The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Pensalfini, Rob (2003). Verbs as Spatial Deixis Markers in Jingulu.

URL: http://eprint.uq.edu.au/archive/00000449/01/rpverbs.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 312&langcode=jig (2018-10-20).


Example #1:

    b.   Banybila-nga-nu ibilka karrinbiyi.
    find-1sg-did           water tree.water
    `I found tree-water.'
Example #2:

    b.   Nga-rruku idajku.
    1sg-went      yesterday
    `I went (there) yesterday.'
Example #3:

    c.   Yukulurrubi         ya-marri nginimbili.
    grass.species       3sg-DIST here
    `There used to be yukulurrubi grass here.'
Example #4:

    (3)      a.   Ngindimbili        nga-nu.
    here               1sg-did
    `I did it here '
Example #5:

    b.   Kurrubardi-rni     kurdkulyu-kaji    ngirri-marriyimi.
    boomerang-FOC mucus-through 1pl.Exc-DIST
    `We'd do [cut through] the innards with a boomerang.'
Example #6:

    c.   Kuwarrku. Ibilka-rni-mbili      wurru-wardi.
    nothing     water-FOC-LOC 3pl-HAB
    `Not at all. They just do [drink] beer.'
Example #7:

    (5)   a.      Laja-nga-rdu kijurlurlu.
    carry-1sg-go stone
    `I'm carrying a stone.'
Example #8:

    b.      Jayili ya-rdu marru-ngka, jayili urdurru          ka-rdu     marru-ngka.
    under 3sg-go house-ALL           under inside     3sg-go house-ALL
    `It's gone under the house, right underneath the house.'
Example #9:

    c.      Karl nga-ardu kijurlurlu-ngka.
    up    1sg-go     hill-ALL
    `I'm climbing the hill.'
Example #10:

    d.      Nga-rruku ngirriki         kurrubardu-warndi, karnarrinym-aarndi.
    1sg-went       hunting boomerang-INST           spear-INST
    `I went out hunting with a boomerang and spear.'
Example #11:

    e.      Mindi-rruku jalyangku-ma         Warranganku-ngka.
    1dl.Inc-went today-EMPH Beetaloo-ALL
    `Today we went to Beetaloo.'
Example #12:

    f.   Nyinda-rna       nganga juwirri-mindu-wa            yunku.
    DEM(m)-DAT meat              follow-1dl.Inc-will.go foot
    `We must follow the animal's tracks.'
Example #13:

    g.   Burdba-nga-rruku mijuwulmi ngaya-rni                angkurla nga-rriyi.
    send-1sg-went        tobacco       1sg.NOM-FOC NEG              1sg-will.go
    `I sent you tobacco, but I didn't go myself.'
Example #14:

    (7)      a.   Dikidika      wul maja-mi ngarru         bunbaku-wurri-jiyimi nyinda-baja.
    nulla-nulla pull-IRR          1sg.ACC fight-3pl-come            that(m)-pl
    `Let's get our clubs, they've come to fight.'
Example #15:

    b.   Wilinja         ya-jiyimi     jamaniki-rni.
    countryman 3sg-come           this(m)-FOC
    `Our countryman is coming.'
Example #16:

    c.   Jama-bili-rna        birri-wunya-ana-miki marluka-yili-rni.
    that-dl.anim-FOC visit-3dl-1O-came             old.man-dl-ERG
    `Those two old people came to see me yesterday '
Example #17:

    d.   Nginyu-rruku jungkali, lurrbu-nama nginya-miki.
    1dl.Exc-went far              return-time 1dl.Exc-came
    `We went afar, and then came back.'
Example #18:

    e.   Mindu-wa           nginiwa, nya-angku.
    1dl.Inc-will.go    this.way 2sg-will.come
    `We're going for a walk, come along.'
Example #19:

    f.   Jangka-nama       nga-ardu ngirriki-nama     lurrbu   nga-angku.
    another-time      1sg-go      hunting-time return 1sg-will.come
    `I'm going hunting again and then coming back.'
Example #20:

    (9)      a.   Angkula ngaja-nga-ju, jundurru ngaba-nga-ju ngabanju-mbili.
    NEG       see-1sg-do       dust     have-1sg-do eye-LOC
    `I can't see, I have dust in my eyes.'
Example #21:

    b.   Kakuyi ya-ju,      jurruku-mbili             kakuyi   ya-ju   dardu.
    fish       3sg-do far.from.shore-LOC fish             3sg-do many
    `There are fish, there's lots of fish out in the middle.'
Example #22:

    c.   Kulyi-wunyu-nu, kulyu-wunyu-nu karnarrinyku.
    spear-3dl-did      spear-3dl-did       spear
    `They got it with a spear.'
Example #23:

    d.   Dibij nga-nu jiminiki darrangku-ngka.
    out      1sg-did this(n)   tree-ALL
    `I came out right along the trees.'
Example #24:

    e.   Durd maya-nga-yi lurrurnmi.
    kick-1sg-FUT         testicles
    `I'll kick him in the balls.'
Example #25:

    f.   Ngindi-nama      wumbuma-yi nganga-rni wurraka-na             ya-yi.
    this(m)-time     cook-FUT         meat-FOC 3pl.GEN-m 3sg-FUT
    `Then he'll cook the meat for these people, he will.'
Example #26:

    ngaja-marri marlarlukarni-rni.
    see-DIST     old.men-ERG
    `We never see the gouldian finch now as we did in the old days.'
Example #27:

    h.   Nyamba      wawa boorn           nga-marri    Warranganku-mbili.
    DEM(m) child born(Kr) 1sg-DIST                Beetaloo-LOC
    `I was born at Beetaloo.'
Example #28:

    i.   Kirangkuju-nu       darra-ardi buliki-rni dimana-rni.
    melon.species-did eat-HAB          cow-ERG horse-ERG
    `Cows and horses eat this melon.'
Example #29:

    j.   Ngaya-rni          manyan nga-ardi      nginimbili.
    1sg.NOM-FOC sleep          1sg-HAB      here
    `I usually sleep here.'
Example #30:

    k.   Jama-rni      warrijki    ya-aka          ngini-mbili.
    that(m)-FOC spirit        3sg-PST.HAB this-LOC
    `The spirit used to be here.'
Example #31:

    (10)   a.   Nyurrun baka-mi!
    `Slide on over!'
Example #32:

    b.   Narnangaja-nku-mi!
    `Watch yourself!'
Example #33:

    c.   Warnu-ngkujbi,           warnu       ngunya-ana-mi!
    tobacco-HAVING(m) tobacco give-1O-IRR
    `You with the tobacco, give me a cigarette!'
Example #34:

    d.   Kabija-anyu-mi!
    `Smile, you two!'
Example #35:

    (11)   a.   Aji-rni ngaba-mi       jiminiki-rni?
    what     have-IRR      this(n)-FOC
    `What did you bring (if anything)?'
Example #36:

    b.   Jama-rni wilwili-kaji        ya-ju      karningka wirrkiyi-mi.
    that-FOC hang-through 3sg-do possibly fall-IRR
    `It's hanging, swinging, might fall.'
Example #37:

    (12)   a.   Ngabarnda ngibi-yirri!
    shoulder    have-go.IMPV
    `Carry him on your shoulders.'
Example #38:

    b.   Ngunu      buba     miji-yirri!
    DEM(n) fire         get-go.IMPV
    `Go get some firewood!'
Example #39:

    (13)   a..   Dakarni!         Dunjumi-ji,           mankiya-mi    dunjumi-ji!
    leave.it(IMPV) poke-NEG.IMPV           sit-IRR       poke-NEG.IMPV
    `Leave me alone! Stop poking me, be still and don't poke me!'
Example #40:

    b.    Warrijmajka jamaniki-rni juwirri-ji!
    killer        this(m)-ERG follow-NEG.IMPV
    `He's a killer, don't follow him!'
Example #41:

    (14)   a.    *Nguny-ana-ji!
    `Don't give it to me!'
Example #42:

    b.    *Maja-wanyu-yirri!
    `You two go get it!'
Example #43:

    `My home is the red earth here.'
Example #44:

    yaminju-nu         nyu-rruku nyinawarra.
    shooting.star-did 2sg-went      this.way
    `My brother and I saw two shooting stars when you'd gone.'
Example #45:

    c.   Ajuwa    ila-nga-nu    ngarru      bundurru-nu?
    where put-1sg-did 1sg.ACC food-did
    `Where did I put that food of mine?'
Example #46:

    `That boy is my nephew, the big one.'
Example #47:

    f.   Nyamina-rni-nu      bardakurri-rni-kaji ya-ju.
    DEM(f)-FOC-did good-f-through            3sg-do
    `She's well now.'
Example #48:

    `I'll take lots of clothes in case the boy gets cold.'
Example #49:

    h.   Kirangkuju-nu       darra-ardi    buliki-rni dimana-rni.
    melon.species-did eat-HAB         cow-ERG horse-ERG
    `Cows and horses eat this here melon.'
Example #50:

    (16)   a.   Dimbu-mbili madayi-ju.
    sky-LOC        cloud-do
    `The sky is cloudy'
Example #51:

    c.   Jamaniki-rni ibilka-rdi      nyambala kurranjiyaji.
    this(m)-FOC water-HAB DEM(n) shallow
    `This water is shallow.'
Example #52:

    d.   Wuliyija-nga-rdi langa ngaja-nga-ju kanjalawurri-darra         dardu.
    sun-ERG-HAB P(Kr) see-1sg-do             male.red.kangaroo-pl many
    `At sunset one can see many kangaroos.'
Example #53:

    `One road goes straight. Another crosses it.'
Example #54:

    (17)    a.   Ngunu      janbara-yi   jimi-rna    darrangku-mbili.
    DEM(n) nest-FUT         this-FOC tree-LOC
    `There's a nest up in that tree.'
Example #55:

    `There are four eggs in that nest.'
Example #56:

    c.   Jama-baja- rriyi     malkirrankuj-bala      dirri-wurru-ju ibilka.
    that-pl-will.go      bachelor-pl.anim       eat-3pl-do      water/drink
    `Those bachelors up there are going about drinking.'
Example #57:

    bardakurru kurrindi-ngurri-yi          ngawu-rna.
    good(n)         camp-1pl.Inc-FUT camp-DAT
    `We'll find a good place (back there) to set up camp.'
Example #58:

    b.   Kilyirri-nginyi-ju    ngarri-ni-nga       bardarda-ka                  babirdimi.
    dig.up-1dl.Exc-do 1sg.GEN-f-ERG younger.brother-PST.HAB yam
    `My little sister back there and I are digging up yams.'
Example #59:

    c.   Jamaniki-rni karnanganja-nga baya-ka                    yurnukurdukurdu-warndi.
    this(m)-FOC emu-ERG.f              man-PST.HAB foot-INST
    `This fellow (back there) got kicked by an emu.'
Example #60:

    wurraka-na-ka            ya-yi.
    3pl.GEN-m-PST.HAB 3sg-FUT
    `Then he'll cook the goanna meat, for those folks back there, he will.'
Example #61:

    (19)   a.   Ngunu ngaja-mi mayamba-kaji-mi                nginda.
    DEM     see-IRR    whirlwind-through-IRR DEM(m)
    `Look, I think that's really a whirlwind.'
Example #62:

    junma-rni-rna-mi,          junma      kardakarda.
    wallaby-FOC-DAT-IRR wallaby bone
    `We got my nose bone here from a wallaby skeleton.'
Example #63:

    (20)   a.   Waja nyama-rni         liyijku-nu?
    what 2sg.NOM-FOC name-did
    `What's your name?'
Example #64:

    b.   Anuku nya-mi          liyijku-nu?
    how        2sg-IRR    name-did
    `What's your name?'
Example #65:

    Angkula larrinka-nga-ju              nganku.
    NEG        understand-1sg-do 2sg.ACC
    `What was that word you said? I didn't understand you.'
Example #66:

    d.   Ayinji-nama          dirri-ngurri-yi,    waja baka-ngurri-ngku   marrinjku-nu.
    little.while-time eat-1pl.Inc-FUT loosen-1pl.Inc-will.come language-did
    `Wait a little while we drink, then we'll talk language [Jingulu].'
Example #67:

    maja-nya-yi, Kirnbininku-nu.
    get-2sg-FUT Kirnbininku-did
    hold of it, this Kirnbininku.'
Example #68:

    (22)        Banybili   nakalanjku ibilkina-nu.
    find       moss         rain-did
    `Moss is found after the rain.'