ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Alexander William (2005). COMPLEX CAUSATIVES AND VERBAL VALENCE.

URL: http://www.ling.umd.edu/~alxndrw/Papers/ccvv.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3413&langcode=jpn (2018-10-23).

 

Example #1:

    (5 6 8 )   kare -wa teeburu -o     kirei -ni hui -ta.
    he -top table -acc clean -adv wipe -past
    `He wiped the table clean.' (ex. & tr. Washio 1997: 5)
Example #2:

    (5 6 9 )   John -ga Mary -o      uti korosi -ta.
    J.   -nom M. -acc sho ot kill       -past
    `John shot Mary dead.' (ex. & tr. Washio 1997: 2)
Example #3:

    (5 7 1 )   John -ga coat -o         ki   kuzusi            - ta .
    J.    -nom coat -ac    c wear make out of shape -past
    `John wore the coat    and made it out of shape.'
Example #4:

    (5 7 2 )   John -ga coat -o     kuzusi           - ta .
    J.   -nom coat -acc make out of shape -past
    `John made the coat out of shape.'
Example #5:

    (5 8 1 )    sono teeburu -wa kirei *(da).
    that table -top clean cop
    `That table is clean.'
Example #6:

    (5 8 2 )    kirei -na       teeburu
    clean -attrib table
    `a clean table'
Example #7:

    (5 8 3 )    kirei -ni o doru
    clean -adv dance
    `dance beautifully'
Example #8:

    (5 8 4 )   * sono teeburu -wa kirei -ni -ta.
    that table -top clean -adv -past
    Intended: `That table was clean.'
Example #9:

    (5 8 5 )    John -wa niku -o      yawaraka -ku ni -ta.
    J.   -top meat -acc soft        -ku boil -past
    `John boiled the meat (very) soft.' (ex. & tr. Washio 1997: 9)
Example #10:

    (5 8 6 )    John -wa pankizi -o     usu -ku nobasi -ta.
    J.   -top dough -acc thin -ku roll.out -past
    `John rolled the dough thin.' (ex. & tr. Washio 1997: 9)
Example #11:

    (5 8 7 )   a.      yawaraka -i        niku
    soft      -nonpast meat
    `soft meat'
Example #12:

    b.      usu -i        pankizi
    thin -nonpast dough
    `thin dough'
Example #13:

    (5 8 8 )   a.      niku -wa yawaraka -i.
    meat -top soft      -nonpast
    `The meat is soft.'
Example #14:

    b.      sono pankizi -wa usu -i.
    that dough -top thin -nonpast
    `That dough is thin'
Example #15:

    (5 8 9 )        niku -wa yawaraka -katta.
    meat -top soft       -past
    `The meat was soft.'
Example #16:

    (590) niku -wa yawaraka -ku      -na -katta.
    meat -top soft      -infin -neg -past
    `The meat was not soft.'
Example #17:

    (591) niku -wa yawaraka -ku          - te ...
    meat -top soft      -infin -conj
    `The meat was soft and . . . .'
Example #18:

    (592) John -wa bo oru -o     yawaraka -ku    nage -ta.
    J.   -top ball -acc soft        -infin throw -past
    `John threw the ball gently.'
Example #19:

    (6 0 7 )   a.       kare -wa teeburu -o     totemo kirei -ni hui -ta.
    he -top table -acc very          clean -adv wipe -past
    `He wiped the table very clean.'
Example #20:

    hui -ta.
    wipe -past
    `He wiped the table so clean that Hanako will be pleased.
Example #21:

    (6 0 8 )   a.       John -wa niku -o      totemo yawaraka -ku    ni -ta.
    J.   -top meat -acc very       soft   -infin boil -past
    `John boiled the meat very soft.'
Example #22:

    -ku    ni -ta.
    -infin boil -past
    `John boiled the meat so soft that even grandma can eat it.'