. *n da s re la [a ane deyan na Dakoraa nan n maa]
    1Sg. PST read F D book last-year DEM Dakoraa REL write
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #35:

    b. *n da s re la [a ane na deyan Dakoraa nan n maa]
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM last-year Dakoraa REL write
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year. '
Example #36:

    c. */?? n       da s re la [deyan a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa]
    1Sg. PST read F last-year D book DEM Dakoraa REL write
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #37:

    d. n da s re la [ a ane na Dakoraa nan deyan n maa]
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL last-year write
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #38:

    e. n da s re la [ a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa deyan ]
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL write last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #39:

    deyan Dakoraa da n maa la a ane
    last-year Dakoraa PST write F D book
    `Last year Dakoraa wrote the book.'
Example #40:

    (27) n da s re la a ane na [Dakoraa nan n maa deyan ][Ayuo nan da               zaamen ]
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL wrote last-year Ayuo REL bought yesterday
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year that Ayuo bought yesterday.'
Example #41:

    (28) n     da s re la a ane na [Dakoraa nan n maa deyan ][ka Ayuo da            zaamen ]
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL wrote last-year C Ayuo bought yesterday
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year that Ayuo bought yesterday.'
Example #42:

    ??/* n da ny la Dakoraa nan n maa a ane deyan
    1Sg. PST saw F Dakoraa REL wrote D book last-year
    `I saw Dakoraa, who wrote the book last year.'
Example #43:

    n     da ny la a Dakoraa na nan n maa a ane deyan
    1Sg. PST saw F D Dakoraa DEM REL wrote D book last-year
    `I saw the Dakoraa who wrote the book last year.'
Example #44:

    n da ny la a p              na      n    nan s re o ane deyan
    1Sg. PST saw F D woman DEM 1Sg. REL read 2Sg. book last-year
    `I saw the woman, whose book I read last year.'
Example #45:

    (a) una/maa/foo                       nan aa Gaana deyan b n la     te ten yl
    matter
    `He/I/You, who went to Ghana last year, know(s) about our country.'
Example #46:

    n da s re la a ane na Dakoraa nan n maa e/*o deyan .
    1Sg. PST read F D book DEM Dakoraa REL write /3Sg. last-year
    `I read the book that Dakoraa wrote last year.'
Example #47:

    a. n     (da) di la a mon o-ri (na) zaa/mine/ya a zie
    1Sg. (PST) eat F D mango-PL (DEM) al/some/many-places
    `I ate all/some/many of those mangoes.'
Example #48:

    b. *n (da) di la a mon o-ri zaa/mine/ya a zie (na)
    1Sg. (PST) eat F D mango-PL all/some/many-places (DEM)
    `I ate all/some/many of those mangoes.'
Example #49:

    nan da     zaamen ]
    REL buy.PST yesterday
    `Dakoraa bought all/some/most of the mangoes yesterday and I ate (some of) them.
Example #50:

    zaa/mine/ya a zie zaamen ]
    all/some/many-places yesterday
    `Dakoraa bought all/some/most of the mangoes yesterday and I ate (some of) them.
Example #51:

    zaa/mine/ya a zie
    all/some/many places
    `*Dakoraa bought all/some/most of the mangoes yesterday and I ate (some of) them
Example #52:

    (40) a. n     (da) di la a mon o-ri anuu na
    1Sg. (PST) eat F G mango-PL. five DEM
    `I ate those five mangoes.'
Example #53:

    b. n      (da) di la a mon o-ri na anuu
    1Sg. (PST) eat F D mango-PL DEM five
    `I ate five of those mangoes.'
Example #54:

    a. n     (da) di la a mon o-ri anuu na [Dakoraa nan da                zaamen ]
    1Sg. (PST) eat F D mango-PL five DEM Dakoraa REL buy.PST yesterday
    `Reading 2: Dakoraa bought (some) mangoes and I ate five of them.'
Example #55:

    b. n    (da)     di la a mon o-ri na anuu [Dakoraa nan da                zaamen ]
    1Sg. (PST)    eat F D mango-PL DEM five Dakoraa REL buy.PST yesterday
    `Reading 2:    Dakoraa bought (some) mangoes and I ate five of them.' (slightly
Example #56:

    Dakoraa da       la mon o-ri      anuu ka n di a
    Dakoraa bought F mango-PL.        five C 1Sg. ate them
    `Dakoraa bought five mangoes      and I ate them.'
Example #57:

    Dakoraa da     la mon o-ri mine ka n di a anuu
    Dakoraa bought F mango-PL. some C 1Sg. ate D five
    `Dakoraa bought (some) mangoes and I ate five of them'
Example #58:

    a. mon o-ri anuu na la ka Dakoraa di zaamen
    mango-PL. five DEM F C Dakoraa ate yesterday
    `It is those five mangoes/five of those mangoes that Dakoraa ate yesterday.'
Example #59:

    b. mon o-ri na anuu la ka Dakoraa di zaamen
    mango-PL. DEM five F C Dakoraa ate yesterday
    `It is five of those mangoes/ those five mangoes that Dakoraa ate yesterday.'
Example #60:

    Dakoraa nan       zaa      da       a mon o-ri anuu na, n di la a ata
    Dakoraa when     yesterday bought D mango-PL. five DEM 1Sg. ate F D three
    `When Dakoraa    bought the five mangoes yesterday, I ate three of them.'
Example #61:

    a. a pe     na       zu Dakoraa nan an          e la kpon
    D roof DEM       on Dakoraa REL lie.PERF be F big
    `The roof top    on which Dakoraa slept is big.'
Example #62:

    b. a pe na       Dakoraa nan an          *(o) zu e la kpon
    D roof DEM Dakoraa REL lie.PERF 2Sg. on be F big
    `The roof top on which Dakoraa slept is big.'
Example #63:

    *a pe zu na       Dakoraa nan an            e la kpon
    D roof on DEM Dakoraa REL lie.PERF be F big
    `The roof top on which Dakoraa slept is big.'
Example #64:

    a. zu-pil     boo la ka fo      bo r ?
    head-cover which F C 2Sg. want.IMP.
    `Which hat do you want?'
Example #65:

    b. *a na
    D that
    `That one'
Example #66:

    c. on n
    that
    `That (one)'
Example #67:

    d. a ny
    D this
    `This one'
Example #68:

    *[a pe na Dakora nan an ] zu e la kpon
    D roof DEM Dakoraa REL lie.PERF on be F big
    `The roof top on which Dakoraa slept is big.'
Example #69:

    n     da         ny la      ap        na    n nan s re *(o) ane deyan
    1Sg. PST         saw F      D woman DEM 1Sg. REL read 3Sg. book last-year
    `I saw the      woman      whose book I read last year.'
Example #70:

    ? n da        ny la a p         na      ane n nan s re deyan
    1Sg. PST     saw F D woman DEM book 1Sg. REL read last-year
    `I saw the   woman whose book I read last year.'
Example #71:

    ? n da       ny la a p          na a        ane (na)     nan s re deyan
    1Sg. PST     saw F D woman DEM D           book DEM 1Sg. REL read last-year
    `I saw the   woman whose book I read       last year.'
Example #72:

    n     zaa      d ny la a p            na o ane     nan s re deyan
    1Sg. yesterday PST saw F D women DEM 3Sg. book 1Sg. REL read last-year
    `I saw the woman whose book I read last year.'
Example #73:

    po      ya a
    stomach a lot
    `The fact that Dakoraa wrote a book last year pleased his wife a lot.'
Example #74:

    po      ya a
    stomach a.lot
    `*The fact that Dakoraa wrote a book last year pleased his wife a lot.'
Example #75:

    a. n b n la          a ane na                Dakoraa nan n maa     deyan
    1Sg. know.PERF F D book REL              Dakoraa REL write.PERF last-year
    `*I know that Dakoraa wrote the          book last year.'
Example #76:

    b. n     bn        ka Dakoraa n maa         la ane deyan
    1Sg. know.PERF C Dakoraa write.PERF F book last-year
    `I know that Dakoraa wrote a paper/book last year.'
Example #77:

    po       ya a
    stomach a lot
    `The fact that Dakoraa wrote a book last year pleased his wife a lot.'