ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

C.-T. James Huang (1999). Chinese Passives in Comparative Perspective.

URL: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ealc/chinling/articles/huang.passive.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3411&langcode=cmn (2018-10-19).

 

Example #1:

    Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #2:

    Zhangsan bei da le.
    Zhangsan BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit.
Example #3:

    (5)    a.    *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-leta.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERFhim
    Zhangsan was hit (*him) by Lisi.
Example #4:

    b.   *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le     ziji.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERFself
    Zhangsan was hit (*self) by Lisi.
Example #5:

    c. *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le Wangwu.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERFWangwu
    Zhangsan was hit (*Wangwu) by Lisi.
Example #6:

    (6)    Zhangsan guyi          beida le.
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI hitPERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit.
Example #7:

    (7)    Zhangsan guyi          bei Lisi da le
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit by Lisi.
Example #8:

    (i)    Zhangsan shiguyi          bei (Lisi) da de
    Zhangsan be intentionally BEI (Lisi) hit PRT
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit (by Lisi).
Example #9:

    (15)    Zhangsan bei Lisi guan zai ziji    de jiali.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi lock at selfDE home
    Zhangsan was locked by Lisi in self's home. (ZS orLS's)
Example #10:

    (16)    nei-feng xin bei Lisi dai-hui       ziji de jiaqu le.
    that-CL letter BEI Lisi bring-back selfDE home go PERF
    That letter was brought back to self's (Lisi's) home by Lisi.
Example #11:

    (i)    ta you bei Zhangsan, you bei Lisi, kanjian le.
    he also by Zhangsan also by Lisi, see perf/fp
    He was seen both by Zhangsan and by Lisi.
Example #12:

    (17)    nei-ben shu bei Lisi qing ziji-de pengyou na-zou le.
    that-CL book BEI Lisi ask selfDE friend take-away PERF
    That book had Lisi having his friend to take [it] away.
Example #13:

    (19)    a.   Zhangsan shuo Lisida-le     ta.
    Zhangsan say Lisi hit-PERF him
    Zhangsan said Lisi hit him.
Example #14:

    b.   Zhangsan shuo Lisida-le      ziji.
    Zhangsan say Lisi hit-PERF self
    Zhangsan said Lisi hit self.
Example #15:

    (i)   Zhangsani bei *tai/zijii hai-can le.
    Zhangsan BEI him/self harm-badly ASP
    `Zhangsan was badly harmed by him/himself.'
Example #16:

    (ii)   *Zhangsan bei zai xuexiao Lisi da-le.
    Zhangsan BEI at school Lisi hit-Perf
    `Zhangsan was hit by Lisi at the school.'
Example #17:

    (i)    zhe-ben shu hen zhide (ni) kan.
    this-CL book very worth (you) read
    `This book is worth (your) reading.'
Example #18:

    (ii)   zhe-dong fangzi xuyao xiuli.
    this-CL house need repair
    `This house needs repairing.'
Example #19:

    (22)    qi caiwu bei yin nuren xi duoqu zhi. (Shengjing)
    his wealth BEI whorely woman all grabbed it
    His wealth were all snapped [it] by the whorely woman.
Example #20:

    (23)    tiannY bei chi-shui jian zhi.(Soushenji.Tiankunlun)
    fairies BEI pool-owner see them
    The fairiestn were seen [them] by the pool-owners.
Example #21:

    (1)     Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #22:

    (5a-b)    *Zhangsan bei Lisi da le ta/ziji.
    *Zhangsan BEI Lisihit PERF him/self
    *Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #23:

    (24)    Zhangsan bei Lisi pai jingcha zhua-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi send policearrest PERF
    Zhangsan was "sent-police-to-arrest" byLisi.
Example #24:

    (25)    neifeng xin bei wo jiao Lisi qing Wangwu tuota meimei ji-zou le.
    that letter BEI me tell Lisi ask Wangwu requesthis sister send PERF
    That letter was "told-LS-to-ask-WW--get-his-sister-to-send" by me.
Example #25:

    (30)    Zhangsan bei wo tongzhi Lisi ba zanmei *(ta) de shu doumai-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI me inform Lisi BA praise (him) Debook all buy-away PERF
    Zhangsan had me inform Lisi to buy up all the books that praise[him].
Example #26:

    (31)    zhexie shiqing bu neng bei tamen suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI they SUOunderstand
    These things cannot be understood by them.
Example #27:

    (32)    ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei wairensuo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraid willBEI others SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will belaughed-at by others.
Example #28:

    (33)    xiaotou suo meiyou touzou __ de naxie shu zaizhuozi-shang
    thief suo not-have steal __ DEthose book at table-top
    The books that the thieves have not stolen are on the table.
Example #29:

    (34)    Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le     ta yi-xia.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERFhim once.
    Zhangsan was hit once by Lisi.
Example #30:

    (5)    a. *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le ta.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisihit-PERF him
    Zhangsan was hit (*him) by Lisi.
Example #31:

    (35)      *Lisi da-le ta de nei-ge ren lai le.
    Lisi hit-PERF him DE thatperson came.
    (Lit.: The person who Lisi hit him came.)
Example #32:

    (36)      Lisi da-le ta yi-xia de nei-ge ren laile.
    Lisi hit-PERF him once DEthat person came.
    The person who Lisi hit [him] once came.
Example #33:

    (37)    Zhangsan bei Lisi huaiyi (ta) tou-le      qian.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi suspect (he)steal-PERF money
    Zhangsan was suspected (by Lisi) [he] to have stolen the money.
Example #34:

    (i)    Lisi song-le ta liang-ben shu de na-ge ren zou le.
    Lisi give-PERF him two-CL book DE that-CL person leave ASP
    The person who Lisi gave [him] two books left.
Example #35:

    (ii)   Lisi tou-le ta liang-ben shu de na-ge ren zou le.
    Lisi steal-PERF him two-CL book DE that-CL person leave ASP
    The person who Lisi stole two books of/from left.
Example #36:

    (iii) Lisi tou-le ta liangbai kuai qian
    Lisi steal-PERF him two-hundred dollar money
    Lisi was stolen [him] 200 dollars by me.
Example #37:

    (39)    Zhangsan bei Lisi ba ta pian-de-tuantuanzhuan.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi BA himcheat-till-run-around
    Zhangsan was pushed around like a fool by Lisi.
Example #38:

    (40)    Lisi ba ta pian-de-tuantuanzhuan de nei-ge ren zou-le.
    Lisi BA him cheat-till-run-around DEthat person leave-PERF
    The person that Lisi pushed around like a fool has left.
Example #39:

    (i)    mei-ge xuesheng dou bei san-ge laoshi jiao-guo.
    every student all BEI three teacher teach-EXP
    Every student was taught by three teachers.
Example #40:

    (1)    Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #41:

    (2)    Zhangsan bei da le.
    Zhangsan BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit.
Example #42:

    (42)    Zhangsan, zhe-jian shi gen *(ta) mei-you guanxi.
    Zhangsan this-CL thing with *(him) not-have relation
    Zhangsan, this thing has nothing to with him.
Example #43:

    (43)   zhe-jian shi gen *(ta) mei-you guanxi de na-geren             zou le.
    this-CL thing with *(him) not-have relationDE that-CL person leavePERF
    The person such that this thing has nothing to do with him hasleft.
Example #44:

    (44)   *Zhangsan, wo shi __ shengqi le.
    Zhangsan I cause       angry PERF
    Zhangsan, I have caused to be angry.
Example #45:

    (45)   *Li Xiaojie, wo bi __ gaijiale.
    Miss Li     I force     re-marry PERF
    Miss Li, I have forced to re-marry.
Example #46:

    zhi you      bei ru,      sui chou zhe,      zhen ye.
    know friends BEI insult, along angry person,loyal PRT
    are loyal.
Example #47:

    (48)   Jindan ruo bei zhuwu       fan zhi (Baopuzi)
    Jindan if BEI everything attack him
    If Jindan was attacked (him) by everything . . .
Example #48:

    (49)    a.    Zhangsan beiLisi momingqimiao de pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi confused-ly abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted in a state of confusion by Lisi.
Example #49:

    b.    Zhangsan bei Lisi zai xuexiao pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi at school abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted at school by Lisi.
Example #50:

    (50)    a.    Zhangsan bei momingqimiao de pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI confused      -lyabduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted in a state of confusion.
Example #51:

    b.   *Zhangsan bei zai xuexiao pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI at school abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted at school.
Example #52:

    (51)    a.   Zhangsan bei Lisi pai jingcha zhua-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi send policearrest PERF
    Zhangsan was "sent-police-to-arrest"by Lisi.
Example #53:

    b.    neifeng xin bei wojiao Lisi qing Wangwu tuo ta meimei ji-zou le.
    that letter BEI me tell Lisi ask Wangwurequest his sister send PERF
    That letter was "told-LS--ask-WW--have-his-sister-send" by me.
Example #54:

    (31)    zhexie shiqing bu neng bei tamen suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI they SUOunderstand
    These things cannot be understood by them.
Example #55:

    (32)    ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei wairensuo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraid willBEI others SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will belaughed-at by others.
Example #56:

    (53)     *zhexie shiqing bu neng bei ___ suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI        SUOunderstand
    These things cannot be understood.
Example #57:

    (54)    *ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei ___suo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraidwill BEI     SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will belaughed-at.
Example #58:

    (34)    Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le     ta yi -xia.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERFhim once.
    Zhangsan was hit once by me.
Example #59:

    (55)    *Zhangsan bei da-le ta yi -xia.
    Zhangsan BEI hit-PERF himonce.
    Zhangsan was hit once.
Example #60:

    (i)   Zhangsan bei qiang-zou-le ta zui xihuan de wanju.
    ZhangsanBEI take-away-PERF he most like DE toy
    Zhangsan had the toy he liked most taken away.
Example #61:

    (6)    Zhangsan guyi          bei da le.
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI hitPERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit.
Example #62:

    (7)    Zhangsan guyi          bei Lisi da le
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit by Lisi.
Example #63:

    (57)    Zhangsan bei bu le.
    Zhangsan BEI arrestPERF
    Zhangsan was arrested.
Example #64:

    (58)    dijun bei fu       le.
    enemy BEI capture PRT
    The enemy troops got captured.
Example #65:

    (59)    a.    jingcha daibu-leZhangsan.
    police arrest-PERF Zhangsan
    The police arrested Zhangsan
Example #66:

    b.    Zhangsan bei jingcha daibu-le.
    Zhangsan BEI policearrest-PERF/PRT
    Zhangsan was arrested by the police.
Example #67:

    c.    Zhangsan bei jingcha mimide daibu-le.
    Zhangsan BEI police secretlyarrest-PERF/PRT
    Zhangsan was secretly arrested by the police.
Example #68:

    d.    Zhangsan bei jingcha daibu-le      liang-gexuesheng..
    Zhangsan BEI policearrest-PERF two-CL students
    Zhangsan had two students arrested by the police.
Example #69:

    (61)    wu chang jian xiao      yudafang           zhi jia. (Zhuangzi.Qiushui)
    I often get laughed by large-expertise DEscholar
    I often got laughed at by the great experts.
Example #70:

    (62)    wan-sheng       zhi guo bei wei          yu Zhao.
    10,000-vehicle DE state BEI surroundby Zhao
    A state of ten thousand chariotts got surrounded by Zhao.
Example #71:

    bu jing, he yi bie                hu? (Lunyu.2)
    not respect, what with distinguish Q?
    not do this with respect, what makes you different from theanimals?
Example #72:

    (ii)   min ke      shi you zhi, bu ke         shizhi zhi. (Lunyu.8)
    people can-be caused follow it, not can-be caused know it
    The people can be madeto follow it (the rule), but cannot be made to understand
Example #73:

    (iii) shi    ke     sha, bu ke         ru. (Mingshi,181)
    scholar can-be killed, not can-be insulted
    A scholar can be killed, but cannot be insulted.
Example #74:

    (66)     hit-e lang,     goa ho pha-tio a.
    that-CL person, I HO hit PRT
    That person, I was hit [by him/her].
Example #75:

    (67)     a.   i hongphian-khi a.
    he HONG cheat-go PRT
    He was cheated by someone.
Example #76:

    (68)    Zhangsan bei Lisi daduan-le yitiao tui.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-break-PERF one leg
    Zhangsan had a leg broken by Lisi.
Example #77:

    (72)   wo you bei ta zi-mo le.
    I again BEI he self-touch PRT
    I again had him `self-draw' [on me].
Example #78:

    (73)   Lisi you bei Wangwu jichu-le yi-zhi quanleida.
    Lisi again BEI Wangwu hit-PERF one home-run
    Lisi again had Wangwu hit a home run [on him].
Example #79:

    (74)   wo bei ta zhemo yi zuo, jiu shenme dou            kan-bu-jianle.
    I BEI he thus one sit then everythingall        can-not-see
    As soon as I had him sitting this way [on me],   I couldn'tsee anything at all.
Example #80:

    (75)   yi ka goa tsao-khi a.
    he KA me run-away PRT
    He ran away on me.
Example #81:

    (76) yin ka lan yiaN kui-atiuN khi         a.
    they KA we win several gamesaway PRT
    They won several games away on us already.
Example #82:

    (77)    goa kinazit be khimo, be lai       ka i     thetsa hapan.
    I today not happy will come KA him earliertake-off
    Today I'm pissed, so I will quit early for the day on him[e.g., my boss].
Example #83:

    b.   Zhangsan beiLisi pian le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi cheatPERF
    Zhangsan was cheated by Bill.
Example #84:

    (114) Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le baba.                             (Mandarin)
    Zhangsan BEI banditskill-PERF father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #85:

    (118) ?*Zhangsani bei wo wen-le            eibaba le.
    Zhangsan BEI I ask-PERF            father PRT
    Zhangsan had his father asked      (a question) by me.
Example #86:

    (i)    Lisi bei wo mai-zou-le      [Pro/ta zui xihuan denaben shu].
    Lisi BEI me buy-away-PERF        he most like    DE thatbook
    Lisi was affected by my buying the book that [he] liked most.
Example #87:

    (ii)   Lisi bei wo mai-zou-le      [zanmei *Pro/tade naben shu].
    Lisi BEI me buy-away-PERF praise          him DE thatbook
    Lisi was affected by my buying the book that praised him.
Example #88:

    (120) *Zhangsan bei Lisi pao hui jia qu le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi run back home go PERF
    (Lit.: Zhangsan had Lisi run away home [on him].)
Example #89:

    (121) Zhang Zhenxing bei jianchaguan        qiu-xingqi       nian.
    Zhang Zhenxing BEI district-attorneyask-for-jail-term seven years
    Zhang Zhenxing had the D.A. requesting a jail term of 7 years onhim.
Example #90:

    (i)    tufei ba Zhangsan [da-si-le Pro baba]
    bandit BA Zhangsan kill-PERF Pro father
    The bandits `father-killed' Zhangsan.
Example #91:

    (ii)   *tufei ba Zhangsan [da-si-le ta baba]
    bandit BA Zhangsan kill-PERF his father
    The bandits `killed-his-father' Zhangsan.
Example #92:

    (125) Beida bei daibu-le san-ge xuesheng.
    PKU BEI arrest-PERFthree students
    Peking University had three students arrested.
Example #93:

    (iii) Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le      baba.
    Zhangsan BEI bandits kill-PERF father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #94:

    (iv)   Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le      ta-de baba.
    Zhangsan BEI bandits kill-PERF his father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #95:

    (v)    *Zhangsan ba Lisi da-le   ta yixia.
    Zhangsan BA Lisi hit-PERF him once
    Zhangsan hit Lisi once.
Example #96:

    (vi)    Lisi bei Zhangsan da-le     ta yixia.
    Lisi BEI Zhangsan hit-PERF him once
    Lisi was hit once by Zhangsan.
Example #97:

    (126) tamen bei qiang-zou-le zui xihuan de wanju.
    they BEI rob-away-PERFmost like DE toy
    They had the toys that [they] liked most robbed [from them].
Example #98:

    (i)    *Zhangsan, wo zi mo le.
    Zhangsan I self draw PRT
    Zhangsan, I drew the converting [Mahjong] tile myself.
Example #99:

    (ii)   wo you bei ta zi-mo le.
    I againBEI he self-touch PRT
    I again had him `self-draw' [on me].