The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Ton van der Wouden (1996). Negative polarity auxiliaries.

URL: http://odur.let.rug.nl/~vdwouden/docs/piontalk.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3367&langcode=nld (2018-10-23).


Example #1:

    c.     Ik hoef nauwelijks te zeggen hoe blij ik ben
    I need hardly to say how glad I am
    `I hardly need say how glad I am'
Example #2:

    d. Hij hoeft alleen maar duidelijk voor zijn mening uit te komen
    He need only but clearly for his opinion out to come
    `He need only state his opinion clearly'
Example #3:

    e.     Alles wat we hoeven te weten staat in dit boek
    All what we need to know stands in this book
    `All we need know can be found in this book'
Example #4:

    g.      Ik betwijfel of je morgen naar school hoeft
    I doubt if you tomorrow to school need
    `I doubt whether you need go to school tomorrow'
Example #5:

    h. De koningin is te belangrijk om haar paspooort te hoeven laten zien
    The queen is too important to her passport to need let see
    `The queen is too important to have to show her passport'
Example #6:

    j. Je kon daar naar binnen gaan zonder te hoeven kloppen7
    You could there inside go without to need knock
    `You could enter there without having to knock'
Example #7:

    (18)    a.    Niemand heeft ook maar iets gezien
    Nobody has at all anything seen
    `Nobody saw anything at all'
Example #8:

    b. Hij sprong hoger dan ook maar iemand voor hem
    He jumped higher than at all anybody before him
    `He jumped higher than anyone before him'
Example #9:

    c.    Hij stierf voordat hij ook maar iets kon zeggen over de erfenis
    He died before he at all anything could say about the inheritance
    `He died before he could say anything about the inheritance'
Example #10:

    (19)    a.    Zij is niet voor de poes
    She is not for the cat
    `She is not to be trifled with'
Example #11:

    b. *Zij is nooit voor de poes
    She is not for the cat
    `She is not to be trifled with
Example #12:

    c.    Zij is geenszins voor de poes
    She is no way for the cat
    `She is no way to be trifled with'