ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Sabine Mohr (2004). Clausal architecture and subject positions.

URL: http://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/2004/2012/pdf/Dissertation_Mohr.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3626&langcode=deu (2019-04-20).

 

Example #1:

    (1)      ...daß [IPpro [VPjemand einen Apfel gegessen] hat].
    that   pro   someone an      apple eaten      has
    "... that someone has eaten an apple."
Example #2:

    (4)      a.      ... weil ja    doch Linguisten Kammermusik spielen.                      (German)
    ... since PRT PRT linguists       chamber music play
    "... since there are linguists playing chamber music."
Example #3:

    b.      ... weil Linguisten ja       doch Kammermusik spielen.
    ... since linguists PRT PRT chamber music play
    "... since (in general) linguists play chamber music."
Example #4:

    (6)      a.       ... weil ja    doch Linguisten Kammermusik spielen.                       (German)
    ... since PRT PRT linguists        chamber music play
    "... since there are linguists playing chamber music."
Example #5:

    b.       ... weil Linguisten ja       doch Kammermusik spielen.
    ... since linguists PRT PRT chamber music play
    "... since (in general) linguists play chamber music."
Example #6:

    b.      ...daß glücklicherweise Jungen geboren werden.
    ...that luckily           boys born    are
    "...that luckily boys are born."
Example #7:

    (8)      a.      ... weil ja     doch Linguisten Kammermusik spielen.                     (German)
    ... since PRT PRT linguists        chamber music play
    "... since there are linguists playing chamber music."
Example #8:

    b.       ... weil Linguisten ja          doch Kammermusik spielen.
    ... since linguists PRT PRT chamber music play
    "... since (in general) linguists play chamber music."
Example #9:

    (9)     ... weil ja       doch Linguisten sorgfältig Kammermusik spielen.                     (German)
    ... since PRT PRT linguists           carefully chamber music play
    "... since there are linguists carefully playing chamber music."
Example #10:

    (18)     Gestern wurde pro getanzt.                                                      (German)
    yesterday was      pro danced
    "Yesterday there was dancing."
Example #11:

    (19)    a.      Es   wurde gestern   getanzt.                                   (German)
    Expl was   yesterday danced.
    "There was dancing yesterday."
Example #12:

    b.      Gestern wurde (*es) getanzt.
    yesterday was   Expl danced
    "Yesterday there was dancing."
Example #13:

    (20)     ... daß (*es) getanzt wurde.                                                       (German)
    ... that Expl danced was
    "... that there was dancing yesterday."
Example #14:

    (3)      ... daß Peter das Buch gelesen hat.                                                  (German)
    ... that Peter the book read          has
    "... that Peter has read the book."
Example #15:

    (5)      Dieses Buch hat kein Mensch                 gelesen.
    this     book has no human being read
    "No-one has read this book."
Example #16:

    (15)      a.       Peter hat das Buch gelesen.
    Peter has the book read
    "Peter has read the book."
Example #17:

    (16)     Dieses Buch hat kein Mensch              gelesen.
    this    book has no human being read
    "No-one has read this book."
Example #18:

    b.      Diesen      Minister hat die Presse schon lange kritisiert.
    this-Acc minister has the press already long criticised
    "The press has criticised this minister for a long time."
Example #19:

    c.      Heute hat es ohne        Unterlaß      geregnet.                    (Haider 1993)
    today has it without interruption rained
    "Today it has rained without interruption."
Example #20:

    d.      OHNE UNTERLASS hat es heute geregnet.                               (Haider 1993)
    without interruption       has it today rained
    "Without ANY interruption it has rained today."
Example #21:

    e.      Unter diesen Umständen           kann ich nicht arbeiten.
    under these circumstances can I             not work
    "Under these circumstances I cannot work."
Example #22:

    c.       Den         Peter liebt Maria.
    the-Acc Peter loves Maria
    "Maria loves Peter."
Example #23:

    (3)      a.       Die Regierung betrachtet das Volk             als korrupt.
    the government considers the people as corrupt
    "The people considers the government corrupt."
Example #24:

    b.       Das Volk      betrachtet die Regierung als korrupt.
    the people considers the government as corrupt
    "The people considers the government corrupt."
Example #25:

    b.       HEUTE hat es ohne Unterlaß        geregnet.
    today has it without interruption rained
    "TODAY, it has rained without interruption."
Example #26:

    b.       Es hat gestern        geregnet.
    it has yesterday rained
    "It rained yesterday."
Example #27:

    (5)      a.       *Einen Minister hat die Presse schon             lange kritisiert.
    a       minister has the press already long criticised
    "The press has criticised a minister for a long time."
Example #28:

    b.       EINEN Minister hat die Presse schon lange kritisiert (aber nicht alle).
    a         minister has the press already long criticised (but not all)
    "The press has criticised one minister for a long time (but not all)."
Example #29:

    den     Kanzler).
    the      chancellor)
    chancellor)."
Example #30:

    (6)     Dem      Peter hat Maria ihre Liebe gestanden.                        (German)
    the-Dat Peter has Maria her love confessed
    "To Peter, Maria confessed her love."
Example #31:

    (8)     a.       Mir       ist kalt.                                                     (German)
    me-Dat is cold
    "I feel cold."
Example #32:

    b.       Mich       friert.
    me-Acc freezes
    "I feel cold."
Example #33:

    Ein Kind hat einen solchen Köder glücklicherweise noch nicht gegessen.
    a    child has a       such      bait      fortunately         not yet       eaten
    "Fortunately, no child has eaten such a bait yet."
Example #34:

    b.      Die Temperaturen, die klettern heute auf über       20°C.
    the temperatures they climb        today to above 20°C
    "The temperature (it) rises to above 20°C today."
Example #35:

    Norwegen heiraten.
    Norway      marry
    "Happily the ambassadress of Norway will marry him next month."
Example #36:

    (13)     ... daß dem         alten MANN         der Nachbarsjunge wieder nicht geholfen hat.
    ... that the-DAT old man               the neighbour boy again not            helped     has
    "... that the boy next door again did not help the old man."
Example #37:

    gezeigt.
    shown
    "This week, Otto has shown at least one stamp to every visitor."
Example #38:

    (15)     a.       Diesen Satz          haben schon immer alle Studenten gehaßt. (German)
    this       sentence have already always all students             hated
    "This sentence, all students have always hated."
Example #39:

    (16)     a.       Diesen Satz         haben Studenten schon immer gehaßt.
    this       sentence have students already always hated
    "This sentence, students (in general) have always hated."
Example #40:

    b.       Diesen Satz         haben schon immer Studenten gehaßt.
    this       sentence have already always students           hated
    "There have always been some students who have hated this sentence."
Example #41:

    (20)     die Hemden auf die Leine hängen                                                        (German)
    the shirts      on the line hang
    "to hang the shirts on the line"
Example #42:

    (i)       Hemden im       Geschirrspüler hat noch keiner gewaschen.                               (German)
    shirts in- the dishwasher has yet no one washed
    "No one has ever washed shirts in the dishwasher."
Example #43:

    (i)      Es geht ja die Kunde, daß morgen abgereist wird aus Bagdad, [...]
    it goes Prt the news that tomorrow left              is from Baghdad
    "It is being said that [the journalists, S.M.]will leave Baghdad tomorrow."
Example #44:

    zur Wiederaufstellung eines abgeschraubten Briefkastens.
    to-the putting up again of-one unscrewed   postbox
    a single postbox that was removed be put up again."
Example #45:

    (i)      Die Tomaten sind gewachsen.                                                         (German)
    the tomatoes are grown
    "The tomatoes have grown."
Example #46:

    (5)      ... daß jemand einen Apfel aß.                                              (German)
    ... that someone an         apple ate
    "... that someone ate an apple."
Example #47:

    (6)     ... daß jemand     einen Apfel gegessen hat.                                      (German)
    ... that someone an         apple eaten         has
    "... that someone has eaten an apple."
Example #48:

    (ii)     Was hast du für ein Buch gelesen?                                                     (German)
    what have you for a book read
    99
Example #49:

    (13)     Irgendjemand hält eine Rede.                                                     (German)
    someone         holds a       speech
    "Someone gives a speech."
Example #50:

    (14)     ... daß irgendjemand eine Rede hält.                                             (German)
    ... that someone          a    speech holds
    "... that someone gives a speech."
Example #51:

    (19)    Gewiß      hat dieses Buch niemand gelesen.                                   (German)
    certainly has this     book no-one read
    "Certainly, no-one has read this book."
Example #52:

    (1)    ...weil     ja doch [TP [vP Menschen       Fehler <machen>] machen <vP>].
    ...because Prt Prt            human beings mistakes            make
    "...because human beings make mistakes."
Example #53:

    (4)     Mich friert.                                                            (German)
    me    freezes
    "I feel cold."
Example #54:

    (9)      ... weil       mir       kalt war.                                                      (German)
    ... because me-Dat cold was
    "... because I felt cold."
Example #55:

    (10)     ... daß getanzt wurde.
    ... that danced was
    "... that there was dancing."
Example #56:

    (1)      Es     haben einige Kinder Spinat gegessen.                                       (German)
    Expl have several children spinach eaten
    "Several children have eaten spinach."
Example #57:

    (11)     a.       Es     haben einige Kinder Spinat gegessen.                                    (German)
    Expl have several children spinach eaten
    "Several children have eaten spinach."
Example #58:

    b.       Es     hat soeben der Kanzler            die Bühne       betreten.
    Expl has just          the chancellor the platform entered
    "The chancellor has just mounted the platform."
Example #59:

    c.       Gestern wurde (*es) getanzt.
    yesterday was           Expl danced
    "Yesterday, there was dancing."/"Yesterday, people were dancing."
Example #60:

    (19)     Gestern      wurde pro getanzt.               (German; Cardinaletti 1990, p.16, (24b))
    yesterday was       Expl danced
    "Yesterday there was dancing."
Example #61:

    (21)     Es     kam der König über die Hügel geritten.                                         (German)
    Expl came the king        over the hills ridden
    "The king came riding over the hills."
Example #62:

    (22)     a.       ... daß pro jemand einen Apfel gegessen hat.                                 (German)
    ... that pro someone an          apple eaten         has
    "... that someone has eaten an apple."
Example #63:

    b.      Gestern     wurde pro getanzt.
    yesterday was        pro danced
    "Yesterday, there was dancing."
Example #64:

    c.      ... daß pro getanzt wurde.
    ... that pro danced was
    "... that there was dancing."
Example #65:

    (i)    ... daß der Apfel nicht gegessen wurde.
    ... that the apple not eaten       was
    "... that the apple was not eaten."
Example #66:

    b.       Gestern       hat pro jemand einen Apfel gegessen.
    yesterday has pro someone an             apple eaten
    "Yesterday, someone ate an apple."
Example #67:

    c.       ... daß pro jemand einen Apfel gegessen hat.
    ... that pro someone an            apple eaten       has
    "... that someone has eaten an apple."
Example #68:

    (26)    a.      Gestern     wurde das Menuett getanzt.                       (German)
    yesterday was     the menuett danced
    "Yesterday people were dancing the menuett."
Example #69:

    b.      Gestern wurde es getanzt.
    yesterday was     it danced
    "Yesterday people were dancing it."
Example #70:

    c.      Gestern     wurde pro getanzt.
    yesterday was     pro danced
    "Yesterday people were dancing."
Example #71:

    (27)    a.      Es   wurde ein letzter Tanz getanzt.
    Expl was     a   last   dance danced
    "People were dancing a last dance."
Example #72:

    b.      Es   wurden mehrere Tänze getanzt.
    Expl were     several dances danced
    "People were dancing several dances."
Example #73:

    (ii)      Hemden auf die Leine hängen                                                             (German)
    shirts on the line hang
    "to hang shirts on the line"
Example #74:

    (2)      a.       Aber letztendlich wurde (doch)              gelacht.                        (German)
    but    in the end      was     (after all) laughed
    "But in the end people/the audience laughed (after all)."
Example #75:

    b.       *Aber letztendlich wurde es           (doch)      gelacht.
    but    in the end was         Expl (after all) laughed
    "But in the end there were some people who laughed."
Example #76:

    (3)      a.       Da wurde getanzt.                                                           (German)
    DA was      danced
    "There was dancing."/"People were dancing (there)."
Example #77:

    b.       ... daß (da) getanzt wurde.
    ... that DA danced was
    "... that there was dancing."/"... that people were dancing (there)."
Example #78:

    (5)      Es wurde gerade der letzte Tanz getanzt, als                  der Strom ausfiel.
    Expl was       just    the last dance danced when the power went off
    "People were just dancing the last dance when the power went off."
Example #79:

    (i)      Es wurde *(ein Mann) zusammengeschlagen.                                                 (German)
    Expl was    a man beaten up
    "A man was beaten up."
Example #80:

    Palästina.
    Palestine
    "Many people die in these first weeks of March in the war between Israel and Pal
Example #81:

    (7)      a.      Es     haben einige Kinder Spinat gegessen.                              (German)
    Expl have several children spinach eaten
    "Several children have eaten spinach."
Example #82:

    b.      Es     hat soeben der Kanzler         die Bühne      betreten.
    Expl has just        the chancellor the platform entered
    "The chancellor has just mounted the platform."
Example #83:

    (ii)     a.       Da wurde getanzt.                                                              (German)
    DA was danced
    "People were dancing."
Example #84:

    b.       Es wurde getanzt.
    Expl was danced
    "People were dancing."
Example #85:

    c.      [Es ist bitter zu wissen, was er draußen verpaßt!]
    [it is bitter to know          what he outside misses-out-on]
    ["It is bitter to know what he misses out on in the outside world."]
Example #86:

    Während er hier einen streng geheimen Schlagbaum bewacht,
    while      he here a       strictly secret    barrier       guards
    "While he guards a top secret barrier here
Example #87:

    wird da draußen getanzt und geliebt und gelacht.
    is    DA outside danced and loved and laughed
    out there, people are dancing, making love and laughing."
Example #88:

    (17)   Da hat der Ministerpräsident eine mitreißende Rede gehalten.
    DA has the prime minister          a      rousing    speech held
    "The Prime Minister gave a rousing speech."
Example #89:

    (18)     a.       ... weil       da Jungen die Romane von Karl May kennen.
    ... because DA boys            the novels of Karl May know
    "because boys know the novels by Karl May (there)"
Example #90:

    b.       ... weil      da Jungen geboren werden.
    ... because DA boys         born       are
    "... because boys are born (there)."
Example #91:

    von Karl May (noch) kennen.
    of Karl May still          know
    by Karl May."
Example #92:

    b.      Wer hat da gelacht?
    who has DA laughed
    roughly: "Who has dared to laugh?"
Example #93:

    (iii)    a.       *Es erwartete mich das Unbehagen.                                           (German)
    Expl awaited me the uneasiness
    "The uneasiness awaited me."
Example #94:

    b.       Es erwartete mich das wohlbekannte Unbehagen.
    Expl awaited me the well-known uneasiness
    "The well-known uneasiness awaited me."
Example #95:

    (iii)    Es haben an diesen Wahlen noch weniger Leute teilgenommen als an den letzten.
    Expl have in these elections even fewer people part-taken              than in the last
    "In these elections, even fewer people took part in than in the last."
Example #96:

    (1)      a.       Es hat gestern       geregnet.                                              (German)
    it has yesterday rained
    "It rained yesterday."
Example #97:

    b.       Gestern     hat (e)s geregnet.
    yesterday has it rained
    "Yesterday it rained."
Example #98:

    (i)      Das regnet!                                                                            (German)
    that rains
    "The rain is coming down in buckets!"
Example #99:

    c.       ... daß es gestern       geregnet hat.
    ... that it yesterday rained        has
    "... that it rained yesterday."
Example #100:

    (1)      a.       Mir        ist kalt.                                                         (German)
    me-dat is cold
    "I feel cold."
Example #101:

    b.       ... weil        mir        kalt ist.
    ... because me-Dat cold is
    "... because I feel cold."
Example #102:

    b.       ?(E)s ist mir            kalt.
    (i)t is me-Dat cold.
    "I feel cold."
Example #103:

    (3)      a.       Mich        friert.
    me-Acc freezes
    "I feel cold."
Example #104:

    b.   ?... weil       mich     friert.
    ... because me-Acc feezes
    "... because I feel cold."
Example #105:

    b.   ?(E)s friert mich.
    (i)t freezes me-Acc
    "I feel cold."
Example #106:

    (9)     a.      ... weil       mir     kalt ist.
    ... because me-Dat cold is
    "... because I feel cold."
Example #107:

    b.      ?... weil      mich        friert.
    ... because me-Acc freezes
    "... because I feel cold."
Example #108:

    (12)   ... weil    diesen   Artikel niemand gut    findet.
    ... because this-Acc article no-one good finds
    "... because no-one likes this article."