ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Mark Andrew de Vos (2005). The syntax of verbal pseudo-coordination in English and Afrikaans.

URL: http://www.lotpublications.nl/publish/articles/001451/bookpart.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3281&langcode=afr (2018-10-18).

 

Example #1:

    (5)    Jan sal die boeke sit en lees
    Jan will the books sit and read
    `Jan will sit reading the books'
Example #2:

    b. Jan     sit die boeke en lees
    Jan     sit the books and read
    `Jan   sits reading the books'
Example #3:

    c. Jan     sit en lees die boeke
    Jan     sit and read the books
    `Jan   sits reading the books'
Example #4:

    (10)      a. Jan maak elke dag potjiekos
    Jan make every day potjiekos
    `Jan makes potjiekos every day'
Example #5:

    b. . . . dat Jan elke dag potjiekos maak
    that        Jan every day potjiekos make
    `. . . that Jan makes potjiekos everyday'
Example #6:

    (11)      a. Jan eet altyd      appels
    Jan eet always apples
    `Jan always eats apples'
Example #7:

    b. Jan wil nie appels eet nie
    Jan want not apples eet neg.                  AG R
    `Jan doesn't want to eat apples'
Example #8:

    (12)      a. Sy kom vandag die boek lees
    she come today the book read
    `She will read the book today'
Example #9:

    b. Sy kom lees vandag die boek
    She come read today the book
    `She will read the book today'
Example #10:

    (13)      a. Hy sal die heeldag           na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    he will the whole day at the clouds lie and look
    `He'll lie looking at the clouds the entire day'
Example #11:

    b. Hy     lÍ     die    heeldag         na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    he     lie    the    whole day       at the clouds        and look
    `He   lies   looki   ng at the cl   ouds the whole day long' (Robbers 1997:65)
Example #12:

    c. Kom staan en lees hy die boeke?
    come stand and read he the books
    `Does he come and read the books?'                      [DLV+ILV+LexV]
Example #13:

    (16)       a. Sy moet die kinders help
    she must the children help
    `She must help the children' (Robbers 1997:174)
Example #14:

    b. *Sy moet help die kinders
    she must help the children
    `She must help the children' (Robbers 1997:174)
Example #15:

    (17)       a. Sy sal die kinders moet help
    she will the children must help
    `She will have to help the children' (Robbers 1997:174)
Example #16:

    (19) Sy sal moet die kinders help
    she will must the children help
    `She will have to help the children'
Example #17:

    (20) Hy sal kan die bal skop
    he will can the ball kick
    `He will be able to kick the ball'
Example #18:

    (21) Hulle sal wil die kinders leer
    they will want the children teach
    `They will want to teach the children'
Example #19:

    (24)      a. *Waarom        sal moet        sy die kinders help?
    why            will must       she the children help
    `Why will     she have to    help the children?'
Example #20:

    b. *Waarom        sal kan       hy die bal skop?
    why            will can      he the ball kick
    `Why will     he be able t   o kick the ball?'
Example #21:

    (30) lÍ en slaap hulle?
    lie and sleep they
    `Are they lying asleep?'
Example #22:

    (31) Kom slaap hulle?
    come sleep they
    `Will they come and sleep?'
Example #23:

    (32) Gaan lÍ en slaap hulle?
    go     lie and sleep they?
    `Are they going to lie and sleep?' (Ponelis 1993:327)
Example #24:

    (33) *Gaan laat bou hulle die sentrum?
    go       let build they the centre
    `Will they go and get the centre built?' (Ponelis 1993:327)
Example #25:

    (34) *Sit en lÍ en slaap hulle?
    sit and lie and sleep they
    `Are they lying asleep?'
Example #26:

    (35)       a. Wie hoop Jan om         goed te leer ken?
    who hope Jan C.I N F well to learn know
    `Who does Jan hope to get to know better'
Example #27:

    b. Jan hoor die koppie val
    Jan hear the cup         fall
    `Jan hears the cup fall'
Example #28:

    (38)      a. Jan skryf briewe en lees boeke
    Jan write letters and read books
    `Jan writes letters and reads books'
Example #29:

    (39)      a. Jan skop die man [wie hom bekyk]
    Jan kick the man who him look-at
    `Jan kicks the man who is looking at him'
Example #30:

    (40) Wat dink Bush dat Blair sÍ tW H ?
    What think Bush that Blair say t
    `What does Bush think that Blair is saying?'
Example #31:

    (42) Loopt haelt dan . . . die spijse
    go     get    then . . . the food
    `Go then and the food' (Ponelis 1993:330)
Example #32:

    (52)      a. Gaan     haal hy die kinders?
    go       get he the children
    `Will   he fetch the children' (Ponelis 1993:329)
Example #33:

    b. Gaan     hy die kinders haal?
    go       he the children get
    `Will   he fetch the children' (Ponelis 1993:330)
Example #34:

    (1)      a. Wat sit Jan waarskynlik en eet t?
    what sit Jan probably          and eat t
    `What is Jan probably sitting and eating?'
Example #35:

    b. Wat sit en eet Jan waarskynlik t?
    what sit and eat Jan probably            t
    `What is Jan probably sitting and eating?'
Example #36:

    (2)        a. Hoe loop Jan die rekening en betaal?
    how walk Jan the bill           and pay
    `How does Jan go and pay the bill?'
Example #37:

    i. Hy betaal met sy kreditkaart
    he pay       with his credit card
    `He pays it with his credit card'
Example #38:

    b. Hoe loop en betaal Jan die rekening?
    how walk and pay        Jan the bill
    `How does Jan go and pay the bill?'
Example #39:

    i. Hy betaal met sy kreditkaart
    he pay       with his credit card
    `He pays it with his credit card'
Example #40:

    (3)        a. Hoe vinnig sit Jan die boek en lees?
    how quickly sit Jan the book and read
    `How quickly is Jan reading the book (while sitting)?'
Example #41:

    i. Hy lees baie vinnig
    he read very quickly
    `He's reading very quickly'
Example #42:

    b. Hoe vinnig sit en lees Jan die boek?
    how quickly sit and read Jan the book
    `How quickly is Jan reading the book (while sitting)?'
Example #43:

    i. Hy lees baie vinnig
    he read very quickly
    `He's reading very quickly'
Example #44:

    (4)     Hy sal die heeldag           na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    He will the whole day at the clouds lie and look
    'He'll lie looking up a the clouds all day'
Example #45:

    sorgvuldig/    morsig sit en eet?
    carefully       messily sit and eat
    going to be eating?'                         [Ordinary Adverb positions]
Example #46:

    sorgvuldig/ morsig en eet
    carefully    messily and eat
    going to be eating?'                                     [*Adverbs in A]
Example #47:

    ?vinni   g/     sorgvuldig/   morsig eet?
    quickl   y carefully         messily eat
    going    to be eating?'                                     [Low adverbs in B]
Example #48:

    (7)            a. Daar sal altyd       iemand     boeke sit en lees
    there will always somebody books sit and read
    `There will always be somebody busy reading books'
Example #49:

    b. Daar sal altyd       iemand     sit en boeke lees
    there will always somebody sit and books read
    `There will always be somebody busy reading books'
Example #50:

    (9)            a. ?Wat sal daar altyd         iemand    sit en lees?
    what will there always somebody sit and read
    `What will there always be somebody reading?'
Example #51:

    b. *Daar sal altyd        sit iemand    en boeke lees
    there will always sit somebody and books read
    `There will always be somebody busy reading books'
Example #52:

    c. *Wat sal daar altyd         sit en iemand     lees?
    what will there always sit and somebody read
    `What will there always be somebody reading?'
Example #53:

    b. Waarom sit en jaag Jan die beeste weg
    why      sit and chase Jan the cattle away.          P RT
    `Why will Jan keep chasing away the cattle'
Example #54:

    weg       jaag
    away.P RT chase
    `Why will Jan keep chasing away the cattle'
Example #55:

    (12)     a. Dit reŽn
    it rain
    `It's raining'
Example #56:

    b. *Dit sit
    it      s it
    `It's sitting (in the weather-subject sense)'
Example #57:

    d. *Dit sit en reŽn alweer vandag
    it      sit and rain again today
    `Its raining again today'
Example #58:

    (13)     a. Dit reŽn
    it rain
    `It's raining'
Example #59:

    b. *Dit staan
    it      stand
    `It's standing (in the weather-subject sense)'
Example #60:

    c. %Dit staan vandag alweer en reŽn
    it      stand today again and rain
    `Its raining again today'
Example #61:

    d. %Dit staan en reŽn alweer vandag
    it      stand and rain again today
    `Its raining again today'
Example #62:

    b. *Die      boom loop
    the       tree go
    `The    tree goes'
Example #63:

    d. *Die      boom loop         en groei mos
    the       tree walk         and grow E M P H
    `The    tree is (actuall   y) growing!'
Example #64:

    b. ie boom staan op die plaas
    the tree stand on the farm
    `The tree is on the farm'
Example #65:

    c. Die boom staan mos           en groei
    the tree stand E M P H and grow
    `The tree is (actually) growing!'
Example #66:

    d. Die boom staan en groei mos
    the tree stand and grow E M P                    H
    `The tree is (actually) growing!'
Example #67:

    (18) Die kers   staan op die tafel
    the candle stand on the table
    `The candle is on the table'
Example #68:

    (19) Die man staan op die tafel
    the man stand on the table
    `The man is standing on the table
Example #69:

    `n bier sit en drink
    Jan will a beer sit and drink and Piet will also
    `Jan will drink a beer and Piet will too'
Example #70:

    en drink
    Jan will beer sit and drink and Piet will also a beer sit
    `Jan will drink a beer and Piet will too'
Example #71:

    (22) Wat sit Jan en/*of lees?
    What sit Jan and/or read
    `What is John sitting and/*or reading?'
Example #72:

    (23)       a. Jan het          gesit     en gedans      ook
    Jan AU X.have P S T-sit and P S T-dans also
    `Jan both sat and danced'
Example #73:

    b. *Wat sit Jan en lees ook?
    what sit Jan and read also
    `What is John (*both) sitting and reading?'
Example #74:

    c. *Wat sit en lees Jan ook?
    what sit and read Jan also
    `What is John (*both) sitting and reading?'
Example #75:

    (25) Wat sit Jan en sing?
    what sit Jan and sing
    `What is John busy singing (while sitting)?'
Example #76:

    (28)      a. Jan sit en hy lees
    Jan sit and he read
    `Jan sits and he reads'
Example #77:

    b. Jan lees en hy sit
    Jan read and he sit
    `Jan reads and he sits'
Example #78:

    (30)     a. Wat sit en lees Jan?
    what sit and read Jan
    `What is Jan reading?'
Example #79:

    (32) Hy het       ge- lÍ en           *ge-      slaap.
    he have P S T-lie and                      sleep.
    `He lay sleeping'
Example #80:

    (33) Hy het       ge- staan en           *ge-      praat.
    he have P S T-stand    and                    talk.
    `He stood talking'
Example #81:

    (34) Hy het        ge- sit en         *ge-      skryf
    He have P S T-sit     and                  write
    `He sat writing'
Example #82:

    (35) Hy het      ge- loop en            *ge-      fluit
    He have P S T-walk    and                    whistle
    `He walked whistling'
Example #83:

    (36) Wat sit jy      en/*EN eet
    what sit you and       eat
    `What are you eating?'
Example #84:

    (37) Wat sit en/*EN eet jy?
    what sit and       eat you?
    `What are you eating?'
Example #85:

    (38)      a. Waarom SIT jy       nie en    eet nie?
    what     sit you neg N E G and eat neg                         NEG
    `What aren't you SITTING and eating?'
Example #86:

    b. Wat SIT en eet jy        nie?
    what sit and eat you neg?
    `What aren't you SITTING and eating?'
Example #87:

    (40)     a. Wat sit Jan [en]/[n] lees?
    what sit Jan and " read
    `What is Jan reading?'
Example #88:

    b. Wat sit [en]/[n] lees Jan?
    what sit and " read Jan
    `What is Jan reading?'
Example #89:

    (1)      a. Hy sal die heeldag           na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    He will the whole day at the clouds lie and look
    'He'll lie looking up a the clouds all day'
Example #90:

    b. Hy lÍ die heeldag          na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    he lie the whole day at the clouds             and look
    'He lies looking at the clouds the entire day'
Example #91:

    c. Hy lÍ en kyk die heeldag                na die wolke lÍ en kyk
    he lie and look the whole day at the clouds
    'He lies looking at the clouds the entire day' (Robbers 1997:65)
Example #92:

    (2)        a. Jan sit die boek en lees
    Jan sit the book and read
    `Jan was reading the book'
Example #93:

    b. Jan lees en lees elke dag
    Jan read and read every day
    `Jan reads and reads every day'
Example #94:

    b. . . . dat Jan altyd       lees en lees
    . . . that Jan always read and read
    `. . . that Jan always reads and reads'
Example #95:

    (6)     a. Waarom sing en sing Jan die hele      dag?
    why     sing and sing Jan the whole day?
    `Why does Jan sing and sing all day?'
Example #96:

    b. Waarom sit en sing Jan die hele    dag?
    why     sit and sing Jan the whole day
    `Why does Jan sing all day?'
Example #97:

    (7)     a. Waarom sit Jan die hele      dag        sit en sing?
    why     sit Jan the whole day               and sing
    `Why does Jan sing all day?'
Example #98:

    b. *Waarom sing Jan die hele          dag     sing en sing ?
    why       sing Jan the whole day                and sing
    `Why does Jan sing and sing all day?'
Example #99:

    (10)     a. Waarom [loop en eet] Jan piesangs t?
    Why     walk and eet Jan bananas
    `Why does Jan eat bananas?'                             [Quirky verb-second]
Example #100:

    b. Waarom loop Jan piesangs [t  en v] eet?
    Why     walk Jan bananas and    eet
    `Why does Jan eat bananas?'             [Optional extraction]
Example #101:

    (11)     a. Waarom [loop en loop] Jan oor die duine t?
    why     walk and walk Jan over the dunes
    `Why does John walk and walk over the dunes?'                        [ReCo]
Example #102:

    (19) Jan sit nou die wolke [tsit en v] aanstaar
    Jan sit now the clouds                and  at.P RT-stare
    `Jan is sitting and staring at the clouds'
Example #103:

    (38)       a. Waarom loop          en loop Jan oor die duine?
    why     walk         and walk Jan over the dunes
    `Why does John       walk and walk over the dunes?'
Example #104:

    (39)       a. Jan [kan        en moet] vandag        skooltoe gaan!
    Jan can         and must school-to go
    `John can    and must go to school today!'
Example #105:

    (40)      a. Sy kom vandag die boek lees
    she come today the book read
    `She will read the book today'
Example #106:

    b. Sy kom lees vandag die boek
    She come read today the book
    `She will read the book today'
Example #107:

    (44)    a. Waarom bly lees Jan die boek?
    why     stay read Jan the book
    `Why does Jan keep reading the book?'
Example #108:

    (45)    a. Waarom kom eet Jan by           ons?
    why     come at Jan with us
    `Why does Jan come and eat at our house?'
Example #109:

    (46)    a. Die heelagter laat          val die bal
    the full-back let.C AU Se fall the ball
    `The full-back dropped the ball' (Van Niekerk 1995:150)
Example #110:

    b. Die heelagter laat         die bal val
    the full-back let.C AU S the ball fall
    `The full-back dropped the ball' (Van Niekerk 1995:150)
Example #111:

    (47)        a. %Waarom help lees Jan Sanet die boek?
    why        help read Jan Sanet the book?
    `Why does Jan help Sanet read the book?'
Example #112:

    (48)        a. %Waarom laat                       lees Jan Sanet die boek?
    why        let-P E R M I S S I V E read Jan Sanet the book
    `Why does Jan let Sanet read the book?'
Example #113:

    (49)        a. *Waarom beter lees Jan die boek?
    why       beter read Jan the book
    `Why had Jan better read the book?'
Example #114:

    (51)        a. Jan moet nou basta nonsens praat!
    you must now N E G nonsense speak
    `You must stop talking nonsense now!'
Example #115:

    b. *Waarom basta Jan nonsens praat?
    Why       N E G Jan nonsense speak
    `Why does Jan stop speaking nonsense?'
Example #116:

    (52)       a. Jan het         die bokke loop skiet
    Jan AU X.have the buck walk shoot
    `Jan went and shot the buck'
Example #117:

    b. Jan loop skiet die bokke
    Jan walk shoot the buck
    `Jan goes and shoots the buck'
Example #118:

    c. *Jan loop die bokke skiet
    Jan walk the buck shoot
    `Jan goes and shoots the buck'
Example #119:

    (53) Jan loop die bokke en skiet
    Jan walk the buck and shoot
    `Jan goes and shoots buck'
Example #120:

    (54)      a. Hoe vinnig sal Jan die boek loop lees?
    how quickly will Jan the book walk read
    `How quickly will Jan read the book'
Example #121:

    b. Hoe      vinnig     loop lees       Jan die boek?
    how      quickly    walk read       Jan the book
    `How     quickly   will Jan read   the book'
Example #122:

    (55)      a. Wat wil Jan gaan eet?
    What want Jan go         eat
    `What does John want to (go and) eat?'
Example #123:

    b. Wat gaan eet             Jan die heeltyd?
    What go      eat         Jan the whole time
    `*What will John        eat the entire time?'
Example #124:

    c. Wat gaan Jan die heeltyd              eet?
    What go      Jan the whole time eat
    `What will John eat the entire time?'
Example #125:

    (56) As dit mŰre          mooiweer      is, gaan ons gaan visvang
    If it tomorrow good weather is go             us go        fishing
    `If there is good weather tomorrow we are going to go fishing' (Heiberg
Example #126:

    (57) Ons gaan vanaand gaan gool
    We go       tonight go        drink
    `Tonight we are going to go drinking' (Heiberg 1950:64:VVT)
Example #127:

    (58)      a. Wat sit kyk jy       my so?
    what sit look you me so
    `Why are you looking at me like that?' (Du Plessis, p.c.)
Example #128:

    (61) Nou gaan laat hulle die sentrum bou
    Now go      let they the centre          build
    `Now they will have the centre built'(Ponelis 1993:328)
Example #129:

    (62) En hy kom staan jou en uittrap
    and he come stand you and scold
    `And he just started scolding you' (Ponelis 1993:328)
Example #130:

    (63) . . . en wie kom kry jou . . . daar lÍ?
    . . . and who come get you . . . there lie
    `And who will get you lying there . . . ?'(Ponelis 1993:328)
Example #131:

    (64) Julle loop staan nie die voŽls en aanjaag                      . . . nie
    you walk stand N E G the birds and on.P RT-chase . . . N E G
    `You are going to drive the birds . . . ' ((Matthee 1985:23) cited by (Robbers
Example #132:

    (65)    a. Waarom sal Jan die boek loop staan en lees?
    why      will Jan the book walk stand and read
    `Why will Jan go and read the book?'                           [Base order]
Example #133:

    b. Waarom loop staan en lees Jan die boek?
    why       walk stand and read Jan the book
    `Why is Jan busy reading the book?'
Example #134:

    d. Waarom loop staan Jan die boek en lees?
    Why       walk stand Jan the book and read
    `Why is Jan busy reading the book?'
Example #135:

    (69) Ek het     hom ge-maak gaan
    I AUX him PST-make go
    `I made him go' (Calitz 1957:KBA)
Example #136:

    (70) Toe ek my          kom ge-vind het
    then I my(self) come PST-find AUX
    `Then I came and found myself ' Rademeyer (1938:BA)
Example #137:

    b. Jan sit die boeke en lees
    Jan sit the books and read
    `Jan sits reading the books'
Example #138:

    c. Jan sit en lees die boeke
    Jan sit and read the books
    `Jan sits reading the books'
Example #139:

    (29)     a. Jan sal die boeke sit en lees
    Jan zal de boeken zit en lees
    `Jan zal de boeken zitten te lezen'
Example #140:

    b. Jan sit die boeke en lees
    Jan zit de boeken en lees
    `Jan zit de boeken te lezen'
Example #141:

    c. Jan sit en lees die boeke
    Jan zit en lees de boeken
    `Jan zit de boeken te lezen'