ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sumiyo Nishiguchi (2006). Covert Emotive Modality Is a Monster.

URL: http://homepage3.nifty.com/sumiyo_nishiguchi/LENLS2006proceedings%20nishiguchi.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3295&langcode=jpn (2018-07-19).

 

Example #1:

    (2) A, koko-ni {at-ta/#a-ru}. (Japanese)
    Oh here-LOC be-PAST/be-PRES
    `Oh, it was here'
Example #2:

    (5) Picchaa nage-ta.     Ut-ta.      Ichiro hashi-ru. Oshii. Auto. (Japanese)
    Pitcher throw-PAST hit-PAST Ichiro run-PRES sorry out
    is out.'
Example #3:

    (6) a. Yo-mo      huke-t-a. (Japanese)
    night-also pass-Past-be
    `It grew late'
Example #4:

    (12) Asu-wa        Maria-no tanjobi-dat-ta. (Japanese)
    tomorrow-TOP Maria-GEN birthday-be-PAST
    `Tomorrow is Maria's birthday'
Example #5:

    (15) Osumai-wa     dochira-deshi-ta-ka. (Japanese)
    residence-TOP where-HON-PAST-Q
    `Where did you live?'
Example #6:

    (17) Onamae-wa nan-deshi-tak-ke. (Japanese)
    name-TOP what-HON-PAST-Q
    What was your name?
Example #7:

    (18) Yo-kat-ta. (Japanese)
    good-be-PAST
    `Thank goodness' (when a lost wallet was returned with money)
Example #8:

    (19) Shimat-ta. (Japanese)
    close-PAST
    `Oh, no'
Example #9:

    (20) (While I expected it to be blue) Kiiro-kat-ta. (Japanese)
    yellow-be-PAST
    `It is yellow'
Example #10:

    (21) Basu-ga ki-ta. (Japanese)
    bus-NOM come-PAST
    `The bus is coming'
Example #11:

    (24) A, hikoki-ga        ton-da. (Japanese)
    Oh airplane-NOM fly-PAST
    `Oh, the airplane is flying'
Example #12:

    (25) A, warat-ta. (Japanese)
    oh smile-PAST
    `Oh, (the baby) is smiling'
Example #13:

    (i) a. #A, Taro-ga       ie-o        tate-ta.
    oh Taro-NOM house-ACC build-PAST
    ` Oh, Taro is building a house'
Example #14:

    b. #A, Taro-ga      jukkiro hashit-ta.
    oh Taro-NOM 10 km run-PAST
    `Oh, Taro is running 10km'
Example #15:

    (32) (N-a-i-to            omot-te-i-ta-ra,) at-ta.
    NEG-be-be-COMP think-CON-be-PAST-then be-Past
    `(To my surprise,) it is here.'
Example #16:

    (33) a. # At-t-a. (without surprise, with fake past reading)
    exist-PAST
    `It was here'
Example #17:

    b. At-ta. (without surprise, with real past reading)
    exist-PAST
    `It was here'
Example #18:

    (34) a. Basu-ga ki-ta. (without surprise or expectation, with fake past reading)
    bus-NOM come-PAST
    `The bus is coming'
Example #19:

    b. Basu-ga ki-ta. (without surprise, with real past reading) 11
    bus-NOM come-PAST
    `The bus came'
Example #20:

    (37) (Ureshii-koto-ni, nai-to          omotte-i-ta-ra,) at-ta.
    happy-fact-GOAL NEG-COMP think-be-PAST-PRES-then be-PAST
    `(I'm glad that) it is here (surprisingly).'
Example #21:

    (i) a. #A,    ka-ga            ton-da.
    Oh,    mosquito-NOM fly-PAST
    `Oh,   a mosquito is flying'
Example #22:

    b. A,     Taro-ga    tsukut-ta tako-ga      ton-da.
    Oh,    Taro-NOM make-Past kite-NOM fly-PAST
    `Oh,   the kite that Taro made is flying'
Example #23:

    (i) a. A, odoroi-ta-koto-ni basu-ga k-i-t-a.
    oh surprise-Past-fact bus-NOM come-be-PAST-be
    `Oh, as for bus, it is coming'
Example #24:

    b. # A, basu-ga odoroi-ta-koto-ni k-i-t-a.
    oh    bus-NOM surprise-PAST-fact come-be-PAST-be
    `Oh, the bus is coming'
Example #25:

    c. A, basu-ga k-i-t-a,                odoroi-ta-koto-ni.
    oh bus-NOM come-be-PAST-be, surprise-PAST-fact
    `Oh, the bus is coming'
Example #26:

    d. A, basu-ga ki-te           odoroi-ta.
    oh bus-NOM come-CON surprise-PAST
    Oh, I'm surprised that the bus is coming'
Example #27:

    (iii) a. A, yappari       koko-ni    at-t-a.
    oh as I expected here-LOC be-PAST-be
    `Oh, it was here as I expected'
Example #28:

    b. # A, koko-ni     yappari       at-t-a.
    oh    here-LOC as I expected be-PAST-be
    `Oh, it was here as I expected'
Example #29:

    (i) a. # A, basu-wa k-i-t-a.
    oh    bus-TOP come-be-PAST-be
    `Oh, as for bus, it is coming'
Example #30:

    b. # Hon-wa at-t-a.
    book-TOP be-PAST-be
    `As for book, it is here'
Example #31:

    c. Asu-wa           Mari-no     tanjobi-da-t-a.
    tomorrow-TOP Mari-GEN birthday-be-PAST-be
    `Tomorrow is Mari's birthday`
Example #32:

    (54) #(Looking at a bus that came thirty minutes ago) A, ki-ta.
    oh come-PAST
    `Oh, the bus is coming'
Example #33:

    ookina tanuki-no-yona otoko-de-aru.       Yani mottaibet-te-i-ta
    big    badger-GEN-like man-be-nonPAST terribly pompous-be-PAST
    mustache and large eyes like a badger. He was pompous.'
Example #34:

    hitori-no wakamono-ga ari-mashi-ta. `It was in one spring
    1-CL-GEN youth-NOM be-HON-PAST
    there was a young man who was looking up the sky blankly'
Example #35:

    (59) Picchaa nage-ta.      Ut-ta.      Ichiro hashi-ru. Oshii. Auto.
    Pitcher throw-PAST hit-PAST Ichiro run-PRES sorry out
    is out.'
Example #36:

    (i) Ken-wa Tokyo-ni        sun-deiru-to    it-ta.
    Ken-TOP Tokyo-LOC live-PROG-COMP say-PAST
    `Ken said that he was living in Tokyo.
Example #37:

    (63) Ken-mo ki-ta
    Ken-also come-PAST
    `Ken came, too'
Example #38:

    (64) [Ken]F -mo ki-ta
    Ken-also come-PAST
    `Ken came, too'
Example #39:

    (65) Dare-mo ko-nai.
    who-mo come-NEG
    `Nobody comes'
Example #40:

    (66) Hito-ri-mo ko-nai.
    1-CL-mo come-NEG
    `Nobody comes'
Example #41:

    (67) Haru-mo takenawa-ni nari-mashi-t-a
    spring-also peak-GOAL become-HON-PAST-be
    `The spring has reached its peak'
Example #42:

    (68) LF: mo [haru [takenawa-ni nari-mashi-ta]]
    also    spring peak-Goal become-Hon-Past
    `The spring has reached its peak'
Example #43:

    (69) Yo-mo      hukete-ki-ta.         Mo      neru-to  shi-yo.
    night-also late-become-PAST already sleep-COMP do-will
    `It grew late (at night). It's time to go to bed'
Example #44:

    Yo-mo                huke-te          mairi-mashi-ta.
    night-also pass-CON HON-HON-PAST
    `It grew late'
Example #45:

    (70) Soto-mo     hiete-ki-ta.
    Outside-mo cold-ASP-PAST
    `It has become cold outside'
Example #46:

    (71) Tabi-mo owari-ni chikazuite-ki-ta.
    trip-mo end-to approach-ASP-PAST
    `The trip is nearing the end'
Example #47:

    (72) Ko-no     saihu-mo hukuku-nat-t-a.
    this-GEN wallet-also old-become-PAST-be
    `This wallet has become old'
Example #48:

    (73) Mari-mo kashiko-i.
    Mari-also smart-be
    `Mary is smart indeed'
Example #49:

    (74) Omae-mo aho-ya-na.
    you-mo silly-be-EXC
    `You are silly, I should say'
Example #50:

    (75) a. Zannenna-koto-ni soto-mo        hiete-ki-ta.
    unfortunate-fact-be outside-mo cold-ASP-PAST
    `I am sorry that it has become cold outside'
Example #51:

    b. #Ureshii-koto-ni soto-mo     hiete-ki-ta.
    happy-fact-be     outside-mo cold-ASP-PAST
    `I am glad that it has become cold outside'