ODIN

The Online Database of Interlinear Text

 

The following interlinear glossed text data was extracted from a document found on the World Wide Web via a semi-automated process. The data presented here could contain corruption (degraded or missing characters), so the source document (link below) should be consulted to ensure accuracy. If you use any of the data shown here for research purposes, be sure to cite ODIN and the source document. Please use the following citation record or variant thereof:

Heidi Britton Harley (1995). Subjects, Events and Licensing.

URL: http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~hharley/PDFs/HarleyThesis.pdf

(Last accessed 2009-07-23).

ODIN: http://odin.linguistlist.org/igt_raw.php?id= 3683&langcode=jpn (2018-01-22).

 

Example #1:

    14.     a) Yamada-sensei-ga sono gakusei-o o-maneki-ni-nat-ta
    Yamada-Prof-N      that student-A      invited-Hon-Past
    "Professor Yamada invited that student"
Example #2:

    b) *Sono gakusei-ga Yamada-sensei-o omaneki-ni-nat-ta
    *that student-N       Yamada-Prof-A       invited-Hon-Past
    "That student invited Professor Yamada".
Example #3:

    16.     *MIT-ga        Yamada-sensei-ni            o-hasiri-ni nar-ase-ta.
    MIT-N          Yamada-Prof-D               run-Hon-Cause-Past
    'MIT let Professor Yamada run.'
Example #4:

    37.     Yakko-ga Wakko-ni pizza-o      tabe(*ta)-sase-ta
    Yakko-N     Wakko-D        pizza-A         eat-(*Pst)-cause-Pst
    "Yakko made Wakko eat pizza"
Example #5:

    17.     a)       Gakusee-ga kinoo       3-nin piza-o tabe-ta
    Students-N yesterday 3-Cl pizza-A           eat-Pst
    "Three students ate pizza.
Example #6:

    b)       John-ga        piza-o Mary-ni 2-kire        age-ta
    John-N         pizza-A          Mary-D 2-CL give-Pst
    "John gave 2 slices of pizza to Mary"
Example #7:

    18.     *Gakusei-ga piza-o 3-nin tabe-ta
    student-N      pizza-A      3-Cl eat-Pst
    "Three students ate pizza."
Example #8:

    39.      a)       *Gakusei-ga [VP tosyokan-de           2-ri             waraw-sita]
    students-N                libarary-at                  2-CL laugh-did
    "Two students laughed at the library"
Example #9:

    b)       Doroboo-ga        Yakko-o      waraw-ase-ta
    a thief-N         Yakko-A      laugh-cause-Pst
    *"A thief had    Yakko laugh on him" (e.g., revealing his presence).
Example #10:

    41.      Yakko-ga    Wakko-o      butai-ni        agar-ase-ta/*ag-ase-ta
    Yakko-N     Wakko-A        stage-on        rise-Cause-Past
    "Yakko made Wakko rise onto the stage" (e.g. by magic).
Example #11:

    b)     John-ga/ni     zibun-no uti-ga     aru                  (Japanese)
    John-N/D       self-gen house-N    exist
    "John has his house"
Example #12:

    John-ga/ni     zibun-no uti-ga     aru
    John-N/D       self-gen house-N    exist
    "John has his house"
Example #13:

    Tanaka-sensei-ga/nii musume-san-gaj            o-ari-nii/*j naru
    T-Prof-N/D             daughter-N              exist-honorific
    Professor Tanaka has his daughter"
Example #14:

    c)       *Zibuni-no    musume-ni      Tanakai-sensei-ga         aru
    self-gen      daughter       Tanaka-Prof               exist
    "His daughter has Professor Tanaka"
Example #15:

    71.     a)      Bugs-ga       Daffy-ni       piza-o            ageta
    Bugs-N        Daffy-D        pizza-A           give-Pst
    "Bugs gave a pizza to Daffy"
Example #16:

    b)      Bugs-ga      piza-o                Daffy-ni    ageta
    Bugs-N       pizza-A               Daffy-D     give-Pst
    "Bugs gave Daffy a pizza"
Example #17:

    72.     a)      Bugs-ga      tomodati-ni 2-ri     piza-o               ageta
    Bugs-N       friends-D       2-CL pizza-A              give-Pst
    "Bugs gave two friends pizza."
Example #18:

    b)      ???Bugs-ga piza-o             tomodati-ni 2-ri  ageta
    Bugs-N        pizza-A         friends-Prep 2-CL give-Pst
    "Bugs gave pizza to two friends"
Example #19:

    Hobbes-ga Calvin -o/*-ni waraw-ase-ta
    Hobbes-NOM Calvin-DAT laugh-Cause-Past
    "Hobbes made Calvin laugh."
Example #20:

    Calvin-ga     Hobbes-ni             ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N      Hobbes-D              go-Cause-Past
    "Calvin let Hobbes go."
Example #21:

    Calvin-ga      Hobbes-ni       piza-o tabe-sase-ta
    Calvin-N       Hobbes-D        pizza-A        eat-Cause-Past
    "Calvin let Hobbes eat pizza."
Example #22:

    Calvin-ga       Hobbes-o            ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N        Hobbes-A            go-Cause-Past
    "Calvin made    Hobbes go."
Example #23:

    Calvin-ga     Hobbes-ni     piza-o tabe-sase-ta
    Calvin-N      Hobbes-D      pizza-A        eat-Cause-Past
    "Calvin made Hobbes eat pizza."
Example #24:

    23.Calvini-wa      Hobbesj-ni/o zibuni/j-no kuruma-de         paatii-e     ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-Top Hobbes-D/A self-G car-by                      party-to                 go-Cause-Past
    "Calvini let/made Hobbesj go to the party in hisi/j car.
Example #25:

    25.      a)       Hobbes-ga    (Calvin-ni)            ik-ase-rare-ta
    Hobbes-N     Calvin-D)              go-cause-pass-pst
    *"Hobbes was allowed to go         (by Calvin)"
Example #26:

    b)       Hobbes-ga    piza-o tabe-sase-rare-ta
    Hobbes-N     pizza-A         eat-cause-pass-pst
    *"Hobbes was allowed to eat pizza"
Example #27:

    26.a) Calvin-ga     hitori-de     Hobbes-o     ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N       alone       Hobbes-A       go-make-pst
    "Calvin made Hobbes go alone" (Hobbes is alone, not Calvin)
Example #28:

    b)     *Calvin-ga    hitori-de     Hobbes-ni      ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N      alone         Hobbes-D       go-make-pst
    "Calvin allowed Hobbes to go alone" (again, with Hobbes alone)
Example #29:

    28.    John-ni       nihongo-ga wakar-u
    John-D        Japanese-N understand-pres
    "John understands Japanese"
Example #30:

    29.    Yakko-ga     otokonoko-ni 2-ri  piza-o       tabe-sase-ta
    Yakko-N      boys-D2-CL pizza-A        eat-CAUSE-Pst
    "Yakko made two boys eat pizza"
Example #31:

    31.     Calvin-ga         Hobbes-ni piza-o           kaeshita
    Calvin-N       Hobbes/D      pizza-A            return-Pst
    "Calvin returned pizza to Hobbes"
Example #32:

    33. Calvin-ga     Hobbes-dake-ni piza-o                tabe-sase-ta
    Calvin-N      Hobbes-only-D pizza-A                eat-make-PST
    "Calvin made/let only Hobbes eat pizza"
Example #33:

    38.a) Calvin-ga     hitori-de     Hobbes-o     ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N       alone       Hobbes-A       go-Cause-pst
    "Calvin made Hobbes go alone" (Hobbes is alone, not Calvin)
Example #34:

    b)       *Calvin-ga    hitori-de     Hobbes-ni      ik-ase-ta
    Calvin-N      alone         Hobbes-D       go-Cause-pst
    "Calvin allowed Hobbes to go alone" (again, with Hobbes alone)
Example #35:

    39.      *Calvin-ga    hitori-de (Hobbes-ni) nagur-are-ta
    Calvin-N      alone (Hobbes-by) hit-Pass-Past
    "Calvin alone was hit by Hobbes"
Example #36:

    40.               Yakko-ga     [EventP hitori-de [EventP Dot-o [VP ik-ase-ta]]
    Yakko-N               alone         Dot-A     go-cause-past
    "Yakko made Dot go alone"
Example #37:

    42.      Calvin-ga      Hobbes-nii     [PROi hitori-de ik-ase-ta]
    Calvin-N       Hobbes-D       PRO alone go-Cause-Past
    "Calvin let Hobbes go alone".
Example #38:

    [Nancy-ga      Bob-ni      banana-o     3-bon]]              ageta (koto)
    [Nancy-N       Bob-tobanana-A     3-CL]]gave
    "Mary gave two apples to John and Nancy gave three bananas to Bob."
Example #39:

    Dad-ni banana-o        3-bon] tabe-sase-ta (koto)
    Dad-D          banana-A       3-CL eat-CAUS-Past (fact)
    three bananas"
Example #40:

    47.a) Becky-wa [Bill-dake-ga piza-o taberu koto]-o nozonda.
    Becky-TOP Bill-only-N pizza-A eat that-A desired
    'Becky desired that only Bill eat pizza.'
Example #41:

    b) Becky-wa [Bill-dake-ga nooberusyoo-o moratta to] omotteiru
    Becky-TOP Bill-only-N Nobel prize-A received that believe
    'Becky believes that only Bill got the Nobel prize.'
Example #42:

    3.       Taro-ga        sensei-ni       kodomo-o                shik-rare-ta
    Taro-N         teacher-D       kid-A                   scold-Pass-Past
    "Taro had a teacher scold his kid on him."                          (Kubo: 8)
Example #43:

    i)        *Anata-wa [NP [donata-ga [gotyoonan-ga gookakusare]-ta] daigaku-o] zyukennasaru otumori desu ka
    you-Top [[which-person-N [eldest-son-N pass]-Past college-A ] apply-to            intention is Q
    has succeeded to get in?"                                       Kitagawa:227
Example #44:

    41.    *gakusei-ni 3-nin Yamada-sensei-ga        wakari-ta
    students-D 3-CL Prof. Yamada-N            understand-Past
    "Three students understood Prof. Yamada."
Example #45:

    14.    a) Yamada-sensei-ga sono gakusei-o            o-maneki-ni-nat-ta
    Yamada-Prof-N      that student-A           invited-Hon-Past
    "Professor Yamada invited that student"
Example #46:

    b) *Sono gakusei-ga Yamada-sensei-o           o-maneki-ni-nat-ta
    *that student-N      Yamada-Prof-A i        nvited-Hon-Past
    "That student invited Professor Yamada".
Example #47:

    18.     a) Sannin-no tyuunen-otoko-ga       biiru-o nonde-i-ru
    three-G     middle-aged men-N beer-A             drinking-pres.
    "Three middle aged men are drinking beer." (unmarked order)
Example #48:

    b) Tyuunen-otoko-ga sannin biiru-o nonde-i-ru
    middle-aged men-N         three beer-A           drinking-pres.
    "Three middle-aged men are drinking beer" (floated Q)
Example #49:

    c) *Tyuunen-otoko-ga        biiru-o sannin nonde-i-ru
    *middle-aged men-N        beer-A         three              drinking-pres.
    "Three middle-aged men are drinking beer."
Example #50:

    d) Mary-ga   mittu-no      tokei-o       kurabe-ta
    Mary-N    three-G        watch-A       compare-past
    "Mary compared three watches."    (unmarked order)
Example #51:

    e) Mary-ga   tokei-o        mittu kurabe-ta
    Mary-N     watch-A        three compared-past
    "Mary compared three watches"   (floated Q)
Example #52:

    f) tokei-o  Mary-ga        mittu kurabe-ta
    Watch-A   Mary-N         three compared-past
    "Mary compared three watches" (floated Q + scrambling)
Example #53:

    19.     a) Mary-ni   mittu-no         tigatta oto-ga kikoe-ta (koto)
    Mary-D     three-G          different sounds-N heard-past
    "Mary heard three different sounds" (unmarked order)
Example #54:

    b) Tigatta    oto-ga Mary-ni         mittu kikoe-ta (koto)
    different   sounds-N        Mary-D         three heard-past
    "Mary heard three different sounds" (floated Q + scrambling)
Example #55:

    20.` a) Sannin-no   onna-ga         hutari-no    otoko-o        seme-ta
    three-G   women-N         two-G men-A         criticized-past
    "Three women criticized two men" (unambiguous)
Example #56:

    b) Hutari-no otoko-o        sannin-no onna-ga seme-ta
    two-G      men-A         hree-G women-N criticized-past
    "Two men, three women criticized" (ambiguous).
Example #57:

    21. `a) Sannin-no     gakusei-ni      hutatu-no      gaikokugo-ga yom-e-ru
    three-G     students-D two foreign-G languages-N              read-pot-poss
    "Three students can read two foreign languages" (unambiguous)
Example #58:

    b) Hutatu-no gaikokugo-ga sannin-no          gakusei-ni    yom-e-ru
    two foreign-G languages-N            three-G        students-D read-pot-poss
    "Two foreign languages, three students can read" (ambiguous).