ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Huei-Ling Lin (2003). POSTVERBAL SECONDARY PREDICATES IN TAIWANESE*.

URL: http://ling.nccu.edu.tw/RedBug/tjl/volume1-2/03_LIN__HUEILING.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3462&langcode=nan (2018-10-18).

 

Example #1:

    (5)   i penn-kah khia-be-khilai.                                    Resultative
    he sick-KAH stand-not-up
    `He was so sick that he could not stand up.'
Example #2:

    (7)   i penn-kah ukau giamtiong            e.                       Descriptive
    he sick-KAH very seriously           PARTICLE
    `He was seriously ill.'
Example #3:

    (11) i ciong sann se-kah         cin cingkhi. Object-oriented resultative
    he CIONG clothes wash-KAH very clean
    `He washed his clothes clean.'
Example #4:

    (12) i thiau-kah cin thiam.                 Subject-oriented resultative
    he dance-KAH very tired
    `He danced himself tired.'
Example #5:

    (13) i khun-kah m cai chenn.
    he sleep-KAH not know wake
    `He slept so well that he did not wake up for a long time.'
Example #6:

    (14) a.     i cau-kah cin kin.                             Descriptive
    he run-KAH very fast
    `He ran very fast.'
Example #7:

    b.    i cau-kah cin thiam.                           Resultative
    he run-KAH very tired.
    `He got tired as a result of running.'
Example #8:

    (15) a.     i penn-kah ukau giamtiong e.                   Descriptive
    he sick-KAH very seriously PARTICLE
    `He was seriously ill.'
Example #9:

    b.    i penn-kah khia-be-khilai.                     Resultative
    he sick-KAH stand-not-up
    `He was so sick that he could not stand up.'
Example #10:

    (i)    i thiau-kah cin thiam.
    he dance-KAH very tired
    `He danced himself tired.'
Example #11:

    (ii) i thiau-kah cin kin.
    he dance-KAH very fast
    *`He danced and as a result he became fast.'
Example #12:

    (i)   i sia-kah    pit long bo         cui a.
    he write-KAH pen all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `He wrote so much that the pen ran out of ink.'
Example #13:

    (16) i ciong sann se-kah         cin cingkhi.
    he CIONG clothes wash-KAH very clean
    *`He washed his clothes cleanly.'
Example #14:

    (17) i cin kin.
    he very fast
    `He is very fast.'
Example #15:

    (18) i thiaubu thiau-kah cin kin.
    he dance dance-KAH very fast
    *`He danced and as a result he became fast.'
Example #16:

    (19) i chiong-kah cin huannhi.
    he sing-KAH very happi(ly)
    (ii) `He sang happily.'
Example #17:

    (20) i sia-kah      pit long bo       cui a.
    he write-KAH pen all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `He wrote so much that the pen ran out of ink.'
Example #18:

    (21) i san-kah guan long jin-be-chutlai.
    he thin-KAH we all recognize-not-out
    `He has become so thin that we could not recognize him.'
Example #19:

    (22) *i thiaubu thiau-kah yi/guan cin kin.       (cf. (18))
    he dance dance-KAH he/we very fast
    `He danced very fast.'
Example #20:

    (i)    *i thiau-kah i cin thiam.        (cf. (12))
    he dance-KAH he very tired
    `He danced so much that he got tired.'
Example #21:

    (23) a.     i ji     sia-kah    cin kin.
    he word write-KAH very fast
    `He writes very fast.'
Example #22:

    b.    *ji    hoo i sia-kah     cin kin.
    word HOO he write-KAH very fast
    `Words are written very fast.'
Example #23:

    (24) a.     i ka in kiann phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    he KA his child hit-KAH even neighbor all        out see
    have a look.'
Example #24:

    b.    in kiann hoo i phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    his child HOO he hit-KAH even neighbor all out see
    to have a look.'
Example #25:

    c.    *chupinn hoo i ka in kiann phah-kah long chutlai khuann.
    neighbor HOO he KA his child hit-KAH all out see
    child so much.'
Example #26:

    (25) a.   i ciong in kiann phah-kah hunkhi.
    he CIONG his child hit-KAH faint
    `He hit his child so much that he/she fainted.'
Example #27:

    b.   in kiann hoo i phah-kah hunkhi.
    his child HOO he hit-KAH faint
    `His child was hit so much that he/she fainted.'
Example #28:

    (26) a.   i sia-kah      pit long bo         cui a.
    he write-KAH pen all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `He wrote so much that the pen ran out of ink.'
Example #29:

    b.   pit hoo i sai-kah       long bo         cui a.
    pen HOO he write-KAH all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `The pen ran out of ink because he wrote so much.'
Example #30:

    (27) a.   i chio-kah ehai long lauhkhi a.
    he laugh-KAH jaw all drop PARTICLE
    `He laughed so much that his jaw dropped.'
Example #31:

    b.   ehai hoo i chio-kah long lauhkhi a.
    jaw HOO he laugh-KAH all        drop PARTICLE
    `His jaw dropped because he laughed so much.'
Example #32:

    (28) a.   i cau-kah cin kin.
    he run-KAH very fast
    `He ran very fast.'
Example #33:

    b.   i cau-kah cin thiam.
    he run-KAH very tired.
    `He got tired as a result of running.'
Example #34:

    (29) a.   i ji    sia-kah      cin kin.
    he word write-KAH very fast
    `He writes very fast.'
Example #35:

    (30) a.     i gin-a phah-kah hunkhi.
    he child hit-KAH faint
    `He hit the child so much that he/she fainted.'
Example #36:

    (31) a.     i ka in kiann phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    he KA his child hit-KAH even neighbor all        out see
    have a look.'
Example #37:

    (32) i ciong sann se-kah         cin cingkhi.
    he CIONG clothes wash-KAH very clean
    `He washed his clothes clean.'
Example #38:

    (34) Zhangsan ku-de shoupa         dou shi le.
    Zhangsan cry-DE handkerchief all wet ASP
    `Zhangsan cried so much that the handkerchief was all wet.'
Example #39:

    (37) a.    i m kann ma        in kiann.
    he not dare scold his child
    `He does not dare to scold his child.'
Example #40:

    b.    i lian in kiann long m kann ma.
    he even his child all not dare scold
    `He does not even dare to scold his child.'
Example #41:

    c.    lian in kiann i long m kann ma.
    even his child he all not dare scold
    `He does not dare to scold even his child.'
Example #42:

    (38) a.         i khau-kah chiukin-a      tamkhi a.
    he cry-KAH handkerchief wet PARTICLE
    `He cried so much that the handkerchief was all wet.'
Example #43:

    b.       i khau-kah lian chiukin-a     long tamkhi a.
    he cry-KAH even handkerchief all wet PARTICLE
    `He cried so much that even the handkerchief was all wet.'
Example #44:

    chuan-shang.
    wear-on
    `Child, look, your shoes are all worn out. Put on this pair.'
Example #45:

    (45) khuann ni kong-kah!
    look you talk-KAH
    `Look at how you say it!'
Example #46:

    (46) cau-kah gua thiam-kah.
    run-KAH I tired-KAH
    `I got so tired from running.'
Example #47:

    (47) ...than kehue than-kah o.
    earn money earn-KAH PARTICLE
    `...earned so much money.'
Example #48:

    (48) i cu-kah hiah ce chai.
    he cook-KAH that many dish
    `He cooked so many dishes.'
Example #49:

    (49) a.         i khau cin ku.
    he cry very long
    `He cried for very long.'
Example #50:

    b.       i khau-kah chiukina       tamkhi a.
    he cry-KAH handkerchief wet PARTICLE
    `He cried so much that the handkerchief was all wet.'
Example #51:

    (50) a.         i leh      se sann.
    he DUR13 wash clothes
    `He is washing clothes.'
Example #52:

    b.       i ciong sann se-kah          cin cingkhi.
    he CIONG clothes wash-KAH very clean
    `He washed his clothes clean.'
Example #53:

    (51) a.       i iking huan            cin ku a.
    he already feel-annoyed very long PARTICLE
    `He has felt annoyed for a while.'
Example #54:

    b.       i huan-kah           beh    si.
    he feel-annoyed-KAH almost die
    `He feels extremely annoyed.'
Example #55:

    (52) a.       i takkang long leh huan in laope.
    he every-day all DUR annoy his father
    `He annoys his father every day.'
Example #56:

    b.       i ciong in laope huan-kah beh        si.
    he CIONG his father annoy-KAH almost die
    `His father was extremely annoyed by him.'
Example #57:

    (53) i thiau-kah cin thiam.            Subject-oriented resultative
    he dance-KAH very tired
    `He danced himself tired.'
Example #58:

    (55) i cau-kah cin kin.
    he run-KAH very fast
    `He ran very fast.'
Example #59:

    (57) a.       i ji     sia-kah    cin kin.
    he word write-KAH very fast
    `He writes very fast.'
Example #60:

    (58) a.       i gin-a phah-kah hunkhi.
    he child hit-KAH faint
    `He hit the child so much that he/she fainted.'
Example #61:

    (i)     i ciong sann se-kah         cin cingkhi.
    he CIONG clothes wash-KAH very clean
    `He washed his clothes clean.'
Example #62:

    (iii)   i ciong tak nia sann long            se-kah    cin cingkhi.
    he CIONG every CL clothes all       wash-KAH very clean
    `He washed his clothes and as a   result each of them was very clean.'
Example #63:

    (60) *i sia ji -kah cin kin.
    he write word -KAH very fast
    `He writes very fast.'
Example #64:

    (61) a.      i ji     sia-kah     cin kin.
    he word write-KAH very fast
    `He writes very fast.'
Example #65:

    b.     *ji    hoo i sia-kah      cin kin.
    word HOO he write-KAH very fast
    `Words are written very fast.'
Example #66:

    (62) a.      i sia-kah      pit long bo         cui a.
    he write-KAH pen all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `He wrote so much that the pen ran out of ink.'
Example #67:

    b.     pit hoo i sai-kah        long bo        cui a.
    pen HOO he write-KAH all not-have ink PARTICLE
    `The pen ran out of ink because he wrote so much.'
Example #68:

    (63) a.      i leh sia     ji.
    he DUR write word
    `He is writing words.'
Example #69:

    b.     *ji leh hoo i sia.
    word DUR HOO he write
    `Words are being written by him.'
Example #70:

    (i)   gin-a hoo i phah-kah hunkhi.
    child HOO he hit-KAH faint
    `The child fainted because he/she was hit so much by him.'
Example #71:

    (66) a.          i ka in kiann phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    he KA his child hit-KAH even neighbor all out see
    have a look.'
Example #72:

    (69) i khun-kah m cai chenn.
    he sleep-KAH not know wake
    `He slept so well that he did not wake up for a long time.'
Example #73:

    (70) a.      i ka in kiann phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    he KA his child hit-KAH even neighbor all        out see
    have a look.'
Example #74:

    b.     in kiann hoo i phah-kah lian chupinn long chutlai khuann.
    his child HOO he hit-KAH even neighbor all out see
    to have a look.'
Example #75:

    c.     *chupinn hoo i ka in kiann phah-kah long chutlai khuann.
    neighbor HOO he KA his child hit-KAH all out see
    child so much.'