ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Wei-Tien Dylan Tsai (2000). The Hows of Why and The Whys of How.

URL: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ealc/chinling/articles/tsai16.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3457&langcode=cmn (2018-07-17).

 

Example #1:

    (2)   a. Akiu zenme zou?
    Akiu how       leave
    'By what means/way will Akiu leave?'
Example #2:

    b. Akiu (pingchang) zenme shuijiao?
    Akiu usually        how      sleep
    'With what style does Akiu (usually) sleep?'
Example #3:

    (3)    a. Akiu zenme zou-le?
    Akiu how        leave-Prf/Inc
    'Why has Akiu left?'
Example #4:

    b. Akiu zenme shuijiao-le?
    Akiu how       sleep-Prf/Inc
    'Why has Akiu slept?'
Example #5:

    (4) * Akiu zenme congming?
    Akiu how smart
    'How smart is Akiu?'
Example #6:

    (5)    Akiu bu zenme congming.
    Akiu not how smart
    'Akiu is not so smart.'
Example #7:

    (6)   Akiu zenme hui/bixu/neng/keyi/yinggai zou?
    Akiu how         will/must/can/may /should leave
    c. 'Why would/must/can/may/should Akiu leave?'
Example #8:

    (7)   Akiu hui/bixu/neng/keyi/yinggai zenme zou?
    Akiu will/must/can/may /should how          leave
    a. 'By what means will/must/can/may/should Akiu leave?'
Example #9:

    (8)   Akiu zenme zongshi/changchang /henshao xi che?
    Akiu how         always/often/seldom            wash car
    c. 'Why does Akiu always/often/seldom wash the car?'
Example #10:

    (9)   Akiu zongshi/changchang /henshao zenme xi che?
    Akiu always/often/seldom              how       wash car
    a. 'By what means does Akiu always/often/seldom wash the car?'
Example #11:

    (10) Akiu zenme zhe-ge shihou/zai zheli xizao?
    Akiu how this-Cl time at here bathe
    c. 'Why is Akiu taking a bath this hour/here?'
Example #12:

    (11) Akiu zhe-ge shihou/zai zheli zenme xizao?
    Akiu this-Cl time at here how             bathe
    a. 'By what means is Akiu going to take a bath this hour/here?'
Example #13:

    (12) Akiu zenme keneng ban            zhe-ge huiyi?
    Akiu how possibly organize this-Cl conference
    c. 'Why is it possible for Akiu to organize this conference?'
Example #14:

    (i) Akiu zenme keneng ban                 zhe-ge huiyi?      ta     you mei           qian.
    Akiu how possibly organize this-Cl conference he              again have-not money
    'How can Akiu organize this conference? He didn't even have the money.'
Example #15:

    (ii) Yinwei        ta mai-le fangzi         (lai chou qian).
    because      he sell-Prf house        come raise money
    'Because he sold his house (to raise the money).'
Example #16:

    (13) Akiu keneng zenme ban            zhe-ge huiyi?
    Akiu possibly how organize this-Cl conference
    a. 'What is the means x such that it is possible for Akiu to organize the confer
Example #17:

    (14) Akiu keneng zenme dezui-le ren, suoyi               yizhi    chu-bu-liao shu.
    Akiu possibly how offend-Prf person so              still publish-not-finish book
    so he is still unable to publish his book.'
Example #18:

    (15) Akiu zenme          bu     xi     che?
    Akiu how            not    wash   car
    b. 'Why doesn't     Akiu   wash    the car?'
Example #19:

    (16) *Akiu bu zenme xi che?
    Akiu not how         wash car
    '* How doesn't Akiu wash the car?'
Example #20:

    (17) ?Akiu cong-bu zenme xi            che?
    Akiu ever-not how           wash car
    a. 'By what means did Akiu never wash the car?'
Example #21:

    (18) Akiu bu zenme (chang) xi che.
    Akiu not how often         wash car
    'Akiu didn't wash the car so often.'
Example #22:

    (19)* Akiu zenme shi-bu-shi dezui-le bie ren?
    Akiu how be-not-be offend-Prf other person
    '* How/why is it true or not that Akiu offended others?'
Example #23:

    (20) Akiu shi-bu-shi      zenme dezui-le bie ren?
    Akiu be-not-be       how offend-Prf other person
    c. 'Is it true or   not that Akiu somehow offended others?'
Example #24:

    (21) Akiu zenme zai-shuijiao?
    Akiu how        Prg-sleep
    b. 'Why is Akiu sleeping?'
Example #25:

    (22) Akiu zenme chuan-zhe tuoxie?
    Akiu how        wear-Dur slipper
    b. 'Why is Akiu wearing slipper?'
Example #26:

    (23) Akiu zenme qu-guo           meiguo?
    Akiu how       go-Exp       America
    b. 'Why has Akiu been     to America?'
Example #27:

    (24) Akiu zenme zheme mang/congming?
    Akiu how so           busy/smart
    b. 'Why is Akiu so busy/smart?'
Example #28:

    (25) Akiu zenme      xihuan/pa Xiaodi?
    Akiu how        like/fear Xiaodi
    b. 'Why does    Akiu like/fear Xiaodi?'
Example #29:

    (26) zhe-chu    dianying zenme     zheme taohao/xia-ren?
    This-CL    movie how          so      pleasing/scare-people
    b. 'Why    is this movie so   pleasing/scary?'
Example #30:

    (27) na-ping      jiu    zenme [CAUS+[zui-de]i] Akiuk ti [PROk                    zhan-bu-qilai]?
    that-CL      wine   how             drunk-Res Akiu                           stand-not-up
    b. 'Why      does   that bottle of wine intoxicate Akiu such that he          ca
Example #31:

    (28) Akiu zenme taohao/xia Xiaodi?
    Akiu how please/scare Xiaodi
    b. 'Why did Akiu please/scare Xiaodi?'
Example #32:

    (33) a. Akiu zenme hui zou? (epistemic modal)
    Akiu how     will leave
    'Why would (# will) Akiu leave?'
Example #33:

    b. Akiu zenme yinggai/bixu zou? (deontic modal)
    Akiu how     should/must leave
    'Why should/must Akiu leave?'
Example #34:

    c. Akiu    zenme gan/yuanyi/neng                     zou? (control modal)
    Akiu    how dare/is willing to/has the ability to leave
    'Why    has Akiu the ability to leave?'
Example #35:

    (35) Akiu zenme keneng zou? (possibility modal)
    Akiu how      possibly leave
    'Why can/could Akiu leave?'
Example #36:

    (37) a.* ge, Akiu shang-ci chang-de zenme?
    song Akiu last-time sing-Res how
    'How did Akiu sing last time?'
Example #37:

    (38) Akiu shang-ci zenme-yang chang-ge?
    Akiu last-time how-manner sing-song
    'How did Akiu sing last time?'
Example #38:

    (39) ge, Akiu shang-ci chang-de zenme-yang?
    song Akiu last-time sing-Res how-manner
    'How did Akiu perform in singing last time?'
Example #39:

    (42) Akiu zenme-yang taohao/xia Xiaodi?
    Akiu how-manner please/scare Xiaodi
    How does Akiu please/scare Xiaodi?' (method and style of action)
Example #40:

    (44) Akiu pao-de [RC PRO zenme-yang]?
    Akiu run-Res            how-manner
    'How did Akiu perform in running?'
Example #41:

    (45) zhe-jian shi, Akiu ban-de [RC PRO zenme-yang]?
    this-CL matter Akiu handle-Res        how-manner
    'How did Akiu perform in handling this matter?'
Example #42:

    (46) Akiu ba zhe-jian shi [complex predicate ban-de [RC PRO zenme-yang]]?
    Akiu BA this-CL matter                  handle-Res     how-manner
    'How did Akiu make this matter by handling it?'
Example #43:

    (48) a. Akiu     weishenme hui/bixu/neng/keyi/yinggai zou?
    Akiu     why       will/must/can/may/should leave
    'Why would/must/can/may/should Akiu leave?'
Example #44:

    (49) a. Akiu hui/bixu/neng/keyi/yinggai wei(-le) shenme                        cizhi?
    Akiu will/must/can/may/should for(-Prf) what                           resign
    'For what (purpose) will Akiu resign?'
Example #45:

    (i) Akiu wei(-le) shenme bixu/yinggai             cizhi?
    Akiu for(-Prf) what      must/should       resign
    'For what (reason) must/should/may/will/can Akiu resign?'
Example #46:

    (52) Akiu weishenme/wei(-le) shenme taohao/xia Xiaodi?
    Akiu why/for(-Prf) what           please/scare Xiaodi
    Why/For what (purpose) does Akiu please/scare Xiaodi?'
Example #47:

    (54) * Akiu keneng weishenme           ban      zhe-ge huiyi
    Akiu possibly why               organize this-Cl conference
    b. 'It is possible for Akiu   to organize the conference for some reason.'
Example #48:

    (56) a. Akiu keneng wei(-le) shenme ban          zhe-ge huiyi?
    Akiu possibly for(-Prf) what    organize this-Cl conference
    'What can Akiu organize the conference for?'
Example #49:

    b. Akiu keneng wei(-le) shenme cai ban               zhe-ge huiyi.
    Akiu possibly for(-Prf) what        just organize this-Cl conference
    'It is possible that Akiu organizes the conference just for some purpose.'
Example #50:

    (58) Akiu hui zenme qu, wo jiu hui zenme qu.
    Akiu will how go I then will how go
    a. For every means/way x, if Akiu will go by x, then I will go by x.
Example #51:

    (59)* Akiu zenme hui qu, wo jiu zenme hui qu.
    Akiu how will go I then how will go
    'For every reason x, if Akiu will go for x, then I will go for x.'
Example #52:

    (60) Akiu hui zenme-yang qu, wo jiu hui zenme-yang qu.
    Akiu will how-manner go I then will how-manner go
    a. For every means/way x, if Akiu will go by x, then I will go by x.
Example #53:

    (61) Akiu hui wei(-le) shenme zi-sha, wo jiu hui wei(-le) shenme zi-sha
    Akiu will for(-Prf) what self-kill I then will for(-Prf) what self-kill
    'For every purpose x, if Akiu will kill himself for x, then I will kill myself f
Example #54:

    (62)* Akiu weishenme hui zi-sha, wo jiu weishenme hui zi-sha
    Akiu why           will self-kill I then why                will self-kill
    'For every reason x, if Akiu will kill himself for x, then I will kill myself fo
Example #55:

    (63)? zuotian     Akiu weishenme mei hui-jia,         wo jiu weishenme mei huijia
    yesterday Akiu why have-not return-home I then why have-not return-home
    go home yesterday.'
Example #56:

    wo jiu wei(-le) shenme mei         hui-jia
    I then for(-Prf) what have-not return-home
    then for x I didn't go home yesterday.'