The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Laughren, Mary (2001). Wanyi Reflexive-Reciprocal Constructions.

URL: http://linguistics.anu.edu.au/ALS2001/papers/Laughren.pdf

(Last accessed 2005-02-18).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 344&langcode=gbc (2019-06-26).


Example #1:

    (5)     a.       Waka.daba=ngawu=ninya.
    wash=1SG.NOM =2SG.ACC
    `I wash you.'
Example #2:

    b.       Waka.daba=ninyji=ngaa(n).
    wash=2SG.NOM =1SG.ACC
    `You wash me.'
Example #3:

    (6)     a.       Waka.daba=ngaka.
    `I wash myself.'
Example #4:

    b.       Waka.daba=nganyi-ngka.
    `You wash yourself.'
Example #5:

    (7)     a.       Daba=bula=ngaa(n)                  kirriya-wiya-a.
    hit=3D.NOM=1SG.ACC                 woman-pair-ERG
    `Two women hit me.'
Example #6:

    b.       Daba=ngawu=bula-nya                kirriya-wiya.
    hit=1SG.NOM=3D-ACC                 woman-pair
    `I hit the two women.'
Example #7:

    (8)              Daba=bula-ngka         kirriya-wiya.
    hit =3D-REFL           girl-pair
    `Two girls (they) are fighting.'
Example #8:

    (9)              Kudi.j.bi=nyulu       warliji.
    sleep-V=3SG.NOM       meat/animal
    `The animal is sleeping.' (Lit. `He's sleeping - (the/some) animal.')
Example #9:

    (10)       a.    Waka.daba=ngawu=ninya marni.
    wash=1SG.NOM=2SG.ACC hand
    `I wash your hand.' (Lit. `wash I you hand').
Example #10:

    b.    Waka.daba=nganyi-ngka marni.
    wash=2GEN-REFL             hand
    `Wash your hands!' (= 'You wash your hands.')
Example #11:

    (11)    a.       Kard.bi.j.bi=nyulu kangkirinya-a.
    CUT=3SG.S             knife-ERG
    `He cut (him) with a knife.'
Example #12:

    b.       Makaraba=ngaka, jiba-a.
    cover=1SG.REFL         paperbark-ERG
    `I cover myself, with paperbark.'
Example #13:

    (10)    Nang-kujarra kirriya-wiya, muwa.j.ba=bula-ngka.
    these-two      girl-pair       jealous=3D-REFL
    `These two girls, they are jealous of each other.'
Example #14:

    (11)    Narri,         daba=narri-ya.ngka jukuli-i.
    2PL.NOM        hit=2PL-REFL          boomerang-ERG
    `You lot, you hit each other with boomerangs.'
Example #15:

    (12)    a.       Winyjika(-a)=ninya windi.j.bi                na.ng-kanyi       mama-anyi?
    who(-ERG)=2SG.ACC give                       this-DAT          bread-DAT
    `Who gave you this bread?'
Example #16:

    that-ERG    old_woman-ERG=1SG.ACC-n give                        this-DAT       food-   DAT
    `That old woman gave me (of) this food.'
Example #17:

    (13)    Windi.j.bi=yalu-ngka jukuli,           mukura, barrku.
    give=3PL-REFL           boomerang,     spear,     nullanulla
    `They gave each other boomerangs, spears and nullanullas.'
Example #18:

    (14)    Ngarija.ba=nyului na-ngangii/j jukuli.
    carve=3SG.NOM        3SG-DAT       boomerang
    `He's carving a boomerang for him(self).'
Example #19:

    (15)    a.       Nanga.nja=nyulu mama                ni.ya-ngi.
    get=3SG.S            food           12-DAT
    `He's getting food for us.'
Example #20:

    (16)    a.       Jurra.ngki.j.bi=nurri-ya.ngka,      wawurra.                   Wawurra-darra.
    play=1PL.EX-REFL                    child                      child-PL
    `We played with each other, as kids. All the kids.'
Example #21:

    b.       Jurra yalu,        jurra.ngki.j.bi=yalu-ngka
    play 3PL.NOM, play=3PL-REFL
    `Play, them, they play (about).' OR `They play, they play about.'
Example #22:

    (17)   a.      Yany.ba=ngamba,         murdungama. Turu-nu.
    talk=12PL.NOM           morning        sun-LOC
    `We'll talk (again) in the morning, after the sun comes up.'
Example #23:

    b.      Yany.ba=ngawu nganyi mirrirri.mbi=ninya  ngaki yanyi           Wanyi.
    speak=1SG.NOM 2SG.DAT teach=2SG.ACC            1SG.DAT language Wanyi
    `I am talking to you - teaching you my language, Wanyi.'
Example #24:

    c.      Yany.ba=bula-ngka yanyi=barri.
    talk=3D-REFL         language/word=THEN
    `They are having a yarn.'
Example #25:

    (18)   a.      Ku.j.bu=nyulu -        ngata-nganyja-anyi ngindi-ni. (Subject control)
    search=3SG.NOM         mother-ANAPH-DAT cry-LOC
    `He's searching for his mother - (he) crying.'
Example #26:

    b.      Mularri.j.bi=ngawu  ngindi-wurru. (Object control)
    pick_up=1SG.NOM         cry-ALLAT
    `I picked (him) up (he) crying.'
Example #27:

    (19)   a.      Jurra.ngki.j.bi=yalu-ngka - jungku-nu. (Inherent reflexive)
    play=3PL-REFL                 sit-LOC
    `They are playing (while) sitting down.'
Example #28:

    b.      Daba=bula-ngka      kirriya-wiya. Muwa.ji-ni.
    hit =D-REFL         girl-pair      jealous-LOC
    `Two woman are hitting each other (i.e. fighting) being jealous.'
Example #29:

    (20)   [Jawika.j.ba=ngawu=ninya], windi-kanyi=ninyji=ngaa-n      jukuli-anyi.
    ask=1SG.NOM=2SG.ACC           give-PURP=2SG.NOM=1SG.ACC-n boomerang-DAT
    `[I ask you] (that) you give me (of) a boomerang.'
Example #30:

    (21)   [Budangku=yalu=ni-nya nguru.bu             na.ng-kanyi],      daba=yalu-ngka.
    [NEG=3PL.NOM= 2SG-ACC tell                 this-DAT]          hit=3PL-REFL
    `[They didn't tell you about it], (that) they had a fight.'
Example #31:

    (22)   Ku.j.ba=ngawu kunda-anyi [...] kurri-kanyi=ngaka         mundirri.
    search=1SG      stick-DAT [...]    scratch-PURP=1SG.REFL back
    `I'm looking for a stick to scratch my back with.'