ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

C.-T. James Huang (1999). Chinese Passives in Comparative Perspective.

URL: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~ctjhuang/my_papers/1999.passives.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3506&langcode=cmn (2018-10-20).

 

Example #1:

    Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #2:

    Zhangsan bei da le.
    Zhangsan BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit.
Example #3:

    (5)    a.    *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le ta.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF him
    Zhangsan was hit (*him) by Lisi.
Example #4:

    b. *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le    ziji.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF self
    Zhangsan was hit (*self) by Lisi.
Example #5:

    c. *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le Wangwu.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF Wangwu
    Zhangsan was hit (*Wangwu) by Lisi.
Example #6:

    d.    *Zhangsan bei Lisi lai-le.     (no object at all)
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi come-PERF
    `*Zhangsan was arrived by Lisi.'
Example #7:

    (6)   Zhangsan guyi          bei da le.
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit.
Example #8:

    (7)   Zhangsan guyi          bei Lisi da le
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit by Lisi.
Example #9:

    (i)   Zhangsan shi guyi         bei (Lisi) da de
    Zhangsan be intentionally BEI (Lisi) hit PRT
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit (by Lisi).
Example #10:

    (10)    a.    Zhangsan zuotian bei Lisi da-le.
    Zhangsan yesterday BEI Lisi hit-PERF
    (cf. John was hit by Bill yesterday.)
Example #11:

    b.    *Zhangsan bei Lisi zuotian da-le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi yesterday hit-PERF
    (cf. John was hit yesterday by Bill.)
Example #12:

    c.    *bei Lisi Zhangsan zuotian da-le.
    BEI Lisi Zhangsan yesterday hit-PERF
    (cf. It was by Bill that John was hit yesterday.)
Example #13:

    (11)    a.   wo gen Zhangsan hen chu-de-lai.
    I with Zhangsan very get-along
    I get along well with Zhangsan.
Example #14:

    b.   gen Zhangsan wo hen chu-de-lai.
    with Zhangsan I very get-along
    I get along well with Zhangsan.
Example #15:

    (12)    a.   Zhangsan dui Lisi hen keqi.
    Zhangsan to Lisi very polite
    Zhangsan is very polite to Lisi.
Example #16:

    b.   dui Lisi Zhangsan hen keqi.
    to Lisi Zhangsan very polite
    Zhangsan is very polite to Lisi.
Example #17:

    (13)    a.   wo bai-le       yi-pen huar zai zhuozi-shang .
    I put-PERF one-pot flower on table-top
    I put a pot of flowers on the table.
Example #18:

    b.   wo zai zhuozi-shang bai-le    yi-pen huar.
    I on table-top      put-PERF one-pot flower
    I put a pot of flowers on the table.
Example #19:

    c.   zai zhuozi-shang wo bai-le       yi-pen huar.
    on table-top       I put-PERF one-pot flower
    I put a pot of flowers on the table.
Example #20:

    (14)     ta bei Lisi ma-le       liang-sheng, Wangwu ti-le     san-xia.
    he BEI Lisi scold-PERF twice      Wangwu kick-PERF three-times
    He was scolded twice by Lisi and kicked three times by Wangwu.
Example #21:

    (15)     Zhangsan bei Lisi guan zai ziji de jiali.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi lock at self DE home
    Zhangsan was locked by Lisi in self's home. (ZS or LS's)
Example #22:

    (16)     nei-feng xin bei Lisi dai-hui      ziji de jia qu le.
    that-CL letter BEI Lisi bring-back self DE home go PERF
    That letter was brought back to self's (Lisi's) home by Lisi.
Example #23:

    (i)   ta you bei Zhangsan, you bei Lisi, kanjian le.
    he also by Zhangsan also by Lisi, see perf/fp
    He was seen both by Zhangsan and by Lisi.
Example #24:

    (17)    nei-ben shu bei Lisi qing ziji-de pengyou na-zou le.
    that-CL book BEI Lisi ask self DE friend take-away PERF
    That book had Lisi having his friend to take [it] away.
Example #25:

    (19)    a.   Zhangsan shuo Lisi da-le    ta.
    Zhangsan say Lisi hit-PERF him
    Zhangsan said Lisi hit him.
Example #26:

    b.   Zhangsan shuo Lisi da-le     ziji.
    Zhangsan say Lisi hit-PERF self
    Zhangsan said Lisi hit self.
Example #27:

    (i)    Zhangsani bei *tai/zijii hai-can le.
    Zhangsan BEI him/self harm-badly ASP
    `Zhangsan was badly harmed by him/himself.'
Example #28:

    (ii)   *Zhangsan bei zai xuexiao Lisi da-le.
    Zhangsan BEI at school Lisi hit-Perf
    `Zhangsan was hit by Lisi at the school.'
Example #29:

    (i)    zhe-ben shu hen zhide (ni) kan.
    this-CL book very worth (you) read
    `This book is worth (your) reading.'
Example #30:

    (ii)   zhe-dong fangzi xuyao xiuli.
    this-CL house need repair
    `This house needs repairing.'
Example #31:

    (22)    qi caiwu bei yin nuren xi duoqu zhi. (Shengjing)
    his wealth BEI whorely woman all grabbed it
    His wealth were all snapped [it] by the whorely woman.
Example #32:

    (23)    tiannü bei chi-shui jian zhi. (Soushenji.Tiankunlun)
    fairies BEI pool-owner see them
    The fairiestn were seen [them] by the pool-owners.
Example #33:

    (1)     Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #34:

    (5a-b)    *Zhangsan bei Lisi da le    ta/ziji.
    *Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF him/self
    *Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #35:

    (24)    Zhangsan bei Lisi pai jingcha zhua-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi send police arrest PERF
    Zhangsan was "sent-police-to-arrest" by Lisi.
Example #36:

    (25)    neifeng xin bei wo jiao Lisi qing Wangwu tuo ta meimei ji-zou le.
    that letter BEI me tell Lisi ask Wangwu request his sister send PERF
    That letter was "told-LS-to-ask-WW--get-his-sister-to-send" by me.
Example #37:

    (30)    Zhangsan bei wo tongzhi Lisi ba zanmei *(ta) de shu dou mai-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI me inform Lisi BA praise (him) De book all buy-away PERF
    Zhangsan had me inform Lisi to buy up all the books that praise [him].
Example #38:

    (31)    zhexie shiqing bu neng bei tamen suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI they SUO understand
    These things cannot be understood by them.
Example #39:

    (32)    ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei wairen suo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraid will BEI others SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will be laughed-at by others.
Example #40:

    (33)    xiaotou suo meiyou touzou __ de naxie shu zai zhuozi-shang
    thief   suo not-have steal __ DE those book at table-top
    The books that the thieves have not stolen are on the table.
Example #41:

    (34)    Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le     ta yi-xia.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF him once.
    Zhangsan was hit once by Lisi.
Example #42:

    (5)    a. *Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le ta.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF him
    Zhangsan was hit (*him) by Lisi.
Example #43:

    (35)     *Lisi da-le ta de nei-ge ren lai le.
    Lisi hit-PERF him DE that person came.
    (Lit.: The person who Lisi hit him came.)
Example #44:

    (36)      Lisi da-le ta yi-xia de nei-ge ren lai le.
    Lisi hit-PERF him once DE that person came.
    The person who Lisi hit [him] once came.
Example #45:

    (i)    Lisi song-le ta liang-ben shu de na-ge ren zou le.
    Lisi give-PERF him two-CL book DE that-CL person leave ASP
    The person who Lisi gave [him] two books left.
Example #46:

    (ii)   Lisi tou-le ta liang-ben shu de na-ge ren zou le.
    Lisi steal-PERF him two-CL book DE that-CL person leave ASP
    The person who Lisi stole two books of/from left.
Example #47:

    (iii) Lisi tou-le ta liangbai kuai qian
    Lisi steal-PERF him two-hundred dollar money
    Lisi was stolen [him] 200 dollars by me.
Example #48:

    (37)    Zhangsan bei Lisi huaiyi (ta) tou-le       qian.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi suspect (he) steal- PERF money
    Zhangsan was suspected (by Lisi) [he] to have stolen the money.
Example #49:

    (38)    Lisi huaiyi (ta) tou-le qian de nei-ge ren zou-le.
    Lisi suspect (he) steal- PERF money DE that person leave- PERF
    The person that Lisi suspected [he] stole the money has left.
Example #50:

    (39)    Zhangsan bei Lisi ba ta pian-de-tuantuanzhuan.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi BA him cheat-till-run-around
    Zhangsan was pushed around like a fool by Lisi.
Example #51:

    (40)    Lisi ba ta pian-de-tuantuanzhuan de nei-ge ren zou-le.
    Lisi BA him cheat-till-run-around DE that person leave- PERF
    The person that Lisi pushed around like a fool has left.
Example #52:

    (i)    mei-ge xuesheng dou bei san-ge laoshi jiao-guo.
    every student all BEI three teacher teach-EXP
    Every student was taught by three teachers.
Example #53:

    (1)     Zhangsan bei Lisi da le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit by Lisi.
Example #54:

    (2)     Zhangsan bei da le.
    Zhangsan BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan was hit.
Example #55:

    (42)    Zhangsan, zhe-jian shi gen *(ta) mei-you guanxi.
    Zhangsan this-CL thing with *(him) not-have relation
    Zhangsan, this thing has nothing to with him.
Example #56:

    (43)    zhe-jian shi gen *(ta) mei-you guanxi de na-ge ren              zou le.
    this- CL thing with *(him) not-have relation DE that-CL person leave PERF
    The person such that this thing has nothing to do with him has left.
Example #57:

    (44)    *Zhangsan, wo shi __ shengqi le.
    Zhangsan I cause       angry PERF
    Zhangsan, I have caused to be angry.
Example #58:

    (45)    *Li Xiaojie, wo bi __ gaijia le.
    Miss Li     I force     re-marry PERF
    Miss Li, I have forced to re-marry.
Example #59:

    zhi you      bei ru,      sui chou zhe,       zhen ye.
    know friends BEI insult, along angry person, loyal PRT
    are loyal.
Example #60:

    (48)    Jindan ruo bei zhuwu       fan    zhi (Baopuzi)
    Jindan if BEI everything attack him
    If Jindan was attacked (him) by everything . . .
Example #61:

    (49)    a.    Zhangsan bei Lisi momingqimiao de pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi confused       -ly abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted in a state of confusion by Lisi.
Example #62:

    b.    Zhangsan bei Lisi zai xuexiao pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi at school abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted at school by Lisi.
Example #63:

    (50)    a.    Zhangsan bei momingqimiao de pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI confused      -ly abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted in a state of confusion.
Example #64:

    b.   *Zhangsan bei zai xuexiao pian-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI at school abduct PERF
    Zhangsan was abducted at school.
Example #65:

    (51)      a.    Zhangsan bei Lisi pai jingcha zhua-zou le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi send police arrest PERF
    Zhangsan was "sent-police-to-arrest" by Lisi.
Example #66:

    b.    neifeng xin bei wo jiao Lisi qing Wangwu tuo ta meimei ji-zou le.
    that letter BEI me tell Lisi ask Wangwu request his sister send PERF
    That letter was "told-LS--ask-WW--have-his-sister-send" by me.
Example #67:

    (31)      zhexie shiqing bu neng bei tamen suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI they SUO understand
    These things cannot be understood by them.
Example #68:

    (32)      ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei wairen suo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraid will BEI others SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will be laughed-at by others.
Example #69:

    (53)     *zhexie shiqing bu neng bei ___ suo liaojie.
    these thing not can BEI        SUO understand
    These things cannot be understood.
Example #70:

    (54)    *ni zuijin dui ta de xingwei kongpa hui bei ___ suo chixiao
    you recent to him DE behavior afraid will BEI        SUO laugh-at
    I'm afraid your recent behavior toward him will be laughed-at.
Example #71:

    (34)    Zhangsan bei Lisi da-le    ta yi -xia.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi hit-PERF him once.
    Zhangsan was hit once by me.
Example #72:

    (55)    *Zhangsan bei da-le ta yi -xia.
    Zhangsan BEI hit-PERF him once.
    Zhangsan was hit once.
Example #73:

    (i)    Zhangsan bei qiang-zou-le ta zui xihuan de wanju.
    Zhangsan BEI take-away-PERF he most like DE toy
    Zhangsan had the toy he liked most taken away.
Example #74:

    (6)    Zhangsan guyi          bei da le.
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit.
Example #75:

    (7)    Zhangsan guyi         bei Lisi da le
    Zhangsan intentionally BEI Lisi hit PERF
    Zhangsan intentionally got hit by Lisi.
Example #76:

    (57)    Zhangsan bei bu le.
    Zhangsan BEI arrest PERF
    Zhangsan was arrested.
Example #77:

    (58)    dijun bei fu      le.
    enemy BEI capture PRT
    The enemy troops got captured.
Example #78:

    (59)   a.   jingcha daibu-le      Zhangsan.
    police arrest-PERF Zhangsan
    The police arrested Zhangsan
Example #79:

    b.   Zhangsan bei jingcha daibu-le.
    Zhangsan BEI police arrest-PERF/PRT
    Zhangsan was arrested by the police.
Example #80:

    c.   Zhangsan bei jingcha mimide daibu-le.
    Zhangsan BEI police secretly arrest- PERF/PRT
    Zhangsan was secretly arrested by the police.
Example #81:

    d.   Zhangsan bei jingcha daibu-le    liang-ge xuesheng..
    Zhangsan BEI police arrest-PERF two-CL students
    Zhangsan had two students arrested by the police.
Example #82:

    (61)    wu chang jian xiao      yu dafang          zhi jia. (Zhuangzi.Qiushui)
    I often get laughed by large-expertise DE scholar
    I often got laughed at by the great experts.
Example #83:

    (62)    wan-sheng       zhi guo bei wei         yu Zhao.
    10,000-vehicle DE state BEI surround by Zhao
    A state of ten thousand chariotts got surrounded by Zhao.
Example #84:

    bu jing,      he yi bie            hu? (Lunyu.2)
    not respect, what with distinguish Q?
    animals?
Example #85:

    (ii)   min ke       shi you zhi, bu ke         shi     zhi zhi. (Lunyu.8)
    people can-be caused follow it, not can-be caused know it
    The people can be made to follow it (the rule), but cannot be made to understand
Example #86:

    (iii) shi    ke      sha, bu ke          ru.       (Mingshi,181)
    scholar can-be killed, not can-be insulted
    A scholar can be killed, but cannot be insulted.
Example #87:

    (69)   Apin ho Atek khoaN-tio chinche khuattiam.
    Apin BEI Atek seen      many flaws
    Apin had many of his flaws discovered by Atek.
Example #88:

    (72)   wo you bei ta zi-mo le.
    I again BEI he self-touch PRT
    I again had him `self-draw' [on me].
Example #89:

    (73)   Lisi you bei Wangwu jichu-le yi-zhi quanleida.
    Lisi again BEI Wangwu hit-PERF one home-run
    Lisi again had Wangwu hit a home run [on him].
Example #90:

    (74)   wo bei ta zhemo yi zuo, jiu shenme dou kan-bu-jian le.
    I BEI he thus one sit then everything all can-not-see
    As soon as I had him sitting this way [on me], I couldn't see anything at all.
Example #91:

    (100) a.     Zhangsan bei pian le.
    Zhangsan BEI cheat PERF
    Zhangsan got cheated.
Example #92:

    b.   Zhangsan bei Lisi pian le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi cheat PERF
    Zhangsan was cheated by Bill.
Example #93:

    (114) Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le baba.                              (Mandarin)
    Zhangsan BEI bandits kill-PERF father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #94:

    (118) ?*Zhangsani bei wo wen-le ei baba le.
    Zhangsan BEI I ask-PERF father PRT
    Zhangsan had his father asked (a question) by me.
Example #95:

    (120) *Zhangsan bei Lisi pao hui jia qu le.
    Zhangsan BEI Lisi run back home go PERF
    (Lit.: Zhangsan had Lisi run away home [on him].)
Example #96:

    (121) Zhang Zhenxing bei jianchaguan        qiu-xing          qi    nian.
    Zhang Zhenxing BEI district-attorney ask-for-jail-term seven years
    Zhang Zhenxing had the D.A. requesting a jail term of 7 years on him.
Example #97:

    (ii)   Lisi bei wo mai-zou-le       [zanmei *Pro/ta de naben shu].
    Lisi BEI me buy-away-PERF praise           him DE that book
    Lisi was affected by my buying the book that praised him.
Example #98:

    (i)    tufei ba Zhangsan [da-si-le Pro baba]
    bandit BA Zhangsan kill-PERF Pro father
    The bandits `father-killed' Zhangsan.
Example #99:

    (ii)   *tufei ba Zhangsan [da-si-le ta baba]
    bandit BA Zhangsan kill-PERF his father
    The bandits `killed-his-father' Zhangsan.
Example #100:

    (iii) Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le      baba.
    Zhangsan BEI bandits kill-PERF father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #101:

    (iv) Zhangsan bei tufei dasi-le      ta-de baba.
    Zhangsan BEI bandits kill-PERF his father
    Zhangsan had his father killed by the bandits.
Example #102:

    (v)    *Zhangsan ba Lisi da-le   ta yixia.
    Zhangsan BA Lisi hit-PERF him once
    Zhangsan hit Lisi once.
Example #103:

    (vi)    Lisi bei Zhangsan da-le     ta yixia.
    Lisi BEI Zhangsan hit-PERF him once
    Lisi was hit once by Zhangsan.
Example #104:

    (125) Beida bei daibu-le san-ge xuesheng.
    PKU BEI arrest-PERF three students
    Peking University had three students arrested.
Example #105:

    (126) tamen bei qiang-zou-le zui xihuan de wanju.
    they BEI rob-away- PERF most like DE toy
    They had the toys that [they] liked most robbed [from them].
Example #106:

    (i)   *Zhangsan, wo zi mo le.
    Zhangsan I self draw PRT
    Zhangsan, I drew the converting [Mahjong] tile myself.
Example #107:

    (ii)   wo you bei ta zi-mo le.
    I again BEI he self-touch PRT
    I again had him `self-draw' [on me].