The Online Database of Interlinear Text


The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Balthasar Bickel (2005). On the typological variables of relativization.

URL: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~bickel/research/presentations/[email protected]_june2004bb.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3544&langcode=byw (2020-08-13).


Example #1:

    B    asen      Am reni khar-e-i male                i?
    yesterday A.[NO M]      go-PST-1p no           Q
    `Yesterday we (incl.) went to Amreni, didn't we?'
Example #2:

    A    khar-e-i.
    `We (incl.) went.'
Example #3:

    B    ho, i-na        yo-lle                    ghiri-et=to     a - y u.
    SUM DIST-DEM ACROSS:TRANSP-DIR small.valley-LOC=FO C [3sS-]be.lo cated-N PST
    `Well, it is right in the valley further across from there.'
Example #4:

    a. [semba=cha yeti byapr ka-cok-pa]     dokani-chi <b2.150>
    night=ADD    what business ACT .PT CP-do-M shopkeeper-ns
    `shopkeepers who do business even at night'
Example #5:

    b. ka-up-pa
    ACT .PT CP-smith-M
    `a blacksmith; a kmi, i.e. member of the blacksmith caste'
Example #6:

    c. [ye-ti       ka-set-pa-chi]      chitt-he-chi-ga?
    what-sNO M ACT .PT CP-kill-M-ns[NOM] find-PST-[3]ns[P]-2[s]A
    Literally: `*Whati did you find the ones who butchered _i?'
Example #7:

    a. mai-lo khos-e-a.
    man-CO M play-PST-[1s]e
    `I played with the man.'
Example #8:

    a. *khos-a-=na        mai
    play-SBJV-[1s]e=ART man[NOM]
    Intended: `the man I played with'
Example #9:

    a. ka-lo khos-a=na          mai
    1s-CO M    [3sS-]play-SBJV=ART man[NOM]
    `the man who played with me'
Example #10:

    b. sidha-a    si-he.
    medicine-ERG [3sS-]die-PST
    `He died from the medicine.'
Example #11:

    b. *siu=na              sidha
    [3sS-]die.N PST=ART medicine[NO M]
    Intended: `the medicine that one dies from'
Example #12:

    c. phendik-a cept-he.
    sickle-ERG   [3sA-]cu t-PST[-3P]
    `He cut [the grass] with the sickle.'
Example #13:

    c. ceps-u=na              phendik
    [3sA-]cu t-3P[SBJV]=ART sickle[NOM]
    `the sickle he cut [the grass] with'
Example #14:

    d. na mai-etnahu khi-he-a.
    DEM man-ABL             quarrel-PST-[1s]e
    `I quarreled because of this guy.'
Example #15:

    d. *khiy-a-=na           mai
    quarrel-SBJV-[1s]e=ART man[NOM]
    Intended: `the man because of whom I quarreled'
Example #16:

    e. ina        thau-etnahu Himal a-yu.
    DIST.DEM place-ABL              H.          [3sS-]be.visible-N PST
    `From that place one can see the Himalayas.'
Example #17:

    e. Himal ai=na               thau.
    H.      [3sS-]be.visible=ART place[NOM]
    `the place from which one can see the Himalayas'
Example #18:

    a. cece      mai      lim-yu.
    meat[NO M] man[NOM] [3sS]-be.tasty-NPST
    `The man likes the meat.'
Example #19:

    a tombhira ka-kit-pa                      mai
    lynx[NOM] ACT .PT CP-fear-M person[NOM]
    `the man who fears the lynx'                                          (A-exp., E
Example #20:

    a *ka-kit-pa              tombhira
    ACT .P-fear-M lynx[NOM]
    `the lynx who the man fears'                                          (O-stim.,
Example #21:

    b ia             ka-su-ba             mai
    beer[NO M] ACT .PT CP-sour-M     person[NOM]
    `the person to whom the beer tastes sour'                           (A-exp., NOM
Example #22:

    b *ka-su-ba             ia
    ACT .PTCP-sour-M    beer[NO M]
    `sour beer'                                                         (O-stim., NO
Example #23:

    (29) [tombhira [V wa                 sei-sa]-ha]                  chitt-he-m.
    lynx-[sNOM] chicken[-sNOM] [3sS-]kill-TR.PERF-N MLZ find-PST[-3sP]-1p A
    `We found lynx-killed chicken.' (understood as a kind of chicken)