ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Mark C. Baker (2005). On Verb-Initial and Verb-Final Word Orders in Lokaa.

URL: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mabaker/Lokaa-word-order.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3122&langcode=yaz (2019-04-26).

 

Example #1:

    (1)    a. b       -kpy      k-p
    Ubi      1AGR-sell 11-cup
    `Ubi sold a cup.'
Example #2:

    b. Benben        y-tm          y-j       -su.
    children.2 2AGR-very 2AGR-eat 7-fish
    `Children eat fish a lot.'
Example #3:

    (2)    b    k-p -kpy.
    Ubi    11-cup NEG/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell a cup.'
Example #4:

    (5)      a. b -yy        l-p m k e-kpal
    Ubi 1AGR-put 11-cup DEM on 7-chair
    `Ubi put the cups on the chair.'
Example #5:

    b. b n     -kp             k
    Ubi FUT 1AGR-disappear PRT
    `Ubi will disappear.'
Example #6:

    d. Bnn        y-yn           y-k           l-w.
    Women.2 2AGR-do.again 2AGR-fetch 13-water
    `The women fetched water again.'
Example #7:

    b. y-k-y                nn.
    2AGR-advise-IMPF person
    `They are advising someone.'
Example #8:

    d. n     ng-k-i          blong.
    FUT 1sS-wash-PERF clothes
    `I will wash the clothes'
Example #9:

    b. -ty                  (w)     [t:y:]
    1AGR-investigate you
    `He investigates you.'
Example #10:

    b. w     -ty
    you NEG/1AGR-investigate
    He didn't investigate you.
Example #11:

    b. -ki-i
    1AGR-wash-you
    `He washed you.'
Example #12:

    (17)   a. K-p       m      n       k-w.
    11-cup      this     FUT      11AGR-full
    `The cup will be full.'
Example #13:

    b. K-p       m      (*n) k-w.
    11-cup      this     FUT      NEG/FUT/11AGR-full
    `The cup will not be full.'
Example #14:

    (18)     b -km      -su ke-dei       k -pl.
    Ubi 1AGR-stop 7-fish GER-buy in 7-market
    `Ubi stopped buying fish in the market.'
Example #15:

    b. Kenkong simaa da loose -bana.                        (AI)
    knife      this    on floor   NEG/1AGR-put
    `He didn't put the knife on the floor.'
Example #16:

    c. Bng epaleepal -jii.                         (AI)
    thing quickly       NEG/1AGR-eat
    `He didn't eat quickly.'
Example #17:

    (22)   a. b l-p ys -kpeyi
    Ubi 14-cup today NEG/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell cups today.'
Example #18:

    b. b l-p k -pla           -kpy
    Ubi 14-cup in         market NEG/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell cups in the market.'
Example #19:

    (24)   a. Ynn      -ml           k -t.
    Woman 1AGR-come in 7-house
    `A woman came into the house.'
Example #20:

    b. *K -t          -ml          ynn.
    in    7-house 1AGR-come woman
    `Into the house came a woman.'
Example #21:

    (25)   a. b -kpy       n     k.
    Ubi 1AGR-sell me PERF
    `Ubi has sold me (say, as a slave).'
Example #22:

    c. *b k         min      -kpy.
    Ubi    PERF me          NEG/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell me.'
Example #23:

    (26)   a. b -kpy        k        l-p.
    Ubi 1AGR-sell PERF 14-cups
    `Ubi sold cups.'
Example #24:

    b. b k         l-p      -kpy.
    Ubi PERF 14-cups NEG/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell cups.'
Example #25:

    (27)   a. b -ka             (k) bl k-t.
    Ubi 1AGR-give PRT chief.1 5-chair
    `Ubi gave the chief a chair.'
Example #26:

    c. ?*b k-t       bl -kai.
    Ubi     5-chair chief NEG/1AGR-give
    `Ubi did not give the chief a chair.'
Example #27:

    (28)   b -km         bl    -su k-kai
    Ubi 1AGR-stop chief.1 7-fish GER-give
    `Ubi stopped giving fish to the chief.'
Example #28:

    (30)   a. b l-p -kpy                   ys.              (compare with (22a))
    Ubi 14-cup NEG/1AGR-sell today
    `Ubi didn't sell cups today.'
Example #29:

    (34)   a. bl -wy           bnn     t       y-d           k-p.
    Chief.11AGR-want women.2 SUBJ 2AGR-buy 11-cup
    `The chief wants the women to buy the cup.'
Example #30:

    b. bl -wy                    bnn     t      y-d         k-p.
    Chief.1 NEG/1AGR-want women.2 SUBJ 2AGR -buy 11-cup
    `The chief doesn't the women to buy the cup.'
Example #31:

    (35)   a. bl -jai            bnn         bm t     y-d            yo-soma.
    Chief.1 1AGR-tell       women.2 those.2 SUBJ 2AGR-buy 10-pot
    `The chief told those women to buy pots.'
Example #32:

    b. bl bnn        bm -jai                       t        y-d           yo-soma.
    Chief.1 women.2 those.2 NEG/1AGR-want SUBJ 2AGR-buy 10-pot
    `The chief didn't tell those women to buy pots.'
Example #33:

    (36)   b -km         ynn      k-yn        -b             w   -f.
    Ubi 1AGR-stop people.2 GER-tell 1AGR-that he                        1AGR-be.sick
    `Ubi stopped telling people that he is sick.'
Example #34:

    b. b -dal         knkng -taa               -pal      -su.
    Ubi 1AGR-take knife          1AGR-take 1AGR-cut 7-fish
    `Ubi took the knife and cut the fish (with it).'
Example #35:

    (42)       a. *b l-w              -gana         k gbngbn -kb.
    Ubi   13-water 1AGR-put in basin                          NEG/1AGR-fetch
    `Ubi did not fetch water and put it in the basin.'
Example #36:

    b. b knkng -dl                              -taa          -pal         -su.
    Ubi knife           NEG/1AGR-take 1AGR-take 1AGR-cut 7-fish
    `Ubi did not take the knife and cut the fish (with it).'
Example #37:

    (47)   a. Bnn      y-yn             y-k         l-w     ys.
    Women.2 2AGR-do.again 2AGR-fetch 13-water today
    `The women fetched water again today.
Example #38:

    b. Bnn      l-w ys y-yn                      y- k.
    Women.2 water today NEG/2AGR-do.again 2AGR-fetch
    `The women didn't fetch water again today.
Example #39:

    (48)   a. Y-dk               y-nn      lj.              (Iwara 1982: 235)
    2AGR-do.instead 2AGR-cook food
    `They cooked food instead.'
Example #40:

    (49)   -t     [kebla ke-yeni            ke-kou ke-wu] -y            m.
    2sS-take farm     GER-do.again GER-go 5-your 2sS-go there
    `You keep bringing up the idea of your going to the farm again!'
Example #41:

    (55)   a. b k-p knkn -kpy.
    Ubi 11-cup 11.any            neg/1AGR-sell
    `Ubi didn't sell any cup.'
Example #42:

    b. b -kp           k   k-p knkn ?
    Ubi 1AGR-sell PRT 11-cup 11.any              Q
    `Did Ubi sell any cup?'
Example #43:

    c. *b -kpy        k-p knkn.
    Ubi    1AGR-sell 11-cup 11.any
    `Ubi sold any cup.'
Example #44:

    (57)   a. b y-sw k l-plm janjanaya -di.
    Ubi 10.pots      in 3-stall     any         NEG/1AGR-buy
    `Ubi didn't buy pots at any stall (in the market).'
Example #45:

    b. b     y-sw -di                 k l-plm janjanaya.
    Ubi    10.pots    NEG/1AGR-buy in 3-stall             any
    `Ubi didn't buy pots at any stall (in the market).'
Example #46:

    (58)    *Bonbong b -di.
    nothing       Ubi NEG/1AGR-buy
    `Ubi bought nothing.' (OK: b bonbong -di)
Example #47:

    (62)   a. b ys -kpy         l-p
    Ubi today 1AGR-sell        11-cup
    `Ubi today sold cups.' (?? In English)
Example #48:

    b. ys b      -kpy    l-p
    today Ubi      1AGR-sell 11-cup
    `Today Ubi sold cups.' (OK in English)
Example #49:

    b. bl -d          nn -wy          t   -d        k-p
    Chief 1AGR-be who 1AGR-want SUBJ 1AGR-buy cup
    `Who does the chief want to buy the cup?'
Example #50:

    (i)       a. Ubi -su k-j         -km.
    Ubi 7-fish GER-eat       NEG/1AGR-stop
    `Ubi did not stop eating fish.'
Example #51:

    c. Ubi -su -km                   k-j.
    Ubi 7-fish NEG/1AGR-stop GER-eat
    `Ubi did not stop eating fish.'
Example #52:

    (i)       ??b knkng       -su -taa       -pal.
    Ubi     knife       fish    1-take 1-cut
    `Ubi did not take the knife and cut the fish (with it).'
Example #53:

    (i)        a. (*)Bnn y-yn              ys   y-k          l-w.
    Women       2AGR-do.again today        2AGR-fetch     13-water
    `The women fetched water again today.
Example #54:

    b. (*)Bnn l-w         y-yn                 ys y-k.
    Women       13-water neg/2AGR-do.again today 2AGR-fetch
    `The women didn't fetch water again today.
Example #55:

    (i)        Bnn, bl    gblngb -b          b   k n-kt.    (Iwara 1982: 270)
    women chief      A.             1-marry them in 8-baskets.
    `As for women, chief Agbalangba married them in baskets.'
Example #56:

    (ii)      b -bli        bnn b-m y-bb k-p ki-m y-di.
    Ubi 1AGR-ask women 2-those 2-if               11-cup 11-that neg/2AGR-buy
    `Ubi asked if the women didn't buy the cup.'