The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sabine Zerbian (2004). Wh-Questions in Northern Sotho.

URL: http://mercury.soas.ac.uk/users/lm5/BantuProjectPapers/Zerbian_LLB_04.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3148&langcode=nso (2019-03-24).


Example #1:

    (b)        -bona        mang ka-mehla?
    you-see            who      always
    `Who do you always see?'
Example #2:

    (2)    (a)        *-bona            ka-mehla            mang?
    you-see           always              who
    `Who do you always see?'
Example #3:

    (b)        *Mang -bona?
    who 2nd-see
    `Who do you see?'
Example #4:

    (3)    (a)        -fa               mo-kgalabje eng?
    3rd.CL1-give       CL1-old.man         what
    `What does he give the old man?'
Example #5:

    (b)        -tli_et_a   mang se-hlare?
    3rd.CL1-bring      who      CL7-medicine
    `Who does he bring the medicine?'
Example #6:

    (7)    (a)    K     mang a-nyaka-ng          ngaka?
    COP    who     CL1-look.for-REL CL9.doctor
    `Who is looking for the doctor?'
Example #7:

    (b)    K    mang a-reki_a-ng ma-swi                    ko-toropo-ng?
    COP    who     CL1-sell-REL     CL6-milk         in-town-in
    `Who is selling milk in town?'
Example #8:

    (9)    (a)    Mang -dira            eng?
    Who    3rd.CL1-do      what
    `Who is doing what?'
Example #9:

    B:    Mang -tlhokomela            ngaka?
    Who     3rd.CL1-look.after        CL9.doctor
    `Who is looking after the doctor?'
Example #10:

    (10) (a)     Di-kgomo          di      fula   nage-ng.
    CL10-cows         SC.CL10graze   CL9.country-LOC
    `The cattle are grazing in the country.'
Example #11:

    (b)    Nage-ng        go              fula di-kgomo.
    CL9.country-LOC   SC.CL17        graze CL10-cows
    `In the country are grazing the cattle.'
Example #12:

    (11) Nage-ng         go                fula eng?
    CL9.Country-LOCSC.CL17           graze what
    `What is grazing in the country?'
Example #13:

    (12)      (a)    Go tla            mang?
    CL17 come         who
    `Who is coming?'
Example #14:

    (b)    Go bala mang puku?
    CL17 read    who book
    `Who is reading the book?'
Example #15:

    (13) Pitsha (yona) e      thub-ile            (ke mo_emane).
    Pot            SC break.PASS-PAST       (by boy)
    `The pot was broken (by the boy).'
Example #16:

    (14) Pitsha (yona) e      thub-ile            ke mang?
    Pot            SC break.PASS-PAST       by who
    `Who broke the pot?'
Example #17:

    (a)    Ke mo-sadi       fela    a        tli_a-ng ba-na               se-kolo-ng.
    COP CL1-woman   only     3rd.CL1-bring-REL CL2-children CL7-school-LOC
    `Only the woman brings the children to school.' (not the man)
Example #18:

    (b)    Mo-sadi o      tli_a        ba-na          fela se-kolo-ng.
    CL1-woman   3rd.CL1-bring CL2-children    only CL7-school-LOC
    `The woman only brings the children to school.' (not the          teenagers)
Example #19:

    (c)    Mo-sadi o           tli_a ba-na           se-kolo-ng                   fela.
    CL1-woman   3rd.CL1      bring CL2-children        CL7-school-LOC      only
    `The woman only brings the children to school.'         (not to church)
Example #20:

    (21)            *Mang o-bonye         Thabo?
    who     SM.CL1-see.PAST Thabo
    `Who saw Thabo?'
Example #21:

    (b)    Go     tsena Matalebele.
    CL17    enter         Matalebele
    ,Matalebele enters.'
Example #22:

    (24) Go      robala mang mpete-ng?
    CL17    sleep    who      bed-L   OC
    `Who is sleeping in the bed?'