ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Cholthicha Sudmuk (2005). The Syntax and Semantics of Serial Verb Constructions in Thai.

URL: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2005/sudmukd95920/sudmukd95920.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3375&langcode=tha (2019-05-27).

 

Example #1:

    (1) kanda?       dFn       pay         s?       na&Ns??
    Kanda         walk      go          buy      book
    `Kanda walked away to buy a book.'
Example #2:

    (2) kanda?        ?aw      mit        han       kay
    Kanda           take     knife       cut     chicken
    `Kanda took a knife to cut a chicken.'
Example #3:

    (3) kanda?        yn          rNpleN
    Kanda           stand        sing
    `Kanda sang, while standing.'
Example #4:

    (5) kanda?           nn
    Kanda              sleep
    `Kand a sleeps.'
Example #5:

    (6) kanda?           kin          khaw
    Kanda              eat         rice
    `Kanda eats rice.'
Example #6:

    (1) su$Ri?        tham           kQw        tQk
    Suri           make          glass     break
    `Suri broke a glass.'
Example #7:

    (2) su$Ri?        hay      luksa&w           pay          du?    na&N
    Suri          give      daughter            go       look        movie
    `Suri let her daughter go to see the movie.'
Example #8:

    (3) su$Ri?        tham           hay         cha&n       moho&?
    Suri            make          give      I             be upset
    `Suri made me upset.'
Example #9:

    (4) su$Ri?       yak          lFk    tham           Nan
    Suri          want           quit     do            work
    `Suri wanted to quit the job.'
Example #10:

    (5) su$Ri?       phayayam              tn           chaw
    Suri         try                     get up         morning
    `Suri tried to get up early.'
Example #11:

    (7) su$Ri?        kin           ?im
    Suri           eat           full
    `Suri ate and become full.'
Example #12:

    (8) su$Ri?        yiN         nok         tay
    Suri            shoot       bird        die
    `Suri shot a bird dead.'
Example #13:

    i                            j
    Suri           eat           full
    `Suri ate and become full.'
Example #14:

    (11) kha&w           thuk              ma&?        kat
    He              Passive            dog         bite
    `He was bitten by a dog.'
Example #15:

    (13) su$Ri?         dFn        pay (directional)
    Suri            walk      go
    `Suri walked away (from the speaker's center of attention).'
Example #16:

    (14) kha&w       wiN       tRoN         y?n         klap        khaw        pay
    He          run     go straight    reverse    return      enter        go
    `He ran along straight back in (away from the speaker's center of attention).'
Example #17:

    (15) su$Ri?       kin            ?aha&n             ?u (aspectual)
    Suri         eat            food                  be located
    `Suri is/was eating.'
Example #18:

    (16) kha&w        ?aw         mit          tat         sN
    He           take         knife         cut         envelope
    `He took the knife to cut the envelope.'
Example #19:

    (17) kha&w        chay         kankRay            tat      ya
    He           use           scissors           cut       grass
    `He used the scissors to cut grasses.'
Example #20:

    (18) su$Ri?       ma?       khuy          kap           cha&n
    Suri         come       talk           with        I
    `Suri came to talk to me.'
Example #21:

    (19) a. su$Ri?      yn            RNpleN
    Suri        stand           sing
    `Suri stood singing.'
Example #22:

    b. su$Ri?      dFn            ?an          na&Ns??
    Suri          walk           read       book
    `Suri read a book while walking.'
Example #23:

    (22) mali?        dFn            RNhay
    Mali           walk           cry
    `Mali walked and cried (at the same time).'
Example #24:

    (23) mali?        wiN          klap          ban
    Mali          run          return          home
    `Mali returned home by running.'
Example #25:

    (24) a.* mali?         sa?k            RNhay
    Mali            hiccup           cry
    `Mali hiccupped and cried (at the same time).'
Example #26:

    b.* mali?         lom            RNhay
    Mali           fall       cry
    `Mali fell and cried (at the same time).'
Example #27:

    (25) * mali?        RNhay          dFn
    Mali          cry               walk
    `Mali cried and walked (at the same time).'
Example #28:

    (26) mali?         naN       tham          kanban
    Mali           sit        do          homework
    `Mali sat doing her homework.'
Example #29:

    (27) nuan        phat         khaw         kin
    Nuan        fry         rice          eat
    `Nuan fried some rice to eat.'
Example #30:

    (28) a. * nuan         phat         khaw        kin      khaw / man
    Nuan         fry          rice         eat     rice    / it
    `Nuan fried some rice to eat it.'
Example #31:

    b. * nuan          phat         khaw       ha&uR?
    Nuan         fry          rice         laugh
    `Nuan fried some rice and laughed.'
Example #32:

    (29) * nuan           ha&?     kin      khaw
    Nuan          seek     eat       rice
    `Nuan seeks some rice to eat.'
Example #33:

    (30) a.kanda?          tham         dek         rNhay
    Kanda             make         child       cry
    `Kanda made the child cry.'
Example #34:

    b.kanda?           tham         kEw             tEk
    Kanda              make        glass             break
    `Kanda made the glass broke.'
Example #35:

    (31) mali?wiN tRoN                  yn         kham      saphan               ?k      pay
    Mali        run    go straight reverse      cross         bridge             exit        go
    `Mali ran straight back, crossing the bridge, out away from the speaker.'
Example #36:

    duayfi&thabau
    with light footsteps
    `Mali walked out, circling, back, away from the speaker, with the light footstep
Example #37:

    pay
    go
    `Mali walked out, circling, with the light footsteps, back away from the speaker
Example #38:

    pay
    go
    `Mali walked out, with the light footsteps, circling back away from the speaker.
Example #39:

    duayfi&thabau                   pay
    with the light footsteps      go
    the speaker)
Example #40:

    lE?            piti              k?         thamyaNdiawkan                        tRoN               ma?
    and             Piti            then           do the same                         go straight       come
    `Mali ran back out away, circling, and Piti did the same straight towards the sp
Example #41:

    piti           k?            thamyaNdiawkan                         loN            tRoN              ma?
    Piti          then             do the same                         descend go straight come
    speaker.'
Example #42:

    lE?            piti              k?         thamyaNdiawkan                              ma?
    and             Piti            then           do the same                              come
    speaker)
Example #43:

    pay            (RoNRian)
    go             (school)
    `Piti walked, crossing (the bridge), back (from the market), away (to school).'
Example #44:

    b. piti        kham      saphan
    Piti         cross      bridge
    `Piti crossed the bridge.'
Example #45:

    b.piti        khaw      hN
    Piti         enter     room
    `Piti entered the room.'
Example #46:

    b. piti        pay      roNrian
    Piti        go        school
    `Piti went to school.'
Example #47:

    (38) mali?         wiN        yn     klap     tRoN         kham      saphan    pay
    Mali        run          reverse return     go straight cross       bridge    go
    `Mali ran back straight, crossing the bridge, away from the speaker.'
Example #48:

    (40) mali?         kin          khaw           sed
    Mali           eat          rice           finish
    `Mali finished eating rice.'
Example #49:

    (41) mali?         ?an         na&Ns??           cop
    Mali            read        book                end
    `Mali ended/finished reading a book.'
Example #50:

    (42) a. wanna              dFn       khn (directional meaning)
    Wanna              walk     ascend
    `Wanna walked up.'
Example #51:

    b. wira          tEN          kln       khn (aspectual meaning)
    Wira         compose poem               SPFV (ascend)
    `Wira composed a/the poem.'
Example #52:

    (43) a. piti          dFn            loN (directional meaning)
    Piti           walk           descend
    `Piti walked down.'
Example #53:

    b. thaha&n             tay          loN (aspectual meaning)
    soldier               die          SPFV (descend)
    `A/The soldier died.'
Example #54:

    (44) a. wira         dFn            ?k (directional meaning)
    Wira          walk       exit
    `Wira walked out.'
Example #55:

    b. wira          tEN          kln       ?k (aspectual meaning)
    Wira         compose poem               SPFV (exit)
    `Wira composed a/the poem.'
Example #56:

    (45) a. wira       wiN             pay              pen    wela?     sam     chuamoN
    Wira       run          IMPFV (go)          be     time       three    hour
    `Wira ran for three hours.'
Example #57:

    b. kha&w         tay                pay
    He            die               PFTV (go)
    `He died.'
Example #58:

    (46) khonNan             thup           tk           nan      si&a
    worker               destroy        building   that        PFTV (lose)
    `The workers destroyed that building.'
Example #59:

    (47) piti,        tham          kanban               khaw
    Piti,        do            homework             IMPFV (enter)
    `Piti, do homework more and more.'
Example #60:

    (48) wana?        kin          khaw          yu
    Wanna          eat          rice          IMPFV (be located)
    `Wanna was/is eating rice.'
Example #61:

    (49) mali?        kin             khaw             t?
    Mali           eat           rice              continue
    `Mali continued eating rice.'
Example #62:

    (50) piti         tham          khwam- sa?ad        ban         ma?
    Piti         do            cleanliness           house       come
    `Piti has cleaned the house.'
Example #63:

    (51) nikorn            kin          khaw      ?im
    Nikorn            eat          rice       full
    `Nikorn ate rice (until he was) full.'
Example #64:

    (52) nikorn           kin          khaw         mod
    Nikorn            eat         rice           be gone
    `Nikorn ate rice (until it was) gone.'
Example #65:

    (53) a. nikorn           kin            khaw        may      ?im
    Nikorn            eat            rice      NEG         full
    `Nikorn ate rice, but he wasn't full.'
Example #66:

    (54) a. nikorn           kin            khaw        tN          ?im
    Nikorn           eat         rice          must          full
    `Nikorn ate rice and he must have been full.'
Example #67:

    b. nikorn            kin             khaw         tN         mod
    Nikorn            eat             rice           must          be gone
    `Nikorn ate rice but the rice must have been gone.'
Example #68:

    (55) mE        pn          khaw            luk         may
    mother      feed           rice             child     be tired
    `The mother fed the child with the rice until the mother was tired.'
Example #69:

    (56) nikorn            ha&?           kh?N- khwa&n            phop
    Nikorn             seek           present                  find
    `Nikorn sought the present (and) found (it).'
Example #70:

    (57) wua         khwid         khway            tay
    ox          butt          buffalo         die
    (ii) `The ox butted the buffalo (until the ox) died.'
Example #71:

    (58) kanda?           wiN        ma?
    Kanda              run        come
    `Kanda runs / ran towards the speaker.'
Example #72:

    (59) kanda?           dFn         pay
    Kanda              walk        go
    `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker.'
Example #73:

    (60) kanda?           wiN        ma?          kh?        pratu?
    Kanda              run        come          knock         door
    (ii) `Kanda runs / ran towards the speaker to knock the door.' (purposive)
Example #74:

    (61) kanda?           dFn         pay           rNpleN
    Kanda              walk       go           sing
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to sing (purposive).'
Example #75:

    (62) kanda?            dFn         ma?          cF?          chan
    Kanda               walk       come         find        I
    `While Kanda was walking towards the speaker, she found me.' (overlapping)
Example #76:

    (63) kanda?            dFn           khaw            roNrian           pay
    Kanda               walk         enter         school               go
    `Kanda entered the school, walking away from the speaker.'
Example #77:

    (64) kanda?wiN tRoN                     yn         kham      saphan            ?k   pay
    Kanda         run    go straight reverse       cross         bridge          exit     go
    `Kanda ran straight back, crossing the bridge, out away from the speaker.'
Example #78:

    (65) kanda?        dFn       ?k         pay          kh?       pratu?
    Kanda           walk     exit         go           knock       door
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked out away from the speaker to knock the door.' (purpos
Example #79:

    (66) kanda?        dFn       ?k         pay          rNpleN
    Kanda          walk     exit          go          sing
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked out away from the speaker to sing.' (purposive)
Example #80:

    (67) kanda?        dFn       ?k         pay          cF?       chan
    Kanda           walk    exit          go          find     I
    `While Kanda was walking out away from the speaker, she found me.' (overlapping)
Example #81:

    (68) kanda?           yn           kh?         pratu?
    Kand a             stand          knock        door
    `Kanda knocked the door while standing.'
Example #82:

    (69) kanda?           naN         rNpZeN
    Kanda              sit         sing
    `Kanda sang while sitting.'
Example #83:

    (70) * kanda?            yn            thN           chanwaNkhN            bonsud
    Kanda              stand         reach           shelf                     top
    (Intended meaning: Kanda stood in order to reach the top shelf.')
Example #84:

    (71) kanda?           ?aw         mit           han          kay
    Kanda           take       knife           cut           chicken
    (ii) `Kanda takes / took the knife to cut the chicken.' (purposive)
Example #85:

    (72) kanda?           ?aw          pha           say           takra
    Kanda           take        cloth            put           basket
    (ii) `Kanda takes / took the cloth to put (it) into the basket.' (purposive)
Example #86:

    (73) a. * kanda?             ?aw      mit
    Kanda                  take   knife
    `Kanda took a knife.'
Example #87:

    b. * kanda?              ?aw      pha
    Kanda                 take    cloth
    `Kanda took a cloth.'
Example #88:

    (74) kanda?         ca?       ?aw    na&Ns??       Zem      ni      phruNni
    Kanda            will      take   book           CL       this      tomorrow
    `Kanda will need this book tomorrow.'
Example #89:

    (75) kanda?            chay        mit         han         kay
    Kanda               use          knife        cut         chicken
    `Kanda cut the chicken with the knife.'
Example #90:

    (76) kanda?            chay        mit         han         kay         hay         nN
    Kanda               use         knife        cut          chicken     give      sister
    (ii) `Kanda cuts / cut the chicken with the knife to give (it) to her sister.' (
Example #91:

    (77) * kanda?            chay         mit
    Kanda               use         knife
    `Kanda used a knife.'
Example #92:

    (78) kanda?            chay        krapa&w           bay        may
    Kanda               use          bag              CL        new
    `Kanda carried a new bag.'
Example #93:

    (79) a. kanda?          ?aw         mit            han          kay
    Kanda              take       knife           cut          chicken
    `Kanda took the knife to cut the chicken.'
Example #94:

    b. kanda?          chay          mit            han        kay
    Kanda              use           knife          cut          chicken
    `Kanda cut the chicken with a knife.'
Example #95:

    (80) a. kanda?         ?aw            pha              say       takra
    Kanda            take         cloth            put           basket
    `Kanda put the cloth into the basket.'
Example #96:

    (81) kanda?          chay          takra           say         pha
    Kanda             use            basket            put        cloth
    `Kanda used a basket for containing cloth.'
Example #97:

    (82) takra         say         pha         ?u           bon          to?
    basket           put        cloth          is            on           table
    `A basket containing cloth is on the table.'
Example #98:

    (83) kanda?       chay        takra      say      pha      say      pho&nZamay
    Kanda          use          basket     put        cloth     put       fruit
    `Kanda used a basket for containing cloth for putting fruits in.'
Example #99:

    (84) kanda?             hu&N        khaw            kin
    Kanda                cook       rice              eat
    (ii) `Kanda cooks / cooked rice to eat.' (purposive)
Example #100:

    (85) * kanda?          khit         rN         rian         klumcay
    Kanda            think        issue       study        be upset
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda thought about her study and she was upset about it.')
Example #101:

    (86) * kanda?           ch?      rN          phi&?        bk        nN
    Kanda             believe     issue       ghost          tell       sister
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda believed in ghost and she told her sister about her be
Example #102:

    (87) * kanda?           chana?         kankheNkha&n                dicay
    Kanda             win              race                         be glad
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda won the race and she was glad about it.')
Example #103:

    (88) kanda?           s?       na&Ns??          hay     nN        ?an
    Kanda             buy          book           give       sister       read
    `Kanda bought a book (and) gave (it) to her sister to read.'
Example #104:

    (89) kanda?          hay          kha?no&m            ju&m
    Kanda             give         sweet               Jum
    `Kanda gave Jum the sweets.'
Example #105:

    (90) a. kanda?          hay        ju&m         ?an            na&Ns??
    Kanda            give         Jum          read            book
    `Kanda let Jum read a book.'
Example #106:

    b. kanda?             bk          hay    ju&m            ?an          na&Ns??
    Kanda             tell          give       Jum             read           book
    `Kanda told Jum to read a book.'
Example #107:

    c. kanda?             s?         na&Ns??         hay         ju&m
    Kanda                buy           book            give          Jum
    `Kanda bought a book and gave it to Jum.'
Example #108:

    (91) a. nuan      hay        kha?no&m           ju&m
    Nuan       give       sweet               Jum
    `Nuan gave Jum the sweets.'
Example #109:

    (92) * fo&n        hay      nam         raw
    rain       give      water        us
    (Intended meaning: Rain gives us water.)
Example #110:

    ju&m     kh??          du?
    Jum      ask             look
    `Nuan grabbed her book and gave it to Jum because Jum asked to see it.'
Example #111:

    luk        yak        kin
    kid           want        eat
    `Nuan bought that cake for her kid because her kid wanted to eat it.'
Example #112:

    (97) * dEd              sN          hay         raw
    sunlight          shine        give      us
    (Intended meaning: the sunlight shines for us.)
Example #113:

    (98) a. * nuan      thasi&?          hay          ban
    Nuan       paint             give          house
    (Intended meaning: Nuan painted for her house.)
Example #114:

    b. * nuan       rNpleN              hay           khamsanuksana&n
    Nuan       sing a song          give           fun
    (Intended meaning: Nuan sang a song for fun.)
Example #115:

    (99) * nuan      dicay               hay           ju&m
    Nuan      be glad           give             Jum
    (Intended meaning: Nuan was glad for Jum.)
Example #116:

    (100) * nuan      cF?        krapa&w        thi?         ha&y        pay      hay     ju&m
    Nuan       find       purse          that        be lost    go         give      Jum
    (Intended meaning: Nuan found the lost purse for Jum.)
Example #117:

    ca?        tham ?aN diawkan                 wanni
    FUT         do the same                       today
    `Kanda bought a book yesterday and Suri will do so today.'
Example #118:

    suri?      tham ?aN diawkan                 thi            rooNrian
    Suri         do the same                       at            school
    `Kanda bought a book at school and Suri did so at school.'
Example #119:

    suri?      s?      naNs?         tham ?aN diawkan
    Suri         buy       book            do the same
    place')
Example #120:

    s?        pakka?           tham ?aN diawkan
    buy          pen                do the same
    `Kanda bought a book and gave it to Jum and Suri bought a pen and did the same.'
Example #121:

    (106) kanda?         s?        na&Ns??         hay         nN         ?an
    Kanda           buy          book             give        sister     read
    `Kanda bought a book to give (it) to her sister to read (it).'
Example #122:

    (107) kanda?         kep        ?aha&n              hay        cha&n
    Kanda          keep        food                give      I
    `Kanda kept food for me.'
Example #123:

    (108) a. kanda?          tham           dek         rNhay
    Kanda             make           child    cry
    `Kanda made the child cry.'
Example #124:

    b. kanda?         tham          kEw           tEk
    Kanda             make        glass             break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #125:

    (109) * kanda?           tham           dek         ?an         naNs?
    Kanda              make        child       read          book
    (Intended meaning: Kanda made the child read a book.)
Example #126:

    (110) kanda?           pluk          wira          lom
    Kanda           push           Vira           fall
    `Kanda pushed Vira (so) Vira fell down.'
Example #127:

    (112) kanda?          khi          ma       ny
    Kanda           ride       horse         be tired
    (ii) `Kanda rode the horse (as the result) the horse got tired.'
Example #128:

    (1). kanda?           pay       roNrian            le?         s??   na&Ns??
    Kanda           go          school             and       buy        book
    `Kanda went to school and bought a book.'
Example #129:

    (3) kanda?       khit wa      ca?      pay      roNrian
    Kanda       think that      FUT go            school
    `Kanda thinks that she will go to school.'
Example #130:

    (5) kanda?         may     pay           roNrian          le?        may         s??     na&Ns??
    Kanda            NEG      go         school             and      NEG          buy           book
    `Kanda did not go to school and did not buy a book.'
Example #131:

    (6) a. kanda?        may        pay        roNrian             le?         s??         na&Ns??
    Kanda           NEG          go        school               and      buy           book
    `Kanda did not go to school and bought a book.'
Example #132:

    b. kanda?       pay           roNrian           le?       may     s??         na&Ns??
    Kanda          go           school             and     NEG         buy          book
    `Kanda went to school and did not buy a book.'
Example #133:

    (7) a. kanda?        may     dFn        pay          s??      na&Ns??
    Kanda          NEG       walk        go         buy        book
    (ii) `It is not the case that Kanda walked away from the speaker to buy a book.'
Example #134:

    kanda?        may      dFn            pay              rNpleN
    Kanda           NEG       walk          go            sing
    (ii) `It is not the case that Kanda walked away from the speaker to sing.' (purp
Example #135:

    kanda?        (may)      dFn          le?        (may)           pay     rNpleN
    Kanda           (NEG)      walk         and        (NEG)         go         sing
    `Kanda did (not) walk and did (not) go away from the speaker to sing.'
Example #136:

    kanda?        may     dFn             khaw             roNrian                pay
    Kanda           NEG      walk           enter         school                 go
    (ii) `It is not the case that Kanda walked away from the speaker to enter the sc
Example #137:

    kanda?       (may)      dFn        le?      (may)      khaw        roNrian     pay
    Kanda          (NEG)      walk      and       (NEG)       enter      school      go
    `Kanda did (not) walk and did (not) enter the school, away from the speaker.'
Example #138:

    kanda?        may       yn               rNpZeN
    Kanda           NEG       stand            sing
    `Kanda did not stand while singing.'
Example #139:

    kanda?       (may)        yn         le?        (may)        rNpZeN
    Kanda          (NEG)        stand         and       (NEG)         sing
    `Kanda did (not) stand and did (not) sing.'
Example #140:

    kanda?        may      ?aw           mit         han          kay
    Kanda           NEG      take         knife         cut           chicken
    (ii) `It is not the case that Kanda took the knife to cut the chicken.' (purposi
Example #141:

    kanda?       (may)     ?aw            mit          le?         (may)         han      kay
    Kanda         (NEG)       take           knife      and             (NEG)      cut          chicken
    `Kanda did (not) take the knife and did (not) cut the chicken.'
Example #142:

    kanda?        may      chay            mit              han            kay
    Kanda           NEG      use             knife            cut            chicken
    `Kanda did not cut the chicken.' (sequential)
Example #143:

    chay       kankray               tat             kradad
    use         scissors             cut             paper
    `Kanda did (not) cut the chicken with the knife and did (not) cut a paper with s
Example #144:

    kanda?       may      hu&N        khaw                 kin
    Kanda          NEG       cook       rice                   eat
    (ii) `Kanda does / did not cook rice to eat (it).' (purposive)
Example #145:

    kanda?       (may)      hu&N          khaw            le?       (may)     kin        (man)
    Kanda          (NEG)       cook          rice           and         (NEG)      eat     it
    `Kanda did (not) cook rice and did (not) eat (it).'
Example #146:

    kanda?        may     s?    na&Ns??        hay            nN
    Kanda           NEG buy           book            give           sister
    (ii) `Kanda does / did not buy a book to give (it) to her sister.' (purposive)
Example #147:

    kanda?(may)          s?   na&Ns??    le?      (may)     hay      (man kE) nN
    Kanda        (NEG) buy          book       and        (NEG)     give     (it to)    sister
    `Kanda did (not) buy a book and did (not) give (it to her) sister.'
Example #148:

    (15) a. kanda?        may     tham        kEw              tEk
    Kanda           NEG      make       glass             break
    `Kanda did not make the glass break.'
Example #149:

    (16) a. nikorn      may                 kin          khaw            ?im
    Nikorn      NEG                  eat         ric e             be full
    `Nikorn did not eat rice (and) was not full.'
Example #150:

    b. nikorn       kin          khaw              may           ?im
    Nikorn      eat           rice               NEG        be full
    `Nikorn ate rice but he was not full.'
Example #151:

    (17) a. * kanda?          may                kin            khaw           may       ?im
    Kanda            NEG                  eat            rice           NEG         be full
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda did not eat rice (and) was not full.')
Example #152:

    b. kanda?           may            kin           khaw            le?        thF?        may      ?im
    Kanda          NEG               eat           rice            and         she       NEG          be full
    `Kanda did not eat rice and she was not full.'
Example #153:

    (18) a. kanda?         dFn       le?       pay       s?       na&Ns??
    Kanda            walk      and      go          buy        book
    `Kanda walked and went to buy a book.'
Example #154:

    (19) a. kanda?        dFn          pay      s?       na&Ns??
    Kanda            walk     go          buy          book
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #155:

    b. na&Ns??i ,     kanda?           dFn       pay          s_____   i
    book             Kanda              walk      go       buy
    (ii) `As for the book, Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy (it).'
Example #156:

    d. pay      s?        na&Ns??i , kanda?          dFn____    i
    go        buy          book          Kanda           walk
    (ii) `To go away from the speaker to buy a book, Kanda intends to do while she w
Example #157:

    (20) a. kanda?       wiN tRoN               ?k         pay     s?         na&Ns??
    Kanda           run      go straight    exit    go         buy           book
    (ii) `Kanda runs / ran straight out, away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purp
Example #158:

    b. na&Ns??i ,      kanda?        wiN tRoN               ?k        pay         s?____   i
    book              Kanda          run     go straight out         go         buy
    (ii) `As for the book, Kanda runs / ran straight out, away from the speaker to b
Example #159:

    c. ?k      pay          s?     na&Ns??i , kanda?           wiN tRoN ____        i
    out      go           buy      book           Kanda        run        go straight
    (ii) `Out, away from the speaker to buy a book, Kanda runs / ran straight.' (pur
Example #160:

    d. tRoN         ?k       pay         s?          na&Ns??i , kanda?                 wiN ____   i
    go straight out        go        buy              book         Kanda                run
    (ii) `To go straight out, away from the speaker to buy a book, Kanda runs / ran.
Example #161:

    (21) a. kanda?       ?aw       mit         han         kay          say         can
    Kanda          take      knife      cut           chicken      put          plate
    (ii) `Kanda takes / took the knife to cut the chicken to put (it) on the plate.'
Example #162:

    d. can i ,    kanda?       ?aw         mit            han       kay         say ____   i
    plate      Kanda           take       knife         cut        chicken    put
    (ii) `As for the plate, Kanda takes / took the knife to cut the chicken to put o
Example #163:

    (22) a. kanda?       huN      khaw               kin
    Kanda          cook      rice                 eat
    (ii) `Kanda cooks / cooked rice to eat (it).' (purposive)
Example #164:

    b. kin i ,        kanda?         huN          khaw ____       i
    eat            Kanda            cook      rice
    (ii) `To eat (it), Kanda cooks / cooked rice.' (purposive)
Example #165:

    (23) a. kanda?             s?    na&Ns??           hay       nN
    Kanda                 buy      book           give          sister
    (ii) `Kanda buys / bought a book to give (it) to her sister.' (purposive)
Example #166:

    c. nN i ,       kanda?         s?        na&Ns??         hay ____        i
    sister          Kanda           buy          book            give
    (ii) `Her sister, Kanda buys / bought a book to give (it) to.' (purposive)
Example #167:

    d. hay        nN i , kanda?             s?        na&Ns??____        i
    give        sister    Kanda           buy           book
    (ii) `To give (it) to her sister, Kanda bought a book.' (purposive)
Example #168:

    (24) a. kanda?            kin         khaw                ?im
    Kanda               eat     rice                     be full
    `Kanda ate rice (until she was) full.'
Example #169:

    (25) a. kanda?       yn              ?an          naNs?
    Kanda           stand             read          book
    `Kanda read a book, while standing.'
Example #170:

    (26) a. kanda?        tham          kEw           tEk
    Kanda        make         glass          break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #171:

    (27) a. kanda?        chay       mit      han                kay        say            can
    Kanda        use        knife      cut            chicken         put         plate
    (ii) `Kanda cut the chicken with a knife to put (it) in the plate.' (purposive)
Example #172:

    d. can i , kanda?          chay       mit                han       kay            say ____      i
    plate     Kanda        use         knife           cut           chicken put
    (ii) `The plate, Kanda cut the chicken with the knife to put on.' (purposive)
Example #173:

    (28) * kanda?          ?aw      mit
    Kanda              take    knife
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda took a knife.)
Example #174:

    (29) * kanda?          chay      mit
    Kanda              use       knife
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda used a knife.)
Example #175:

    (30) a. kanda?         tham      kEw       tEk
    Kanda             make      glass       break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #176:

    (31) kanda?         dFn
    Kanda            walk
    `Kanda walked.'
Example #177:

    (32) kanda?         dFn           pay
    Kanda            walk         go
    `Kanda walked away.'
Example #178:

    (33) kanda?         dFn            pay        s?        na&Ns??
    Kanda            walk         go          buy         book
    (ii) `Kanda walked away to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #179:

    (60) a. kanda?         dFn      pay           s?   na&Ns??
    Kanda           walk     go        buy         book
    (ii). `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #180:

    b. miphiaN         sN       khon        dFn        pay    s?    na&Ns??
    only             two         CL          walk   go         buy     book
    (ii) `Only two people walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purp
Example #181:

    c. miphiaN         sN       khon        dFn        pay
    only             two         CL          walk   go
    `Only two people walks / walked away from the speaker.'
Example #182:

    phuak khaw       s?          na&Ns??
    They               buy            book
    `They bought a book.'
Example #183:

    (62) a. kanda?        dFn       pay
    Kanda            walk     go
    `Kanda walked away fr om the speaker.'
Example #184:

    b. kanda?         dFn       pay       s?       na&Ns??
    Kanda           walk      go        buy         book
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #185:

    c. kanda?        dFn       pay       s?        na&Ns??    hay     wira
    Kanda            walk     go        buy          book        give     Vira
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book to give (it) to V
Example #186:

    (1) kanda?       dFn       pay        s?         naNs?
    Kanda           walk     go          buy       book
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #187:

    (2) kanda?dFn           tRoN            ?k        pay        s?   na&Ns??
    Kanda         walk     go straight    exit    go         buy         book
    (ii) `Kanda walks / walked straight out, away from the speaker to buy a book.'
Example #188:

    (4) a. kanda?       dFn         pay      cF?          nalika?
    Kanda           walk       go      find          watch
    `While Kanda was walking away from the speaker, she found the watch.' (overlappi
Example #189:

    b. kanda?        dFn        pay      thN           chaydEn
    Kanda           walk       go      reach          border
    `While Kanda was walking away from the speaker, she reached the border.'
Example #190:

    (5) kanda?           ?aw       mit           han      kay
    Kanda              take      knife        cut        chicken
    (ii) `Kanda takes / took the knife to cut the chicken.' (purposive)
Example #191:

    (7) kanda?          chay        mit         han        kay
    Kanda              use        knife        cut        chicken
    `Kanda cut the chicken with the knife.' (simultaneous)
Example #192:

    (9) kanda?              huN      khaw             kin
    Kanda               cook       rice             eat
    (ii) `Kanda cooks / cooked rice to eat (it).' (purposive)
Example #193:

    (10) kanda?              s?    na&Ns??          hay        nN        ?an
    Kanda                buy      book             give        sister        read
    (ii) `Kanda buys / bought a book to give (it) to her sister to read (it).' (purp
Example #194:

    (11) kanda?           yn           kh?         pratu?
    Kanda              stand          knock        door
    `Kanda knocked on the door while standing.'
Example #195:

    (12) kanda?           naN         rNpZeN
    Kanda              sit         sing
    `Kanda sang while sitting.'
Example #196:

    (13) a.kanda?          tham          dek        rNhay
    Kanda             make         child      cry
    `Kanda made the child cry.'
Example #197:

    b. kanda?           tham         kEw            tEk
    Kanda              make        glass            break
    `Kanda made the glass broke.'
Example #198:

    c. * .kanda?          tham         dek          kin     kay
    Kanda             make        child         eat     chicken
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda made the child eat a chicken,')
Example #199:

    (14) kanda?           pluk          wira            lom
    Kanda           push         Vira             fall
    `Kanda pushed Vira (so) Vira fell down.'
Example #200:

    (25) kanda?         ?aw        mit       han         kay
    Kanda             take       knife     cut         chicken
    (ii) `Kanda took a knife to cut a chicken.' (purposive)
Example #201:

    (27) kanda?             chay   mit        han       kay
    Kanda                use     knife      cut       chicken
    `Kanda cut a chicken with the knife.' (simultaneous)
Example #202:

    han       kay
    cut       chicken
    `Kanda took a knife to cut a chicken but (she) did not cut the chicken. '
Example #203:

    (35) kanda?         han       kay
    Kanda          cut        chicken
    `Kanda cut the chicken.'
Example #204:

    (36) kanda?         han        kay          duay           mit
    Kanda            cut        chicken        with          knife
    `Kanda cut a chicken with a knife.'
Example #205:

    (37) kanda?         dFn             pay         s?        na&Ns??
    Kanda             walk          go           buy         book
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #206:

    s?    na&Ns??
    buy     book
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker to buy a book, but (she) did not go away fro
Example #207:

    b. kanda?       dFn       pay        s?       na&Ns??    tE        may   s?    na&Ns??
    Kanda        walk      go        buy         book        but         NEG buy          book
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker to buy a book, but (she) did not buy a book.
Example #208:

    ?k           pay          s?    na&Ns??
    exit           go           buy      book
    out to buy a book.'
Example #209:

    pay         s?     na&Ns??
    go         buy        book
    away from the speaker's point of view to buy a book.'
Example #210:

    s?    na&Ns??
    buy      book
    book.'
Example #211:

    (40) kanda?         hu&N        khaw          kin
    Kanda            cook        rice           eat
    `Kanda cooked rice to eat.'
Example #212:

    (41) kanda?         hu&N        khaw          kin            tE    mayday     kin
    Kanda            cook        rice           eat            but     NEG         eat
    `Kanda cooked rice to eat but (she) did not eat (it).'
Example #213:

    (42) kanda?            s?      na&Ns??      hay            nN      ?an
    Kanda             buy       book         give         sister          read
    `Kanda bought a book to give (it) to her sister to read (it).'
Example #214:

    hay        nN          ?an
    give       sister         read
    sister to read (it).'
Example #215:

    (44) kanda?           yn            r߷NpleN
    Kanda              stand          sing
    `Kanda sang, while standing.'
Example #216:

    (45) * kanda?       yn       r߷NpleN             tE       mayday       r߷NpleN
    Kanda        stand     sing                  but      NEG              sing
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda sang, while standing, but she did not sing.')
Example #217:

    (46) kanda?           tham           kEw       tEk
    Kanda              make        glass         break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #218:

    (47) * kanda?         tham         kEw       tEk          tE     kEw            may   tEk
    Kanda          make        glass       break        but      glass       NEG break
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda made the glass break but the glass doe not break.')
Example #219:

    (48) kanda?          kin         khaw        ?im
    Kanda          eat        rice         full
    `Kanda ate rice until (she was) full.'
Example #220:

    (49) * kanda?           kin        khaw           ?im     tE      may            ?im
    Kanda           eat       rice          full        but      NEG         full
    (Intended meaning: `Kanda ate rice until (she was) full but she was not full.')
Example #221:

    (50) a. kanda?         s?      na&Ns??
    Kanda             buy        book
    `Kanda buys / is buying a book.'
Example #222:

    b. kanda?       day        s?    na&Ns??
    Kanda          PAST      buy       book
    `Kanda bought a book.'
Example #223:

    (51) kanda?       day         ?aw       mit         han         kay
    Kanda           PAST         take    knife         cut          chicken
    `Kanda took the knife to cut the chicken.' (purposive)
Example #224:

    (52) kanda?        day         chay      mit            han      kay
    Kanda          PAST         use         knife       cut          chicken
    `Kanda cut the chicken with the knife.'
Example #225:

    (53) a. kanda?        dFn       pay       s?       na&Ns??
    Kanda         walk      go        buy         book
    `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #226:

    b.kanda?         day        dFn        pay        s?     na&Ns??
    Kanda           PAST         walk     go       buy          book
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #227:

    (54) a. kanda?           dFn           khaw          roNrian            pay
    Kanda              walk          enter          school           go
    `Kanda enters / entered the school, walking away from the speaker.' (overlapping
Example #228:

    b. kanda?wiN tRoN                    yn        kham       saphan           ?k pay
    Kanda         run     go straight reverse     cross         bridge          exit     go
    `Kanda runs / ran straight back, crossing the bridge, out, away from the speaker
Example #229:

    (55) kanda?          dFn          khaw           roNrian            pay        s?    na&Ns??
    Kanda             walk         enter        school               go      buy          book
    (ii) `Kanda walked away from the speaker into the school to buy a book.' (purpos
Example #230:

    (56) kanda?        day        dFn    khaw       roNrian         pay       s?        na&Ns??
    Kanda           PAST       walk enter      school         go            buy          book
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker into the school to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #231:

    (57) kanda?         hu&N      khaw         kin
    Kanda             cook      rice           eat
    (ii) `Kanda cooked rice to eat.' (purposive)
Example #232:

    (58) kanda?       day         hu&N        khaw         kin
    Kanda          PAST         cook        rice           eat
    `Kanda cooked rice to eat.' (purposive)
Example #233:

    (59) kanda?         s?       na&Ns??          hay         wira     ?an
    Kanda            buy        book               give     Vira         read
    (ii) `Kanda buys / bought a book to give it to Vira to read (it).' (purposive)
Example #234:

    (60) kanda?        day          s?     na&Ns??     hay         wira     ?an
    Kanda          PAST         buy       book         give          Vira     read
    `Kanda bought a book to give (it) to Vira to read (it).' (purposive)
Example #235:

    (61) kanda?         yn           r߷NpleN
    Kanda           stand          sing
    `Kanda sings, while standing.'
Example #236:

    (62) kanda?         day         yn           r߷NpleN
    Kanda           PAST        stand         sing
    `Kanda sang, while standing.'
Example #237:

    (63) kanda?         tham          kEw         tEk
    Kanda             make        glass        break
    `Kanda makes the glass break.'
Example #238:

    (64) kanda?          day       tham       kEw       tEk
    Kanda             TM        make      glass        break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #239:

    (65) kanda?         kin         khaw      ?im
    Kanda           eat         rice        full
    `Kanda eats rice until (she is) full.'
Example #240:

    (66) kanda?         day         kin      khaw        ?im
    Kanda            PAST        eat      rice         full
    `Kanda ate rice until (she was) full.'
Example #241:

    (67) kanda?         dFn     pay          s?        na&Ns??
    Kanda            walk    go          buy       book
    `Kanda walks / walked away from the speaker to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #242:

    (68) kanda?        wiN      ?k        pay        s?   na&Ns??
    Kanda           run       exit        go        buy      book
    `Kanda runs / ran out, away from the speaker, to buy a book.' (purposive)
Example #243:

    (69) kanda?           ?aw     mit         han         kay
    Kanda               take    knife        cut         chicken
    `Kanda takes / took a knife to cut a chicken.' (purposive)
Example #244:

    (70) kanda?        hu&N       khaw            kin
    Kanda           cook       rice          eat
    `Kanda cooks / cooked rice to eat.' (purposive)
Example #245:

    (71) kanda?           s?    na&Ns??         hay     nN       ?an
    Kanda              buy      book           give      sister      read
    `Kanda buys / bought a book to give (it) to her sister to read (it).' (purposive
Example #246:

    (72) kanda?            yn      r߷NpleN
    Kanda                stand    sing
    `Kanda sang, while standing.'
Example #247:

    (73) kanda?            tham     kEw      tEk
    Kanda               make    glass      break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #248:

    (74) kanda?            chay         mit    han       kay
    Kanda               use           knife    cut       chicken
    `Kanda cut a chicken with a knife.'
Example #249:

    (75) kanda?            kin           khaw     ?im
    Kanda               eat         rice       be full
    `Kanda ate rice until (she was) full.'
Example #250:

    (3) kanda?        s?         naNs?
    Kanda           buy           book
    `Kanda buys a book.'
Example #251:

    (7) kanda?         dFn         pay
    Kanda            walk        go
    `Kanda walked away from the speaker.'
Example #252:

    (11) kanda?           ?aw         mit           han       kay
    Kanda              take       knife       cut           chicken
    `Kanda took a knife to cut the chicken.'
Example #253:

    (15) kanda?           chay         mit          han      kay
    Kanda              use          knife         cut       chicken
    `Kanda cut a chicken with a knife.'
Example #254:

    (19) kanda?            hu&N        khaw            kin
    Kanda              cook        rice             eat
    `Kanda cooked rice to eat.'
Example #255:

    (23) kanda?          s??      na&Ns??        hay        nN
    Kanda            buy         book           give        sister
    `Kanda bought a book to give (it) to her sister.'
Example #256:

    (27) kanda?           yn          rNpleN
    Kanda              stand        sing
    `Kanda sang, while standing.'
Example #257:

    (31) kanda?         tham         kEw       tEk
    Kanda          make        glass        break
    `Kanda made the glass break.'
Example #258:

    (35) kanda?        kin        khaw         ?im
    Kanda          eat       rice           be full
    `Kanda ate rice (until she was) full.'